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PetLuLu is one of the most successful pet product retailers for the lifetime needs of pets in Canada. The business scope of the company includes pet fashions and accessories, gourmet pet cuisine, pet massages, veterinary care, medicine and other pet services, and currently over 1,200 employees are working in the company. This paper will focus on the company's recruitment and selection system in order to analyzing the company's current situations and issues faced.
Nature and Composition of Workforce
Recent years, the tendency of organizational behaviour has had a significant effect on recruitment and selection. Among these has been a focus by many companies on reducing the cost and size of the workforce. Then, the strategic human resources choices of the organization have been shaped by both the social and economic environments where organizations are operating. For instance, several firms have chosen to cut expenditures on production. In terms of recruitment and selection in employment, this has translated into an increasing number of contracts, part-time, and term positions designed to reduce the cost of staffing to the employer. The consequent job displacement, organizational restructuring, job redefinition, and contingent employment are often justified as necessary because of a combination of factors, such as global competition, advanced technology, and demographic shifts (Barnetson, 2009, Lesson 2). HR forecasting entails ascertaining the net requirement for personnel by determining the demand for and supply of HR now and in the future. This process is a technical undertaking. It is also a political process in that it requires choices of how to staff that are designed to maximize the advantage accrued to the employer-typically, by minimizing labour costs, although that is not always the over-riding criterion. Belcourt and McBey provide a broadly technical view of HR forecasting, which focuses on offering the information required for matching labour supply with organizational demand. (Strategic Human Resources Planning, p.204) Therefore, one of the core choices to be made is whether to depend on internal or external labour market to supply required employees. The internal supply makes up current workers who are able to be transferred or retrained to fill expected HR requirements, while the external supply makes up potential workers who are or may be undergoing training, working for competitors, on in a transitional stage of their lives. Thus, taking advantage of labour supply cut the cost of socializing and orienting new workers, rewards workers to build loyalty, and decreasing the potential for unsatisfied surprises which may take place while recruiting external applicants (Barnetson 2009, Lesson 5).
Number of Applications Received and Positions Filled
Currently, 12 positions need to be filled. Nearly 48 company's employees are applying 8 positions which will be provided to PetLuLu's internal employees, while over 120 job applicants outside is applying the rest 4 positions in PetLuLu.
Methods of Recruitment
While the target applicant pool is identified and located, the HR manager of the company will choose the most appropriate recruitment methods to reach each member of internal and external candidates, including members of protected groups (Recruitment and Selection in Canada, p.247).
In terms of internal candidates, they offer a known source of labor t. o the company. Many of the activities implemented as part of human resource planning offer the company with information about the well qualified internal applicants (Recruitment and Selection in Canada, p.247) For those internal candidates, recruitment methods can be used, including job postings, replacement charts, human resources information system, and nominations. Job postings are seen as internal advertisements of job vacancies. Thus, the purpose of job postings is to enable internal workers to understand the vacancy and to permit them opportunities to apply for company's positions. Job postings offer an effective way to discover talented individuals in the company and to provide them with opportunities for advancement in the company. Moreover, as part of the HR planning functions, the company will develop a succession plan to fill vacancies in internal workers. The company has a good idea of the talent in other positions which can step in to fill the vacancies, either on a short-term or long-term basis. (Recruitment and Selection in Canada, p.248) In addition, HR planning usually includes the generation of a comprehensive computerized database which involves the job analysis information on all positions, such as information on the required KSAOs and information on employee competencies and KSAOs with their working experience, histories, and results of performance appraisal. Therefore, internal applicants for vacant positions can be identified through HR information systems match of the individuals' characteristics. Furthermore, nominations are the least systematic internal recruitment method. This method takes place when individuals who are aware of a vacant position nominate other workers to fill it. In the company, supervisors can nominate their workers for certain vacant position.
