Motivation: Motivation is when a person is determined to do something. There are two different types of motivation which are Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation.
Intrinsic Motivation is when someone is motivated by internal factors, intrinsic motivation comes from the pleasure someone gets from the task itself or from the sense of satisfaction in working or completing working on a task. Intrinsic motivation does not mean that a person will not seek rewards; it just means that some external rewards are not enough to keep a person motivated. For example, most people's hobbies are intrinsically motivated, some people may build detailed model ships but few people carry that amount of passion into their workplace.
Extrinsic Motivation is when someone is motivated by external factors such as rewards like money; extrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from outside an individual. These rewards provide some satisfaction and pleasure that the task itself may not provide. Extrinsic motivation drives people to do things for rewards or pressures, rather than the fun of it, an extrinsically motivated person will work on a task even if they have little interest in it, because of the anticipated satisfaction that they will get some reward at the end of it. However extrinsic motivation does not mean that a person will not get any pleasure from working on or completing the task, it just means that the pleasure they anticipate is for some external reward which will continue to be a motivator even when the task that has to be done by the person may have little or no interest.
Maslow's Hierarchy Needs
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Abraham Maslow developed a theory which was about personality, which has influenced a number of different fields it also includes education. Maslow's theory accurately describes many realities or personal experiences (a model of human needs).Many people find that they can understand and relate to what Maslow's says. They tend to recognize some features of their behaviour or experiences which is true and identifiable.
Maslow has set up a Hierarchy Theory of Needs which is set up in five different stages/levels of basic needs. Beyond these needs, higher levels of needs exist. These include needs for understanding, appreciation and purely spiritual needs, it is expected that the person will not feel the second need until the demands of the first need has been satisfied, and the third need until the second has been satisfied and so on. Maslow's Hierarchy needs are as follows:
These are the biological/essential needs. They consist of needs of oxygen, food, water and relatively constant body temperature. These are the strongest needs because if a person was deprived of all needs, the physiological ones would come first in the person's search for satisfaction.
When all the physiological needs are satisfied and are no longer controlling the thoughts and behaviours, the needs for security can then become active. Adults have little awareness of their security needs expect in times of an emergency or periods of disorganisation in the social structure (such as arguing). Children often show the signs of insecurity and the need to be safe.
Needs of Love, Affection and Belongingness
When the needs of safety and for physiological wellbeing are satisfied, the next level of needs for love, affection and belongingness can emerge. Maslow states that people seek to overcome the feelings of loneliness and alienation. This also involves both giving and receiving love, affection and the sense of belonging.
Needs For Esteem
When the first three levels of needs are satisfied, the needs for Esteem can become dominant. These involve needs for both self-esteem and for the esteem a person gets from others. People have a need for a firmly based, stable, high level of self respect, and respect from others. When these needs are satisfied, the person will feel self confident and valuable as a person in the world. When these needs of the person become frustrated. The person may feel weak, worthless and helpless.
Needs For Self-Actualisation
When all of the foregoing needs are satisfied, then and only then the needs for self-actualisation can be activated. Maslow describes self-actualisation as a person's need to be and do that which the person was "born to do". Example "an artist must paint and a poet must write." These needs makes themselves feel signs of restlessness. The person may feel on edge, tense, lacking something and restless. If a person is hungry, unsafe, unloved or accepted or lacking self-esteem, it is very easy to know what the person is restless about. It is sometimes not always clear what a person wants when there is a need for self-actualisation.
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The hierarchic theory is represented as a pyramid, with the larger, lower levels representing the lower needs, and the upper point representing the need for self-actualisation. Maslow believes that the only reason that people would not move well in direction for self-actualisation is because of hindering placed in their way by society.
Another image of Maslow's hierarchy of needs with simple explanations.
