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Sainsbury is the UK's one of the oldest and biggest retail chain superstore. Sainsbury was founded by John and Mary Sainsbury back in 1869. Sainsbury's first shop was in London selling butter, milk and eggs. Sainsbury's first real supermarket was opened in Southampton in 1954. Now it has over 130,000 employees in more than 750 stores through out the UK. Sainsbury has captured 14.7% of the overall market share in UK.
The major concern of this research is to find out the factors that motivate to increase the performance of the people working at Sainsbury. This research will identify the motivating factors of the retail workers. What makes the employee feel motivated and increase their performance and productivity level? This means what the employee expects from the employer and how they influence do to batter work in the retail industry. We will find out what are the strategies that Sainsbury use to motivate their employee.
The reason behind conducting this research is significant. Retail industry in UK is a very big sector. More then 3 million people's works in this industry which is 11% of the total working group. A considerable amount of GDP is generated by the retail sector. This research will help to find out how to motivate this group of people. Sainsbury will be under the spotlight of this research as quite a large number of people work in Sainsbury.
In other Motivation is an important factor in the human resources policy. According to Ivancevich (1998) motivation is a set of attitudes which stimulated a person to act in a specific goal directed way. Motivation energizes and sustains human behaviour to achieve goals. What makes employee motivated. There are certain factors that motivate the employee. Abraham Maslow mentions a hierarchy of five basic needs. According to him when these basic needs of human is secured then it drive him to be motivated. Those five levels of needs are Physiological, Safety, Social, Esteem and Self actualization. One need fulfils then the other needs emerge. Physiological needs and safety need are the basic needs of survival. These two are lower level needs. The other three needs are higher level needs; in other word growth needs. Maslow said in his work that when peoples needs starting from lower level is satisfied then people started to look for higher level of needs (Pinnington & Edward, 2000).
Herzberg mention that what can motivate an employee can be understand batter by understanding the employees respective attitude. Herzberg developed two lists of factors after doing inquiry on employee attitudes. The first one causes a good attitude and happy feelings within the worker. Herzberg called this one as motivator. The factors are recognition, achievement, possibility of growth, advancement and work itself. The second factor is about the feelings of unhappiness and bad attitudes. He named the second factor as hygiene factor. According to hygiene factor salary, status job, interpersonal relationship, supervision, working condition; these things motivate employee (Herzberg et al., 1959). According to Herzberg job design and job enrichment are the key to motivate employee. By reducing the time that spent at the work does not motivate the employee rather motivated people want to work for more time not fewer. He also advised that the job should be design in such a way that the employee will feel they have enough responsibility and opportunity for growth (Pinnington & Edward, 2000).
David McClelland proposed a theory of need motivation. This theory focuses on the need of power, achievement and affiliation. These three different needs motivate the employee in different way. The needs of power explain that people want to have power and influence over others. People like to be in a position where they have a status and authority. a person who have the need of achievement seek for such job and task where they have some kind of responsibility. They want quick feed back on their progress. People with the need of affiliation look for jobs where there is no competition among the individual. This people motivate by the environment where they will be accepted and liked by others. There should be higher degree of cooperation and mutual understanding between the employees (Pinnington & Edward, 2000).
Pay and rewards also motivate employee at work. It depends on the needs of the individual. The person whose needs for the money is very high, he will be motivated by the pay and wages (Beer et al., 1985). According to Victor Vroom human behaviour is goal-directed. People will be motivated at work when there will be opportunity for them to attain goal and satisfying their needs. Vroom proposed Expectancy theory which describes "motivation is a function of each individual's expectation that his or her behaviour will result in outcomes that have psychological value". Effective performance should have some outcomes or feedback. People will work hard if they will get some desired outcomes for their work. The desired outcomes will be the rewards such as productivity bonus. (Pinnington & Edward, 2000). Later Porter and Lawler proposed a revised version of Vroom's expectancy theory. According to this new revised model, person's motivation is describe as a function of three things: the attractiveness of the reward, performance to reward expectancy and effort-to- performance expectancy. Firstly desired reward can motivate people to exert effort in work. Reward can motivate people to perform. Secondly employee always expects that if they can achieve the desired performance then they will get their desired reward as well. And lastly when employee will feel there is enough probability to achieve the targeted performance (Pinnington & Edward, 2000).
McGregor (1966) mention another theory of motivation in one of his book which is known as Carrot and stick theory of motivation. This theory works well under certain condition. This theory is mainly concerned with satisfying physiological and safety needs. According to him when people's existence is secured, he or she can be controlled that time.
Reis & Pena (2001) mention in their research that motivation theory of early 1980s and 1900s is not efficient and appropriate for this century. Now the situations are changed. According to them total quality management (TQM) and reengineering are now more appropriate to motivate people.TQM and reengineering used by American companies in early 1980s while they face difficulties to motivate their employees. As a result productivity became less. The main concern of TQM is decant treatment with the employee, elimination of quotas and slogans, true employee empowerment and so on. Reengineering is the radical redesign of the business process of the organizations in order to meet demands of the modern economy.
Jackson and Bak (1998) did a research on employee motivation in China. In there research they mention the Katz and Kahn's model of rule enforcement, external rewards and internalised motivation and found that Chinese technique to motivate their employee is similar to the Katz and Khan's model. But they expend the model slightly. There the job role is well defined and communicated and should be accepted by everyone. In China money is an important factor to motivate employee. So there reward and performance related bonus is used to motivate the employee. Political indoctrination and campaigning is a major source of internalised motivation in China. The Chinese employees are influenced by politics as they have desire to become labour hero. This drives them to give high performance to become a leader. Corporate identity motivates this employee to do batter performance.
