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One of the significant factors that influence human performance and behavior is motivation. Motivation is the interior drive that that leads to behavior, and it can't be directly observed or measured. Actually, there were times when employees were considered as another addition to enhance the production of goods or services. What possibly have changed this method of thinking about employees is a research done by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932 (Dickson, 1973) where he found that money is not the only motivational factor for employees and their performance is connected to their attitudes (Dickson, 1973). Therefore, various factors were identified to be implemented in measuring motivation by earlier researchers on motivation. It is very important to know the motivational factors of each employee you have since motivation works at different levels for different people. Employees need to feel motivated in order to give their best. Happy and satisfied employees lead to enhance organizational performance. Thus, this paper will investigate on motivational factors of business department faculties at Abu Dhabi Women's College. I chose topic because am I business student at ADWC and this topic is very important for the organization and students since ADWC reputation and teaching level depend on effective, productive and motivated faculties.
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
The research problem of this study is associated with business department faculties' motivation factors atÂ Abu Dhabi Women's College.Â The success of any organization depends upon inspired and motivated employees who are considered as great asset. Motivation and job satisfaction are clearly linked, to have satisfied employees you need to motivate each employee according to their own motivational factors since different employees are motivated by different factors. ThereÂ isÂ diversity ofÂ factorsÂ that can influence a person's level of motivation. For example, one employee, money is might be the most basic motivating factor but for some other might be appreciation and recognition may play important role. Thus, this research carried out to examine the following motivation factors effect on ADWC business faculties' performance and productivity:
1. Interesting work
2. Student's behavior
3. Classroom environment
4. Personal/social factors
5. Job security
6. Rewards/incentives promotions
7. Good working conditions
8. Good wages,
9. Growth in the organization,
10. Full appreciation of work done
11. Artful discipline.
The research problem is formulated as follows:
"What are the motivation factors that help motivate ADWC Business Department faculties?"
1.3 Significance of the study
It is known that the student's learning contingent on the productive, effective and efficient teaching, therefore the motivational factors of faculties must be investigated to help in enhancing their motivation. The motivation of faculties tends to work on an intrinsic reward system as earlier studies prove that. This can make it difficult for department heads, chairs, and other administrators to find excellent day-to-day reward strategies, particularly when the one usually valued exterior motivator. This research is of great significance. It attempts to highlight the external and internal factors which affect their faculties' performance and productivity level. In addition it will help in enhancing the level of provided motivation by ADWC.
1.4 Purpose of the study
The main purpose of this study is discovering specific motivation factors that motivate Business Department Faculty at the Abu Dhabi Women's College. It is very important for ADWC to know what factors motivate its employees, due to the fact that motivation factors have different level from one person to another. As mention earlier, human resources of any organizations can't just name one factor and focus on it, thinking it will motivate all. In order to have loyal employees who give their best for their organization, the organization must meets and fulfills their employees' needs to motivates them otherwise they will feel lack of satisfaction in their jobs. Thus, this study seeks to examine major important motivating factors that motivate business faculties at ADWC and these factors are including interesting work, student's behavior, classroom environment, personal/social factors, job security, rewards/incentives promotions, good working conditions, good wages, growth in the organization, full appreciation of work done and artful discipline.
1.5 Objectives of the study
This study developed to achieve the following objectives:
Determining the essential motivational factors that motivate the ADWC Business Faculties
Examining the effect of classroom environment, stress and the behavior of the students on the motivational level of business faculties at ADWC
Investigating the provided monetary and non-monetary incentive outcomes on the performance of the faculties
Determining the socio-economic factors that are affecting the faculty motivational level at ADWC.
Providing practical suggestions for improving organization's performance
1.6 Research questions
What are the motivation factors that help motivate ADWC Business Department faculties?
Is there any relationship between motivational factors and high productivity and performance of motivate ADWC Business Department faculties?
Is there any relationship between motivational factors and attitude to work?
Based on the literature review, the following hypotheses were developed for testing:
The relationship between incentives and the performance of employee.
The relationship between motivation factors and work productivity.