Problems with the Maslow Model
There are several problems with the Maslow model when real-life working practice is considered they are the individual behaviour seems to respond to several needs (not just one), the same need (e.g. the need to interact socially at work) may cause quite different behaviour in different individuals, there is a problem in deciding when a level has actually been "satisfied", the model ignores the often-observed behaviour of individuals who tolerate low-pay for the promise of future benefits. There is little empirical evidence to support the model. Some critics suggest that Maslow's model is only really relevant to understanding the behaviour of middle-class workers in the UK and the USA (where Maslow undertook his research).
Taylor's Scientific Management
Fredrick W. Taylor he was born on the 20 March 1856 and died on the 21 March 1915, was the first man recorded history who deemed work deserving of systematic observation and study. He was an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. His theory was a influential and it enabled industries to move away from the "rule of thumb" management and be more efficient and prosperous.
Scientific management are methods for optimising the way that tasks are performed and simplifying the jobs enough so that workers could be trained to perform their specialised sequenced motions in one of the best ways. He was one of the intellectual leaders of the Efficiency Movement and his ideas, broadly conceived, were highly influential in the Progressive Era. Whist scientific management principles improved productivity and had a substantial impact on companies; they also increased the monotony of work.
F.W Taylor's Scientific management is as follows:
The development of science for each element of a man's work is to replace the old rule-of-thumb methods.
The division of work between workers and the management in equal shares, each group taking over the work for which it is best fitted instead of the normal condition in which responsibility largely rested with the workers.
The scientific selection of training and development of workers instead of allowing them to choose their own tasks and train themselves as best as they could.
The development of a cooperation and communication between workers and management to ensure that work would be carried out in accordance with scientifically devised procedures
F.W Taylor said "let workers work and managers manage" he also said "pay a decent day's pay for a decent day's work". A rational man- motivate to work had for pay.
The Scientific Management has two main disadvantages to account for two inherent difficulties. It ignores individual differences, the most efficient way of working for one person may be inefficient for another; it also ignores the fact that the economic interests of workers and management are rarely identical, so both the measurement processes and the retraining required by Taylor's methods would frequently be resented and sometimes sabotaged by the workforce.
Both difficulties were recognised by Taylor, but are generally not fully addressed by managers who only see the potential improvements to efficiency. Taylor believed that scientific management cannot work unless the worker benefits. In his view management should arrange the work in such a way that one is able to produce more and get paid more, by teaching and implementing more efficient procedures for producing a product.
Mayo's Human Relation's Approach
Mayo's Human Relation's theory emphasizes the impact of individual characteristics like race, sex, class, cultural background on organisational and group behaviour; they are attempts to find out what motivates workers.
Elton Mayo attempted to prove Taylor's scientific management principles, based on the belief that worker's productivity was affected by skills, conditions and incentives. A study was taken place over 5 years, where workers were placed in groups and their conditions changed. Changes in conditions and financial rewards had little or no effect on productivity. Increases were however, due to the fact that some groups had bonded and responded to people taking an interest in them.
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Mayo also found out that 'social man' was motivated by relationships with fellow workers responding to group pressure rather than management control. This was far more complex than Taylor's 'rational economic man' who was motivated by material gain alone.
Elton Mayo said "so long as commerce specializes in business methods which take no account of human nature and social motives, so long may they expect strikes and sabotage to be the ordinary accompaniment of industry.
Mayo human relations approach had some criticisms which were that there was no relationship between the workers satisfaction and productivity, leadership style and productivity and the decision making participation and satisfaction or productivity.
Macgregor's Theory X and Theory Y
Douglas Macgregor's Theory X(classical system theory) and Theory Y(human relations theory). Under Theory X, managers assume workers dislike and avoid work if possible, so they must use threats, and various control schemes to get workers to make adequate efforts against objectives. They also assume the average worker wants to be directed and prefers to avoid responsibility, has little ambition, and wants security above all.
Theory Y, on the other hand, assumes that individuals do not inherently dislike work, but see it as natural as play or rest. Furthermore, external control and threat isn't the only way to encourage productivity, and the most significant rewards are the "satisfaction of ego" and "self-actualization needs". Macgregor's Theory X and Y is really an attempt to classify how managers treat their workers and the assumptions managers make.
