New Publishing Company Human Resource Planning Commerce Essay

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Although our company well known within the relevant Publishing Companies sectors, and is well respected, but, because of the new changing of the market, we need to have a new Human resource planning process strategies to achieve success.

Human resource planning process.

"There are particularly important differences in terms of process and purpose. In human resource planning the manager is concerned with motivating people - a process in which costs, numbers, control and systems interact to play a part. In manpower planning the manager is concerned with the numerical elements of forecasting, supply-demand matching and control, in which people are a part. There are therefore important areas of overlap and interconnection but there is a fundamental difference in underlying approach." (Bramham, 1989:p147)

"Human resource planning is the process for identifying an organization's current and future human resource requirements, developing and implementing plans to meet these requirements and monitoring their overall effectiveness".(Beardwell,1994:p159)

Human resource planning has traditionally defined as "the process of anticipating and making provision for the movement of people into, within, and out of an organization"(Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, 1998,p.124).

In a different sense, it is also possible to understand Human resource planning as the strategic business plan that guides the human resource department or hunction, which clarifies the mission and purpose of the department or function, its goals and objectives, current strengths and weaknesses, possible threats and opportunities, and long-term strategy (Rothwell & Kazanas,2003).

Human resource planning is the process by which management determines how the organization should move from its current manpower position to its desired position. Through planning, management strives to have the right number and right kinds of people, at the right places, at the right time, doing things which result in both the organization and the individual receiving maximum long-run benefits. (Vetter,1967,p.15)

The traditional approach to Human resource planning

The factors company needs to consider

Many of the factors can impact the availability of employee and skills, company need to consider on some of these factors, the company need adapt to changing environment and highlights the need to develop a well-trained flexible staff, when planning the Human resource requirements over the coming years.

Companies today are focusing on issues to assure the practicality and relevance of human resource plans. Many of the factors addressed in in strategic plans today have human resource implications. Among changes in the business environment which give rise to human resource issues are:

Accelerating business change accompanied by high uncertainly.

Increasing competitive pressures on both revenues and costs.

Rapid technological change accompanied by new skill demands.

More complex, more flexible, flatter, leaner organizations.

Changing demographics and work-force availabilities.

Changing work-life patterns and employee expectations at work.

Changing external forces (governmental regulation, litigation, union relations, etc.)

(James W. Walker,2002)

The approach we recommend for Human resource planning

Human resource planning Competency Based

Putting a competency-based human resource planning system in place begins with building the awareness of the organization's decision makers. Competency-based human resource planning requires, as a first step, that decision makers articulate the organization's strategic goals or business objectives.( David D. Dubois,2004)

The advantages and challenges of Competency-Based human resource planning

There are several key advantages to creating and using a competency-based approach to human resource planning.

First, competencies are the most important foundational requirement for human performance.

Second, a competency-based approach improves the specificity of human resource planning.

Identify competencies

How do we define the word competency? The best definition is the classic one. A competency is an underlying characteristic (motive, trait, skill, aspect of self-image, social role, body of knowledge) that an employee uses and that results in effective or superior performance (Boyatzis, 1982; Klemp, 1980).

Successful competency identification relies on the following information:

A thorough understanding of the organization's strategic business objectives.

The current and future work output or results to be achieved by the organization.

The outputs or result expected of the worker group under investigation, and how those outputs or result support the achievement of the organizational objectives.

The major work tasks that must be performed in order to achieve the required outputs or result.

The recruitment process.

The relevant experience and skills needed

As we know, we are constantly seeking to improve the Hiring processes, as we work together with the departments to help them hire and promote people according to the our vision.

Recently, we need to recruit people with the relevant experience and skills in electronic communication. We have made several improvements to our recruitment processes, in an attempt to clarify the processes and make them smooth, efficient and effective for all involved.

The basic processes remain the same, but some minor modifications have been made to the current processes and procedures.

