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As the basic environment faced by the employees in present scenario is very challenging now days and therefore, they are also demanding proper attention towards the objectives/goals of the well-organized companies. The natures of organizational objectives can be dynamic at times. Sulimani, (2006). The basic need of the organisation is to satisfy the employees so, different training programmes are been introduced which in return proves to be beneficial as the employees are satisfied with the job environment. If the employees' are satisfied with the working conditions and the environment thus, an organisation can think of achieving the quality standards while working with skilled employees. Although, a company can think of increasing their productivity and to meet their desired goals-the motivation of the employees play a vital role. Longenecker. C.O., Simonetti. J.L. & Lahote. D.(1999)
1) The research study focus on identifying job security and job-satisfaction within the organisation structure. To what degree the motivational theories help in creating an effective training for maximizing profit.
2) The main aim of the proposal is to correlate the importance of training methods for the better allocation of resources and the private sector organisations i.e. (Provide quality products and services through innovation, learning and operational excellence)
3) The traditional approaches will be analysed in detail and proper consideration of the capabilities that are necessary for placements and growth of employees.
Background of research:
The training and development set as a necessary aspect for the organization running in the Saudi, as the country open hands to the global markets while facing tough competition. In order to maintain a proper framework the private sector organisation need skilled labour to perform its operations. In order to face the challenges of the global market the training and development practices are introduced among all organisations, there main emphasis are on the new technologies which helps the employees to perform in a particular environment. "Private sector organisation of Saudi Arabia after the seventh plan i.e. from the year 2000-2004 emphasise on the expansion of the economy of the Country." Bureau of near Eastern Affairs, 2010.
"The term motivation is defined as a strength influencing the industry formulating a pathway towards the performance of employees". Thereafter, some motivation theories are taken into consideration supporting the title of the research. A series of theories explained by many Authors are there in the literature review of research i.e. Goal theory, Expectancy theory, ERG and the Herzberg two factors theory, to justify the statement, "Training and development as a motivational tool for the Job Satisfaction".
Rama Murthy .Y. S (2009) describes the performance of the organisation lies on judging the behaviour of the employees and thereafter manages the cut-throat benefits. Thus, the involvements of the motivational tools under the framework of HRM practices show the actual picture of Job satisfaction among the employees. The research show healthy relationship between HRM and the performance of the organisation after critical analysis of journals, books and material from annual report of companies. Many researchers still working on the relationship of "HRM and the performance of the organisation, they are trying to analyse the actual mechanism behind this concept like what all factors are there who affect the performance of organisation." Salas .E (2005).
The need of motivation as an effective tool for the training and development helps the organisation to understand the needs and wants of the employees, the study will look into the motivational theories in context to private sector organisation among the Saudi Arabia followed by a brief literature review and research approach to analyse the degree of job satisfaction.
2) Brief Literature Review
"The term motivation is defined as strength helps in influencing the industry while formulating a pathway towards the performance of employees". It is defined as boosting the amount of enthusiasm to handle the hard work (strength) towards a desired objective (Course of action), for a definite era. Steven et al (2005).
The various aspects of Human resource Management comprises of training & development helps in matching the spirits of learning while covering all the levels of the hierarchy. Motivation and proper training helps the organisation to develop a work environment where employees work as a team towards the attainment of desired goals. However, if the employees are satisfied with the environment and benefits can immediately results providing quality outcomes. Bakar. A.H (2009). In order to define motivation at work a series of theories are there applied by the top level of management to analyse the degree of elicit employees co-operation and therefore, keeping a track record of performance while meeting the goals and desired objectives of the firm.
There is always a need of motivating employees so, that company can look forward to check level of Job satisfaction. However, it helps blending the individual goals and the company objectives all together for attaining vital importance. Employee performance lies on the aspect of managerial skills as the know-how of 'what and how' to motivate subordinate poses a challenge to the rigid bodies Mullins L.J (2007). The management job is to recognise the basic needs of the employees and offer them a proper work environment while designing a framework in such a way that they can ascertain the need of employees. As explained by Mullins L.J (2007) that motivating framework alleged result in which employees feel satisfied while performing job getting benefits as per their expectations, parallel to company getting benefits from the intensified productivity and bustle of activities.
The theories of motivation consist of dynamics that persuade actions and how employees react to different situation in a particular environment. As no theory of motivation is better than other as it may vary according to the organisation in which the firm works.
Theories of motivation
In order to manage the assorted ideas that emerges amongst psychologists unfolding the motivational aspects. The theories of the motivation are sub-divided into two broad categories i.e. content theory and the process theory. The content theory based on the fact that all personage progression on similar necessitate. On the other hand, process defines the need of people spotting on cognitive practising some disparity. The motivational tools derived from these above theories helps analysing the job satisfaction for the training and development are ERG theory of motivation, Herzberg's two factor theory, Expectancy Theory and Goal setting. Bakar. A.H (2009).