The influence of Monetary incentives and rewards on workers is stronger than any form of motivational incentive
1.8 The scope and limitation of the study
The study will took place at a government sector organization; Abu Dhabi Women's College, UAE where the motivation system will be explored and studies. The study will also, investigate on the motivational factors for the business department faculties of the organization. To do so, a questionnaire will be developed to find such information. The study will took approximately 20 days from the date 5th - 25th of December 2012. I will be interviewing the faculties to fill out my questionnaire from 9th - 13th of December 2012 and then I will collect the data and I will analyze and give some recommendation. Moreover, the study will look at other subjects as follow:
Literature review on motivation theories
Literature review on performance
The relationship between motivation and productivity
Factors effecting motivation and productivity related to job satisfaction
Recommendation and suggestion on the current motivation system
The study limitations are the following:
The data will be collected through questionnaire; the answers might be not accurate
The sample taken for the study was only 15 faculties, the result may not be enough
Since I am a student at the college it might be difficult for me to get data
Another difficulty was very limited time-span of the project
Lack of experience, it is my first time I do such a research
Chapter two: Literature Review
2.1 The Motivation Concept
The term motivation is derived from the word motive. Motive means proposal, requirement or feelings that prompt a person to action. A stimulus is behind the human behavior and is dependent upon the purpose of the concerned person. By analyzing and studying the requirements and wishes of a person will allow us to know his motives.
No universal theory can describe the factors that influence the motives of a person that restricts mans behavior and nature at a specific point of time. There are different motives that can influence human behavior at different times and between different people. The main purpose of the motivation studies is to analyze the different motives of a person which leads to different type of human behavior.
2.2 Motivation Definition
According to Edwin B Flippo, Motivation can be defined as a process of trying to influence individuals to perform their task through opportunities of gaining or rewarding.
2.3 Motivation Process
The Motivation process includes the following:
Recognizing the needs
Line of Action
Outcomes - Positive/Negative
2.4 Significance of Motivation
Motivation processes engages the members of the workforce to put in efforts effectively to provide their loyalty to perform the requirements of the business organization effectively. The following outcomes can be achieved if the workforces are motivated enough
The employees of the organization will be pleased if the business management provides them with necessary opportunities to satisfy their physiological and psychological requirements. Employees support and cooperation can be achieved by the management and this will indirectly supply their efforts to achieve the business targets of the organization.
Workers skills and knowledge will be improved leading to becoming a proficient employee who can contribute to the growth of the business organization providing increased efficiency.
This will also allow reduction in labour turnover rates and absenteeism among the employees.
Motivation also reduces resistance among the employees and with the organization leading to good relationship with the organization.
As the atmosphere within the organization is positive it leads to reduction in number of complaints and grievances.
As the employees are satisfied it will lead to improvement in quality of products and public reputation of the organization which will indirectly lead to better quantity and quality of goods and services with less wastage
2.5 Motivation Theories
The main purpose and focus of the researchers of the Hawthrone study was identifying the motivation factors of the workforce and how they are motivated (Terpstra, 1979). Major approaches that lead to the perspective of motivation are:
McClelland's Achievement Need Theory
Behavior Modification Theory
Abraham H Mallow's need hierarch or Deficient theory of motivation
J. S. Adam's Equity Theory
Vrooms Expectation Theory
Two Factors Theory
Here I would prefer to mention some of the motivational theories which I found to be interesting
McClelland's Achievement Need Theory
McClelland's states three types of needs which are as follows:
Need for Achievement (n Ach): The main important and lasting motivational factor is need. Mainly for individuals who satisfy other's needs. Such categories of individuals are always engaged with longing for the development and lack of circumstances in which victorious results are directly concurrent with their hard work. They always indulge in setting difficult but attainable targets for themselves as achievement with easy attainable targets barley provides a sense of satisfaction and achievement.
Need for Power (n Pow): Individuals will poses the desire to manage the behavior of other individuals and influence the surroundings. Positive applications of Power motivation leads to conjugal leadership style but the negative application of power motivation leans to autocratic style.
Need for Affiliation (n Aff): This type need relates to social requirement and brings in friendship. The positive outcome of this leads to formation of societal circle or unofficial groups
Behavioral Modification Theory
Behavioral Modification theory states that individual's behavior is the result of positive and negative precedent circumstances. This concept is based on the learning theory. Rats and school children where skinner's choices for conducting his researches. Skinner identified that motivation for pleasing performances could be strengthened by rewarding on time. The significance of this theory can be known by implementation of monetary and non monetary incentives in industrial situation.
The speed at which the individuals are rewarded and stimulated they get motivated. Removal of reward due to unsatisfactory standard of performance may also produce required outputs. On the other hand researches demonstrate that it is more effectual to remunerate desired performances than to rebuke undesired performances.
Two Factor Theory
Douglas McGregor introduced the Two factor theory with the assistance of two views:
X assumptions are conventional in style
Y assumptions are contemporary in style
Individuals intrinsically have an aversion to work
Individuals should be coerced or controlled to perform their task to meet the objectives
Individuals have preference to be directed
Individual's perception of work is to be as normal as to participate and rest
Individuals will put in effort for self-direction and control for accomplishing the objectives of the organization as are dedicated to.