Hackman and Oldham had done a research on job design. They extend the theory of Porters and Lawler's expectation theory. According to them job characteristic can motivate individual. Their argument on job design is similar to the work of Herzberg on job enrichment. They mention that effective job design and matching the correct people for the correct work are the major concern of motivation. When right people will work in right place then there is no need to force, bribe or trick them to work hard and perform well in the job. They mention three important conditions for motivation. First one is the employee must have the idea and knowledge about the possible outcomes of his or her job. Secondly the employee needs to experience the responsibility for his or her outcomes of work. When they do well they need to feel pride and also need to feel concern when they cannot achieve the goal. Thirdly the employee should feel work as being meaningful. According to them this three factors will create strong internal motivation among the employee (Pinnington & Edward, 2000).
Aims and Objective:
This research will use to achieve the following objectives.
Defining factors that motivate employee to perform batter.
Defining the strategy use by the employers of retail industry.
Identifying the expectation of the employee of the retail sector from their employer
Identify the requirements needs to motivate the employee.
Justification of the Research:
The purpose of this research is to identify the factors that motivate the employee of the retail sectors to perform well. This research will be conducted on Sainsbury. This will help the employer of the retail industry to understand their employees. How they can motivated their employees. What is their employee's expectation from the job? This will help the employer to do effective job design.
Methodology of the Research:
"Research is seeking through methodical processes to add to one's own body of knowledge and to that of others, by the discovery of nontrivial facts and insights" (Sharp et al., 2002). Davis (1999) defines business research as a systematic, controlled and critical investigation of phenomena which used to help the managerial decision makers. Before conducting a research there is a need of clear planning of how to conduct the research. According to Saunders et al. (1997) research strategy is the general plan of how the researcher will answer the research question that has set. There should be clear objective that derived from the research question and specify the source form where to collect data for the research. For this research primary and secondary data will be used. Primary data is the data which does not found in a compiled way. The researcher need to collect it and compiled in such a format that help in the decision making process (Bryman, 1988). On other side those data that has already been collected by someone for some other purpose is known as secondary data (Gill & Johnson, 2002). There is two way of collecting primary data: Qualitative and Quantitative. Quantitative method uses a large sample. Structured survey questioning is used and analyzes either statistically and numerically. Qualitative research findings cannot be represented numerically. Both primary and secondary data will be used for this research.
Primary Data: This data will be collected by detailed questionnaire and interview. This questionnaire will be filled by both the employer and the employee of the Sainsbury. Personal interview also will be conducted with them. Qualitative and quantitative method both will use to collect primary data for the research.
Secondary Data: This data will be collected from others research work, journal, books, newspaper and also from the internet.
There are two types of sampling techniques available: probability sampling and non probability sampling. Probability sampling is the survey-based research. Here the researcher needs to make inferences from the sample about a population to answer the research question. Non probability sampling is based on the subjective judgement. Non probability sampling will not allow the extent of the problem to be determined. Quota sampling convenience sampling, snowball sampling, purposive sampling, self selection sampling, these are all different types of non probability sampling (Saunders et al., 1997). Quota sampling will be used for this research. Quota sampling is a non random sampling and used for interview surveys. In quota sampling the population need to divide into specific groups. For each group calculate a quota based on available and relevant data. The interviewer will provided a assignment where states the number of cases in each quota from which they must collect data. Then the researcher will combine all the data collected by the interviewers to provide the full sample (Saunders et al., 1997). The reason to choose quota sampling because it is less costly and it can be set up very quickly.
For this research personal interview will be conducted with the managerial level employee. The interview of store managers, the departmental manager and the HR manager will be taken for the research. And the interview of different employee sub group will be taken, such as the night shift employee, day shift employee, employee of different departments. The quota will be made according to this different subgroup. Each quota will be provided a set of questionnaire.
After collecting the raw data it need to be analyzed. There should be a careful plan to analyze the raw data. This is a critical part of the research. Success of the report will depend on the plan of execution to process the whole data. Qualitative data and quantitative data analyze in different way. Before analyzing the quantitative data certain things need to take under consideration. The type of data, the format in which the data will be input to the analytical software, the impact of data coding on subsequent analysis, the needs to weight cases and the methods use to check data for errors. After collecting the data the research should sort and compile those data. The qualitative research require following activities. Categorisation, unitising data, recognising relationships and developing the categories you are using to facilitate this and developing and testing hypotheses to reach conclusions (Saunders et al., 1997).
Form of Presentation:
When the data collection is completed then data will be entered and tabulated and stored by the help of a computer. After this data will be analyze by specific software like Ms excel or SPSS. Diagram, figure and graph will be illustrated according to the needs of the research to show the clear picture of the findings of the research. Recommendation will be provided at the end of the research. This will help both the employer and the employee of Sainsbury and the other retail sectors in UK to develop strategy for motivating the employee.
While conducting the research some issues need to follow. The procedure of data collection should maintain properly. Reliability and quality of data should be ensured. The permission of the appropriate authority is necessary before doing the investigation. The information cannot be used for any other illegal or unfair purpose and the information must remain as the property of the researcher.
Time Frame: 12 Weeks