The ERG theory came into existence in (1972) by Alderfer.C, explains the pragmatic findings. It is defined as needs of the employee tends to chance with due course of time within hierarchy. Existence deals with the psychological needs and safety needs, Relatedness includes belonging and love, finally Growth look forward to self-actualization. In this theory of motivation hierarchy holds a degree of precedence likewise (existence is precedent to relatedness, which precedent over growth. As defined by Enezi. M. Z., Rouibah. K & Hamdy. H.I. (2008) "Critical Incident Analysis" when the job satisfaction and dissatisfaction factors applied targeting indirect motivation. The Herzberg in (1957) introduced the two factors "Motivation-hygiene theory where hygiene factors are those who prevent the dissatisfaction aspect", "Motivators are kept to be factors endow with satisfaction". Mullins .L.J (2007) according to the Herzberg, the dissatisfaction factors within the structure of the organisation are different than those providing affirmative satisfaction.
Herzberg's two-factor Model of Work Motivation.
Hygienic Factor(Leading to Dissatisfaction)
Motivators( Leads to satisfaction)
Peers &Senior affiliation
Source: Mullins. L.J (2007)
The basic need of this theory helps the management to mull over hygiene actors while taking motivation into contemplation. They can focus on some issues to build a effective managerial framework where they can judge the satisfaction level of the employees after motivational implications. The work environment according to the two-factor theory can hinder appropriate challenges to utilize the capability of employees, so that they get proper responsibility. If some of the employees fail to meet such criteria they might lack motivation. Thereafter, a theory introduced by Porter & lawler (1964) as a Expectancy theory it's just based on the expectation of a person as , "how much we want, how much we get." The behaviour of the employee adhere three functional variable i.e. associates among-Efforts, Performance and rewards.
The First Expectancy [E-P]: Effort-performance Expectancy.
The Second Expectancy [P-O]: Performance outcome Expectancy.
The third one is linked with performing the task, while accomplishment & extrinsic rewards resulting performance affairs. Source: Mullins .L.J. (2007).
As a case of private sector organisation the expectancy theory provide certain implication to judge whether the employees are satisfied with their job or not. Management can look forward to complication while determining various factors: the performance of the individual varies on exactness of incentives. The inter-relationship between the efforts, performance & incentives are there to show clear picture of expectation of employees. Last but not least expectancy organisation can formulate some task-oriented programmes which can explain the job satisfaction and motivation after critical analysis Fiona M.W (2004). Equity theory of the motivation is introduced by Adam .J. S. (1965), deals with the sensitivity of employees as to what degree they are been treated apart from the treatment been given to reference group. Cox.C (1994) introduces three attitudes a personage may undergo i.e. equitably rewarded, under rewarded and over rewarded.
The Goal theory by Locke (1979), as the name says employee's goal cooperate vital part while determining performance. The motivation and the training performance is there when the employees work on desired set of goals, even if the aspiration vary but accepted thereafter expect a feedback that is basically based on their performance. Goal theory involves a Management-By-Objective approach. Company set goals can be competitive having practical implications to boost the performance of the employees. Employees can expect timely feedback from the organisation so, that they can analyse the direct behaviour taking into consideration regarding the motivational framework to identify performance of the desired goals.
So the training and development as a motivational tool for the job satisfaction for SABIC aspect, as motivation management in modern era deals with sensible aspect come within reach making grounds for management trainers and apprentices. The efficient motivational tool re-evaluates the better training and development aspect which proves to be beneficial for analysing the job satisfaction.
The training and development helps in maintaining proper relationship on the basis of experience and skills own by the manager to fit in a particular segment. However, the entire organisation manages to put right expertise under right group. As explained by Enezi. M. Z., Rouibah. K & Hamdy. H.I. (2008) leaders can grasp the vibrant arrangements of proper growth mechanism for the employees working for them. The training proves to be beneficial as it helps creating an image on the minds of employees to opt for better expansion motives and also create an environment so, that they can build up skills in accordance to the present scenario.
The Human Behaviour varies on the basis of superiority but, sometimes it's awful possessing an adverse effect while setting up a company's framework. As Discussed by Sulimani, 2006 the main focus of the company tends to adapting employee behaviour thereafter, some solutions are there for the notion: "how to motivate employees". Motivation helps in boosting the positive energy while targeting the training and development of the employees. Motivation holds an important conceptual element within the framework of management covering the Plan, Organise, Control, Delegation and decision-making aspects. It is defined as a process of maintaining interpersonal relationship between the Hierarchies of management. (Sulimani, 2006)
According to Dessler.G (2008) explains Performance Management systems (PMS) which deals with the factors relating to the stakeholder, Managers and the employees Perception. This study focuses on the behaviour of the Management and employees working in private sector organisations. The PMS helps while encouraging the Performance of employees and thus, the study highlight the difficulties encountered while evaluating PMS.