The overall aim of our recruitment and selection is to find and hire the people who will achieve our organisation's goals. To achieve that aim, we need to focus on people having experience and skills in electronic communication, and need to have a good attraction advertisement to attract the candidates, because we are going to fill a specialist positions and to make sure that we are selecting the most suitable candidates, we need to have a good tools for selecting, like using software and website, like, Assessment Management System to filters candidates,also, we need to make sure that the new people get a good start, by have a good planning for the new staff.

We need to focus for the relevant experience and skills in electronic communication, because,

Targeted Selection Interviews:

In the Targeted Selection interviews, we look for specific examples on candidates' past accomplishments and challenges. To guide through the process of collecting behavioural examples, Targeted Selection uses a technique called a STAR. To be a good predictor of future performance, an example of past behaviour must contain:

The Situation or Task the candidate faced

The Action the candidate took.

The Result of the candidate's actions.

STAR is the acronym for the components required for a complete behavioural example and helps interviewers collect and evaluate job-specific data.

During the Targeted Selection interview, behavioural examples (or STARs) are sought for each one of the above competencies.

Rating Criteria

Each competency is evaluated on the scale of 1 to 5:

1 Much less than Acceptable

2 Less than Acceptable

3 Acceptable

4 More than Acceptable

5 Much more than Acceptable

For each competency, a maximum of 3 questions is asked (maximum 3 STARs). Count the total number of positive STARs, noting that each negative STAR cancels a positive STAR, if any. Rating is then based on the following criteria:

Overall, two or more positive STARs result in a rating of 3 or higher

Overall, one positive STAR result in a rating of 2.

No STAR, or any number of negative STARs, result in a rating of 1.

A candidate with 1 in any of the competency is not considered for the position.

Data Integration Sheet

Lead Interviewer records consensus (final) ratings into the data integration sheet and gets everyone's signatures.

Selection Decision

The competency rating for each candidate, considered for position, is entered into the Targeted Selection system. The system ranks the candidates from best to last.

Recruitment process approach we recommend

The relevant legal issues

Ethnic minorities (ONS, 2002a)

The Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2001 imposes a positive duty on public authorities to promote racial equality. In relation to recruitment and selection this includes:

Ensuring that employment practices attract good candidates from all ethnic group;

Setting targets and taking action to encourage applicants from ethnic group currently under-represented in particular areas of work;

Monitoring employees and applicants for employment, training and promotion by ethnic group.(Beardwell,2004,p.195)

Age discrimination

In 1999 the UK government introduced a code of practice designed to promote age diversity in employment, arguing that 'to base employment decisions on preconceived idea about age, rather than on skill and abilities, is to waste the talents of a large part of the population' (DfEE, 1999). The code covers six aspect of the employment cycle: recruitment, selection, promotion, training, redundancy and retirement. Specifically in terms of recruitment the code recommends employers to recruit on the basis of skills and abilities necessary to do the job rather than imposing age requirements or making stereotypical judgements based on the age of the applicants. .(Beardwell,2004,p.197)

The code of Practice on Age Diversity in Employment (1990) raised awareness of age discrimination in employment and promotes the benefits of age diversity in a society with an ageing population. The code gave examples of good practice and age discrimination was made illegal in 2006.

Federal law prohibits an employer from discriminating against an employee or job candidate based on race, color, gender, national origin, religion, pregnancy, age of forty or older, and disability. State nondiscrimination laws generally are similar to the federal laws, but many protect additional characteristics of employees and job applicants. For example, several states and over a hundred cities and counties have laws that protect against discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. Michigan protects people against differential treatment based on height and weight. Alaska forbids employers from acting on the basis of a change in marital status, and North Dakota does not permit receipt of public assistance to be a factor in employment related decisions. Even localities sometimes impose speci¬c prohibitions against discrimination in employment. Hoboken,(2003,p.9)

Avoiding discrimination

Choon Lee, who manages a ¬fteen-person sales staff, has two human resources issues on his mind. First, the company is beginning an effort to enhance the skills of its workforce by sending some of its people to an executive education program at a major university, and Choon has been asked to choose one of his people to attend. Choon knows that selection for the program is seen as a signal of high potential within the company. He expects that a number of his staff would like to attend. Choon isn't looking forward to making his selection, since he knows that whatever choice he makes will disappoint several other people. As he ponders his decision, however, a possible discrimination complaint is the furthest thing from his mind the relevant legal issues based on a wide, but focused, range of reading.