In terms of external candidates, the company does not have a dependent supply. The sources the company uses to attract external candidates need to be more varied and creative than those for internal applicants (Recruitment and Selection in Canada, p.249) For external candidates, many recruitment methods can be used, such as job advertisements, walk-in and write-in, employment agencies, recruiting at educational institutions, and the Internet. Firstly, job advertisement is one of the most commonly used recruitment methods for external applicants. This method usually presents in a variety of forms and in various media. The company will spend a large part of its recruiting budget on advertising its vacant positions in organization (Recruitment and Selection in Canada, p.249) Moreover, walk-in and write-in recruitment is usually initiated by the job applicants. The walk-in applicants always try to visit the company's HR office and apply to fill out some positions in the company, even if the company perhaps does not have any job vacancy currently, while the write-in applicants who need not to visit the company usually send their resumes to the company (Recruitment and Selection in Canada, p.254) In addition, employment agencies also can be used to help the company to find a match between a job and an individual. The success of employment agencies relies upon the willingness of both the company and the job applicants to enjoy their services. Moreover, recruiting at educational institutions, such as universities, colleges and technical schools also is a common way to help the company seek entry-level managerial, professional and technical workers (Recruitment and Selection in Canada, p.255) Many schools are willing to offer their students with placement services to assist the recruiting requirement of the company that visits to these schools. So, campus recruiting can be viewed as one of the most important approaches which can be used to help a large number of graduates find their first job (Recruitment and Selection in Canada, p.257) In recent years, the Internet has been broadly used in recruiting employees. The company can place its notice of vacancies on its website or list them with one of the online job and career websites. For instance, certain websites alert job applicants who are listed with it by e-mail when a job is posted and significantly matches their qualifications. Currently, online recruiting is becoming a major job hunting source which drives the integration of other HR functions (Recruitment and Selection in Canada, p.258)
The General Approach to Selection
During the recruitment process, the company tries to learn as much as it can about job applicants. HR managers in the company will evaluate those job candidates in terms of their fit with both the company and the job. Person-organization fit refers to a recruiter's belief that job applicants can fit the organization's culture and values. In other words, the applicants have the contextual attributes which are required by the company. Also, person-job fit focuses on whether the candidates have the competencies, abilities, skills and knowledge required by the job (Recruitment and Selection in Canada, p.231) As a result, HR managers of the company need to distinguish between such two forms of fit and have tendencies to make decisions early on in their interviews with applicants on whether these job applicants match what the company is looking for. While the candidates fit the job, the perceptions of the company's HR managers appear to be on the basis of the evaluation of these job applicants' experience and skills which are derived from information gathered during the recruiting process. These sources may involve the review of those applicants' resumes and the brief screening interview (Recruitment and Selection in Canada, p.232)
Some specific selection methods can be used which will be useful in selecting candidates from the applicant pool. These selection methods focus on addressing job applicants' abilities to learn quickly, act as leaders, and fit with the organization. These selection tools include applicant screening, selection interviewing and selection testing. Firstly, applicant screening is implemented while the application has been offered to the. This method is seen as the first stage of selection process in which the first "rough cut" of the larger applicant pool is performed (Recruitment and Selection in Canada, p.279) Generally speaking, applicant screening tries to identify the candidates who must meet some specific positions' minimum qualifications, such as experiences, abilities, skills, knowledge and other relevant personal attributes that is seen necessary for minimally acceptable performance in terms of one or more positions (Recruitment and Selection in Canada, p.280) In addition, selection testing focuses on helping the company select job candidates who have the best and most appropriate abilities, skills, knowledge and other personal attributes and competencies, all of which will bring better job performance (Recruitment and Selection in Canada, p.327) Many factors, such as reliability and validity issues, selection ethic codes and testing standards, need to be viewed in selecting available employment tests. Besides, selection interviewing usually takes place in the last stage of selection process. So, placing the interview until the end allows other selection method to appropriately screen out unqualified job applicants and cuts the number of persons who have to be interviewed. Interviewers will be the line managers and supervisors in the company, who have experience and skills to assess candidates' non-cognitive attributes, such as organizational citizenship behavior, flexibility or adaptability, initiative, social skills, dependability, teamwork and conscientiousness (Recruitment and Selection in Canada, p.406-407)
Validated of the Selection Methods
Selection in the company can be seen as the first step in the recruitment process through which the company seeks for the best qualified individuals to fill job vacancies. It is significant to understand the effectiveness of various selection methods. In the company, these three selection methods have been used effectively together during the each stage of applicant selection process. Because there are no only one selection methods that can satisfy all the needs of the company's employment process, thus the company does various selection methods in various situations or for different positions.