Individuals gain knowledge to acknowledge and seek responsibility
Neo-Human Relations School was introduced by Abraham Maslow (1908 - 1970) with Frederick Herzberg (1923 - ) in 1950's. This school focused on psychological requirements of the employees. Abraham Maslow introduced a theory according to which human needs are classified into five levels which the workforce needs to satisfy.
The needs are organized into hierarchical order and as the lower level needs are satisfied then the employees would be motivated enough by opening to move to the higher hierarchical order for satisfying the needs. For example a person is starving and is thriving due to lack of food will be motivated to get a basic pay for buying food rather than perturbing to secure the job agreement or the reverence of others.
Therefore a business school offers incentives in a different way to the individuals in order to assist them to satisfy their need and indirectly leading to growth in the hierarchy. The Organization managers should also understand that the workforce is not motivated in the same manner and will not move up in the hierarchy at the same speed. Therefore the managers will have to provide a different package of incentives from employee to employee.
Types of Motivation
Intrinsic Motivation: this type of motivation occurs when individuals are internally stimulated to perform because it either brings them satisfaction or they believe that it is essential or because they feel that what they are learning is more important.
Extrinsic Motivation This type of motivation comes in to picture when students are forced to do certain things or act in a way due to external factors to him or her (example grades or money)
What are Extrinsic and Intrinsic rewards
According to numerous establishments, the appropriate approach to motivation in terms of work lies in cautious differentiation between extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. According to Herzberg (1964) the difference between extrinsic rewards around a job as salaries, extreme benefits and job security and intrinsic rewards of job as self-esteem, sense of achievement, and personal growth. Herzberg states that intrinsic rewards are more satisfying and stimulating.
McGregor (1967) is well known for his two main managerial theories which are Theory X and Theory Y which highlights respectively extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. According to Deci (1975) in his book intrinsic motivation highlights how imprudent use of extrinsic rewards can be.
Teachers are first and foremost motivated by intrinsic rewards such as self-esteem, duty and sense of achievement. Thus administrators of the organization can increase their moral and stimulate teachers to do extremely well by means of participation, in-service education and organized supportive assessment.
What Motivates Teachers?
Studies have shown that teachers are stimulated more by intrinsic than by extrinsic rewards. According to Pastor and Erlandson (1982) survey conducted which showed that teachers recognize their requirements and compute their job satisfaction by factors such as involvement in decision making, usage of skills, liberty and sovereignty, challenge, expression of creativity and learning opportunity. They concluded that elevated internal motivation, work satisfaction and elevated quality performance depends on three critical psychological states: experienced meaningfulness, responsibility of results and awareness of results. Greatest satisfaction obtained by teachers is through a sense of accomplishment in getting and affecting students, experiencing acknowledgment and feeling accountable.
Chapter three: Research Methodology
3.1 Research Locale
The research objective of the study is to find out the important factors that are needed to motivate the faculty of Business Department at ADWC. To find such significant information an enclosed survey will be developed and conducted at ADWC where business faculties will be interviewed randomly to fill the survey.
3.2 Research Design
The research design of this research is exploratory study. Exploratory study is a type of research conducted when a problem is not clearly defined (what are the motivational factors that help motivating business faculties at ADWC?). Exploratory study helps to determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects.
The method that will be used in this research is quantitative method to achieve the research objective. Quantitative method designed to ensure objectivity, generalizability and reliability. The techniques of this type of research method depends on interviewing participants who are selected randomly to fill questionnaires related to the subject and focused on the collecting and analyzing of numerical data and statistics.
3.3Research Population, sample size and sample technique
The population of the study included all faculties of business department in Abu Dhabi Women's College. The sample size of the will be 15 respondents randomly selected. The sample technique that has been used to collect the data needed to obtain the research goal is convenience sampling. Convenience sampling is a type of nonprobability sampling which involves selecting the sample randomly, for example interviewing the faculties haphazardly.
3.4 Research Instrument
In order to collect the data needed for the research, a well-defined questionnaire will be developed and it will consist of consists of open ended, ranking and rating questions which are designed to seek information and opinions about the motivational factors of faculties at ADWC The questionnaire will be distributed to the faculties and collected from them after 2 days.
3.5 Presentation of Data
The collected data will be presented through charts and tables after analyzing them.
3.6 Tools andÂ Techniques for Analysis
Correlation is used toÂ test the hypothesis and drawÂ inferences