Second, Choon just received a memorandum about a new internal training program. The plan is to train every employee regarding the company's Nondiscrimination and Antiharassment Policy. Choon will be going through the program ¬rst, but eventually each member of his staff will attend. Choon questions whether it makes sense for the company to spend so much time and money on this training. Choon did recently hear a rumor that the manager of another department, Jim, had ¬red one of the engineers in the department, Kimdra, after she refused to sleep with him. But no one in Choon's own department has ever complained about discrimination or harassment. If there is a problem with a particular manager, Choon wonders, why not deal with just the offender? Or, at most, couldn't the company limit the training to managers instead of disrupting the work¬‚ow by putting everyone through it?

I ¬nd that most managers, like Choon, have a good understanding of many of the basic concepts in nondiscrimination law. This is also an area, however, where managers' understanding is often incomplete and fallacies abound. Choon, for example, is very attentive to discrimination issues in hiring and promotions, but he doesn't think of discrimination as a potential issue when it comes to things like picking the most suitable candidate for a training program. Similarly, he sees harassment as a problem only in relation to managers' behavior toward employees, so he questions why his entire staff should go through an antiharassment program. In this chapter, I address basic principles all managers should know about discrimination laws and harassment. Obviously, I cannot address all the relevant issues in detail. The law in this area is so complex that most law schools offer one or more courses exclusively on nondiscrimination in employment, and the textbooks for those courses are hundreds of pages long. I will, though, set out key factors in nondiscrimination law. I will discuss the characteristics that are protected, the types of employment actions that are subject to the laws, and some surprising ways in which the laws do not protect employees. I will also explain the speci¬c defenses available to employers in those limited circumstances where it is necessary for managers to consider criteria such as gender that it typically would be illegal to consider when dealing with employees. Hoboken,(2003,p.83)

At present all of the senior management team are men aged 50 years+ and of white British ethnic origin. And this

Why might this have occurred, are here any legal problems with this profile and how might you propose to introduce more diversity into the organization?

At present all of the senior management team are men aged 50 years+ and of white British ethnic origin. Why might this have occurred, are there any legal problems with this profile and how might you propose to introduce more diversity into the organisation?

Learning and development process.

Companies with a long track record of successful performance are investigated for the attributes of their managers that may have contributed to their success, with commonly occurring attributes imported into the investigating firm. " The human resource approach"

The environment is scanned for potential future demands on managers, for example the impact of emerging information technology, and together with other organizations, the likely management attributes and competencies are built into a role description. "The learning needs approach"

The performance of units and departments is reviewed not only in terms of performance against plans and targets, but also in relation to the organization's ability to deal with unanticipated change. "The strategic competence assessment"

All of these approaches, conclude Hayes and Fonda, bring the advantage that they attempt to ''position'' an organization's managers to cope with a changing environment. They are therefore not limited by its current plans. But their weaknesses are that they depend heavily on the quality of the conclusions being drawn and these are unlikely to be definitive. New and unanticipated needs generally emerge over time. Even though the analysis undertaken looks to the medium and long term, they must be reviewed frequently. (Michel Syrett,2003,9.123)

The talent into the organization

As well as using the competency framework to guide the recruitment and selection process, organisations need to take some time to consider the best way of filling an identified knowledge gap. Some of the options that could be considered, according to Dave Ulrich (2000), include:

Buy - acquire new talent by recruiting individuals from outside the organisation, or from other areas within the organisation, or

Borrow - develop a partnership with other organisations/ people, e.g. consultants, vendors, customers, suppliers.