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of R&S System
Evaluation of the effectiveness of R&S system is desirable, in part, because labor costs are usually the company's biggest controllable cost and employees are a significant component which may lead to organizational success or failure. As a result, it is helpful to realize which techniques work well in achieving organizational goals and which do not. Moreover, such evaluation aligns HR activities with the strategic direction of organizations and then supports requests for resource allocations. Evaluation of the effectiveness of R&S system is also critical because the company has legal responsibilities to ensure it complies with the laws governing employment relationships (Barnetson, 2009, Lesson 11) Utility analysis can be used to help company evaluate the effectiveness of R&S system. In utility analysis, two models are usually used - Taylor-Russell utility model and Brogden/ Cronbach/ Gleser utility model. The former depends not just on the validity coefficient but on two other conditions - the selection ratio and base rate - both of which can have effects on the worth of the selection system. And the latter provide an easy means of integrating costs and benefits (Recruitment and Selection in Canada, p.473)
Relationship between R&S System and the Company's Strategic Management System
Strategic HRM is a set of distinct but interrelated philosophies, policies and practices that facilitate the achievement of the organizational strategy (Strategic Human Resources Planning, p.22) Generally speaking, these interrelated philosophies, policies and practices lead to a system which attracts, develops, motivates, trains and maintains employees who effectively function in the company to help the company survive in the market. That is to say, while the company's Recruitment and Selection system tries to recruit and select the best-qualified employees from the job candidate pool, these employees recruited and selected will be seen as the company's strategic resources who can offer a competitive advantage. Therefore, these employees who offer greatly productive performance at workplace due to their flexibility or skills will ensure the company beating its competitors through great services or unique products.
Human Rights Principles at Each Stage of the Process
In applicant screening stage, job candidates are screened with great care. The selection criteria are made in subjective, and the HR managers interpret what the candidates need when they wrote specific statements. Screening procedures are open to errors, both false positives and false negatives. In selection testing stage, the tests are designed to assign numbers to the construct that is being evaluated in a valid and reliable manner. The tests are also focused on being unbiased and fair with utility. In selection interviewing stage, discrimination is forbidden, including race, national or ethnic origin, religion, color, age, sex, marital status, family status, mental or physical disability, pardoned conviction and sexual orientation. (Recruitment and Selection in Canada, p.68)
Recruitment and Selection is the first step in employment process through which the company identifies the best qualified persons for positions. The company should not only concentrate to understanding whether the job advertisements paid off in more applications, but also whether better qualified job candidates can be employed; what it costs to select and recruit new employees; whether these new employees have appropriate attributes or abilities in the company; and whether these employees can be maintained for a long time (Recruitment and Selection in Canada, p.267)
The company should continue to develop the new generation of leaders as one type of succession management which focuses on making sure that that the employee pool can be trained and available to achieve the company's strategic objectives (Strategic Human Resources Planning, p.231) Succession management makes up of a process to identify employees who have larger potentials for certain positions in the company and then prepare them for these positions. And, the company also should further have a replacement planning which is seen as a process of finding replacement employees for key managerial positions. Replacement planning has evolved into succession management through broadening the focus, expanding the time horizon, creating a talent pool of replacements, and improving the evaluation system.
Organizations engage in recruitment and selection (R&S) in order to find workers to carry out tasks. Although some tasks will be outsourced, organizations continue to rely primarily on employees. Therefore, the R&S system in the company is mindful which can be shaped by the HR management.