The unemployment rate varies as more than 60% of private sector organisations fall under the same segment. Bakar .A.H. (2009), the expatriates do short-term renewable contracts based on the performance mechanism, Human resource management plays a vital role using motivation tool so that they can get benefits against the performance. Skilled employees help attaining proper training while maintaining the image of the organisation, adds to the expansion. Training and development for proper job satisfaction techniques proves to be beneficial to skilled workers. As explained by Bakar .A.H. (2009) "The possibility that organizations in the Arabian Gulf countries believe that while investing in such tools there must be a very high dealing with Human Resource Management practices are deemed to be too expensive. But, there thinking got change when they look over the motivational theories providing assistance leading to job satisfaction. However, in order to face the challenges to mark their presence in the global market boosting the Human Resource Management practices to business leaders among gulf region.
Rama Murthy .Y. S (2009) explains the performance of the organisation lies on judging the behaviour of and thereafter manages the cut-throat benefits. HRM is important tool affecting the performance of growth and expansion of the organisation. The nature of the employees is taken into consideration on the basis of skills and motivation, the company provide fringe benefits to the employees and with the help of these benefits they can measure the increase in performance mechanism. Thus, the involvements of the motivational tools under the framework of HRM practices show the actual picture of Job satisfaction among the employees. The research show healthy relationship between HRM and the performance of the organisation after critical analysis of journals, books and material from annual report of companies. Many researchers still testing the relationship of "HRM and the performance of the organisation, they will look forward to mechanism which affects the performance of organisation." Salas .E (2005).
In order to face the challenges of the global market the training and development practices are introduced among all organisations, there main emphasis are on the new technologies which helps the employees to perform in a particular environment. After the sixth five year, development plan introduced by the government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Industrialization status has been taken into serious consideration. The plan gave rise to more involvement of the private sector organisation for the better development techniques. They started working on the better human resources while forming a proper technology base. However, the seventh plan emphasize up on the advanced scientific and new technology trading blocks. The training and development techniques play an important part as by determining a best motivational tool they can attain proper satisfaction level of the employees. So, in order face the challenges of the Globalisation the private sector organisation working on developing the technical & technological areas. (i.e. from the year 2000-2004 emphasise on the expansion of the economy of the Country)." Bureau of near Eastern Affairs, 2010.
There is a need for job satisfaction among the private sector organisations of Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries. Thus, the literature review emphasizes the need of training and development and satisfaction of employees through better motivation techniques.
The main aim of the research methodology is to set the primary objective or key aspect of research. The qualitative approach is taken into consideration as it is exploratory in nature and the research is Descriptive. The quantitative research is taken into consideration and the sources of the data is based the internal and the external factors whereas, the internal factors deals with the already proposed data and when some data requires further processing. On the other hand, the external factors comprises of the published materials, journals from the library service and management databases. Moreover some case study and company reports from the internet are accessed to filter the data supporting the motivational techniques for the training and development. The research process is explained in a diagrammatic form to show picture of what the researcher is planning to do thereafter, followed by a research design.
Ready to use
Requires Further Processing
[Diagram: Kinds of Secondary Data Source: Kress, 2008]
The secondary research is divided into internal and external factors as to formulate the research strategy the above diagram from the Kress, 2008 explains the fact that how the research is been formulated. The Annual reports, Books, Journals and data from the Internet search engines helps in analysing the degree of job satisfaction among the employees. Thus, the objectives of the research are well presented with the help of secondary data (Brief literature review and Research approach) to analyse the research finding.
Ethical Consideration is taken into consideration as copyright material is been excluded from the research, almost all the data used for the research is been extracted from the library services and the Business directories. Appropriate conclusions and recommendation will be drawn on the basis of the secondary data of research.
Limitation of research
1) Despite the fact there are many Private sector companies all the data necessary for the research lacks direct access.
2) The another factor is the degree of accuracy as the data is of secondary nature so uncertain accuracy is there.
3) The units used for the measurement is sometimes inappropriate and sometime the time factor as all the data is based on exploratory study. Thus, the proper applicability to interest of population lacks in this research.
11) Time scale/Plan
The Schedule for dissertation will be followed and utmost adherence while writing the research in accordance with proper format/structure pre-defined during certain period of research.
Collection of Data
Finalising the results into Thesis