There are of course variations within these two broad options. Depending on how critical the loss of knowledge, a decision could be taken not to take on a full-time replacement, but instead take someone on on a short-term contract, thereby buying time until another team member can be developed to fill the knowledge gap. The need to provide some training/coaching could perhaps be negotiated as part of the contractual arrangement with the temporary worker. What is crucial is to address those aspects of the 'psychological contract' that relate to managing knowledge during the recruitment process. In the knowledge economy, individuals want to know what the opportunities for developing their own knowledge are likely to be.

Another option would be to consider re-recruiting a former employee, possibly someone who is now running his/her own business, on a project, or short-term contract basis. Some organisations now make a point of keeping in touch with former employees, recognising that there can be mutual benefits of this arrangement, particularly given the speed of change within organisations today (the section on Retention Management covers this point).

Other organisations, such as NHS trusts, are starting to take a more strategic approach to recruitment and retention in what is now a particularly difficult sector for attracting and retaining employees. Some are experimenting with a process known as the Skills Escalator. This involves identifying different entry points for staff, what the organisation needs to do to attract people at these different entry points and also what specific support individuals at each entry point might need, to help them with their continuing development.

This approach has led to some trusts putting different training schemes in place to support staff at the different entry levels. These range from basic skills training for individuals targeted from the long-term unemployed sector, to sponsorship through higher education for individuals wanting to move from a support role into a professional role.

One final point on the actual recruitment process, from a knowledge perspective, is to ensure that it embraces the principles. These include opening up the recruitment process to attract individuals from diverse backgrounds, building the organisation's reputation within the local community as an employer that values difference, as well as promoting the fact that the organisation is receptive to experimenting with different ways of working.

The selection process will need to address the best person fit, from a knowledge management perspective. This may mean revising interview and selection processes so that they gather evidence about individuals' knowledge-building behaviours, such as:

How well networked is the individual? What role does he/she play in the networks they belong to? How does he/she contribute to these networks?

What types of Communities of Practice do they belong to? What specific contributions have they made?

How have they helped develop their colleagues?

How do they keep their own knowledge and skills up to date? (Christina Evans,2003)

The learning and development opportunities

There is the need to consider learning and development opportunities for existing employees.

Opportunities for Learning through Everyday Practice

There are numerous approaches that come under the umbrella of learning through everyday practice. Some of these approaches are discussed below.

Team Meetings

In many Japanese cultures daily communication meetings are the means by which firms, such as Matsushita and Honda, ensure continuous improvement. The Japanese management philosophy is one of ensuring that all of its employees are integrated through open communication, job rotation, consultative decision-making, team working, as well as through the sharing of information across departmental boundaries (Thompson, 1993).

Informal meetings and conversations

Another consideration when building a learning culture is that of revisiting our assumptions about what counts as productive work, as these can get in the way of developing a knowledge-centric culture. As part of the research that I have been conducting into how organisations are developing a knowledge-creating and sharing culture (Evans, 2002)

Cross-Boundary team working

In the quest for high performance, many organisations are realising the benefits of learning from difference, whether this be learning from difference within their own organisation, or learning from difference outside (i.e. through benchmarking, study tours, secondments, or community-based projects).

Write about the need to consider learning and development opportunities for the existing employee.

Improving Service / Quality

Enhancing the values or quality of products and services is a key objective in many companies who wish to gain competitive advantage, or at least parity, with competitors. These companies are setting tougher performance requirements, seeking continued quality improvement in products / services, and strengthening the value chain involving vendors and distributors. For these companies, the overriding human resource issue is organizational effectiveness. Strategies include: streamlining the work (structure, delegation, activities); strengthening management for performance and service / quality; attracting and retaining needed talent; improving team effectiveness; and building employee involvement and commitment to changes that support the company's vision and values.(James W. Walker,2002,p.235)

Faced with financial deficits and some tough competition, globally as well as locally, our company has to create a new corporate strategy and the roadmap to profitability. Training & Development department must work on several initiatives to implement the new vision. A new specific approach must align employee development program with the newly laid corporate objectives.