MacGregor's Theory X and Y
THEORY X is the assumption that:
The average person is lazy and has an inherent dislike of work
Most people must be coerced, controlled, directed and threatened with punishment if the organisation is to achieve its objectives
The average person avoids responsibility, prefers to be directed, lacks ambition and values security most of all.
Motivation occurs only at the physiological and security levels
The central meaning of Theory X is direction and control through a centralised system of organisation and the exercise of authority.
THEORY Y is the assumption that:
For most people work is as natural as rest or play
People will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which they are committed
Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement
Given the right conditions, the average worker can learn to accept and to seek responsibility
The capacity for creativity in solving organisational problems is distributed widely in the population
The intellectual potential of the average person is only partially utilised
Motivation occurs at the social, esteem and self-actualisation level as well as the lower levels
The central meaning for Theory Y is the integration of individual and organisational goals.
Herzberg's Two Factor Theory
In 1959 Frederick Herzberg and colleagues questioned 200 engineers about their current jobs asking them to recall a time when they felt good and bad about their jobs. The results were then summarised, the good feelings came from work itself-responsibility, advancement, achievement and recognition. These were called satisfiers (motivating factors). The bad feelings came from the context of the job/company policy, administration, supervision, salary, interpersonal relations and maintenance/hygiene factors. Herzberg concluded that satisfiers would motivate if present in a job but hygiene factors if absent might cause a person to leave but would not motivate a person if present.
Hygiene factors maintain people in their current state but do not motivate a person to work any harder. They do not lead to job satisfaction but to the absence of the absence of satisfaction. The opposite of job satisfaction is no job satisfaction.
Herzberg's high order needs are: advancement, responsibility, achievement, recognition and the job itself.
Herzberg's lower needs are: interpersonal, supervision, company policy, conditions and salary.
Herzberg called the un-satisfiers "hygiene factors" because they helped prevent dissatisfaction, but in themselves would never provide real satisfaction. Perhaps you have a good salary, in a secure job in a company you like, but there's something missing The key to job satisfaction is having one or more of the "motivator factors" present. Unlike some staff motivation theories, Frederick Herzberg theory is easy to remember, easy to explain and easy to use. By considering Herzberg's two factor theory, you can work out what unsatisfied your team, what motivates them and most importantly, what you can do to increase job satisfaction.
Hertzberg Two Way Theory had a criticism that it was simplistic because what motivates one person may be a dis-satisfier for someone else. For example, increased responsibility for one person may be a motivator as they can grow and develop in their role, allowing them to further their career. But to another person, increased responsibility can be a dis-satisfier, particularly if pay does not reflect the new role or if they are over-stretched already.
McClelland's Achievement Motivation
McClelland and his co-workers looked at the way people think, in different cultures and different sections of the world, they grouped people into three categories each representing an identifiable human motive or need: Need for Achievement (Nach), Need for Power (Npow), and Need for Affiliation (Naf); most people have some of these in their throughout but not all of the same strength.
The Need For Power (Npow) - Most managers have a high need for power. A high need for power in itself can lead to 'unconstructive authoritarianism'. If combined with a need for achievement it can lead to productive and satisfying results.
The Need For Achievement (Nach) - A Person who scores highly on this need will like personal responsibility, moderate and calculated risks and feedback on how he or she is doing. If it is moderated by other needs the high need achiever may tend to become too individualistic to be very successful.
The Need For Affiliation (Naf) - The individual with high need for affiliation alone will tend to be more concerned with developing and maintaining
relationships than with decision making. These people are often seen as ineffective helpers, because they are not task orientated enough. The need
for affiliation is present in most people but is not normally dominant successful individuals.
This theory can motivate workers by achievement which can be the strength of many businesses as it is more potential. Workers who have a need of high achievement are the ones with the main priorities because they know what they want to achieve.