Adapting systems approach to Human Resource activities, Training & Development department must enhance its legacy career development program with competency-based techniques for staff assessment. To achieve the strategic objectives of the new market need, required competencies for various job categories must identify. A new system was set up to evaluate the competencies and to establish the training & development needs for the employees. Staff Development Guides must produce, customize tour company requirements and to the new market need, to provide our company management with the roadmap to develop employees where required strategically. To facilitate the change, a guiding coalition and a communication plan must be establishes. The goal is to obtain the successful implementation and integration of a new technique that will ensure that our company employees' posses the strategic competencies that are required to keep our company well known within the relevant sectors, and is well respect.

The learning and development approach we recommend

1. Assessment performed to hire & promote as well as to develop leaders. Strengths are identified & training & development needs are established.

2. Training & development program is Recommended and training is provided.

3. Success environment is established, through policy and appraisal, to Ensure training & development.

4. Assessment performed again to ensure Continuous improvement.

START Approach

The candidate manager identifies candidates for interview. These are either candidates you are considering hiring, or those you recommend for promotion or leadership development. First, the candidate manager must make sure the candidates are doing their current jobs well Then, they recommend them for an interview.

The A.R.E process

1. Assess strengths & needs

2. Recommend Training & Development

3. Ensure performance results


All interviewers are trained in the system. Two from your department understand the job requirements, while our lead interviewer ensures a smooth and accurate process. Each of the interviews is conducted one-on-one, and when they are completed the team meets to conduct data integration.


After the assessment, the team identifies strengths and recommends areas of development for the employee. There are three different ways that development can be obtained. These are: Individual Development, Group Development, and Course Development.


Once strengths as well as training and development needs have been identified, training and development solutions will be offered to enhance strategic competencies. In conjunction with the development solutions, performance will be assessed to ensure tangible results in line with the goals and vision to our company. As we move forward, a progressive training and development environment will be fostered throughout the company.

The A.R.E. process empowers you to develop not only employees, but the whole department, enabling you to succeed in your department's goals, while at the same time becoming aligned with our company vision.


Summarize four main points

Restate topic

Revisit introduction or tie all ideas together

As a consequence, .............................

Indeed, our company must move with the time, and must enter the e-book market as soon as we can, with a new Human Resources planning.

A more existing approach to human resource planning aims to enable our organization to adapt to changing environment and changing in the market and emphasizes the need to develop a well-trained and flexible workforce.

With greater than before it is importance on to balance the productivity, service, and quality, executives now recognize that consideration to the financial must be well-adjusted by consideration the planning for human resources.


Establishing a Sense of Urgency

Examining the market and competitive realities

Identifying and discussing crisis, potential crisis, or major opportunities

Creating the Guiding Coalition

Putting together a group with enough power to lead the change

Getting the group to work together like a team

Developing a Vision and Strategy

Creating a vision to help direct the change effort

Developing strategies for achieving that vision

Communicating the Change Vision

Using every vehicle possible to constantly communicate the new vision and strategies

Having the guiding coalition role model the behavior expected of employees

Empowering Broad-Based Actions

Getting rid of obstacles

Changing systems or structure that undermine the change vision

Encouraging risk taking and non-traditional ideas, activities and actions

Generating Short-Term Wins

Planning for visible improvements in performance, or "wins"

Creating those wins

Visibly recognizing and rewarding people who made the wins possible

Consolidating Gains and Producing More Change

Using increased credibility to change all systems, structures and policies that don't fit together and don't fit the transformation vision

Hiring, promoting, and developing people who can implement the change vision

Reinvigorating the process with new projects, themes, and change agents

Anchoring New Approaches in the Culture

Creating better performance through customer and productivity oriented behavior, more and better leadership, and more effective management

Articulating the connections between new behaviors and organizational success

Developing means to ensure leadership development and succession