Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides, maintain goal-oriented behaviors and do something that causes or influences a person to act or perform. Motivation is the creation of conditions that encourage an employee to achieve a level of performance.
1.2 Justification of study
An employee should be motivated because motivation is directly linked to job performance. If an employee is not motivated his performance will be low. The person will become less productive and less creative. Motivated employees help organization to survive.
1.3 Problem statement
The project will be about the motivation issue that is arising in a company. Several employees are having below par performance and the productivity of the company is very low. Clients are complaining that the service they are receiving is not up to the standards. We will investigate the motivation aspect of the company in order to find solutions of how to motivate the employees to have a high productivity.
Chapter 2: Profile of Organization
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Organization Name: ANAHITA RESORT
2.1 Mission and Vision of ANAHITA
"As an innovation organization, we create unique experience and a world of emotions in the ultimate residential hideaway through air passionate and inspired team."
2.2 Our Values
We continuously express our passion and exceed stakeholders' expectation by challenging ourselves professional growth.
Passionate Team for Excellence
We are an enthusiastic and ambitious team, happy at what we do. We share a common goal and we strive to deliver excellence.
Sense of Belonging
We are a family: our positive attitude based on open communication, trust and respect create a positive and constructive atmosphere.
Anahita Resort proposes the following activities throughout the year:
Personal fitness centre
Golf club house
A day at ile aux cerfs, etc.
Chapter 3: Literature Review
Motivation has been defined by different authors in various ways.
Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary says that motivation is the act or process of motivating, the condition of being motivated, a motivating for a stimulus or influence, incentive, drive.
David Myers thinks that "it is a need or desire that serves to energise behaviour and direct it towards a goal".
HawkinsÂ said "What drives or induces a person to behave in particular fashion, the internal force which initiates, directs, sustains and terminates all important activities. It influences the level of performance and the efficiency achieved.
Jones, George & Hill (2000) Motivation as physical forces that determine the direction of a person's behaviour, a person's level of effort and a person's level of persistence in the face of obstacles.
Wendy Pan: "Give reason, incentive, enthusiasm or interest that causes a specific action or certain behaviour".
A.H. Maslow developed a theoretical framework for understanding motivation. It arises from the needs and wants of an individual and drives the people through action and work by doing which he makes efforts to fulfil the needs and wants of an individual.
Rensis Likert- core management- important performed by a manager for actuating the people to work for the accomplishment of organisational objectives, effective and dynamic Instinet in hands of managers for inspiring the workforce and creating confidence in them.
Dalton E. McFarland, motivation is the way in which urges, desires, aspirations, control or explains the behaviour of human being.
Dublin thinks it is the complex of forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organisation. Motivation is something that moves that person to action and continues him in the course of action already initiated.
Finally S.Hall believes motivation to be a process where members of a group pull together to effect an organisation through loyalty and commitment.
3.2 Types of motivation
There are two types of motivation:
Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on an external pressure. Intrinsic motivation is based on taking pleasure in an activity rather than working towards an external reward.
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Extrinsic motivation refers to the performance of an activity in order to attain an outcome, which then contradicts intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the person, common extrinsic motivation are rewards like money and grades, and threat of punishment.
3.3.Models of motivation theories
The motivation theories are classified as:
Instrumentally theory states that rewards or punishment (carrot & stick) serve as the means of ensuring that a person behave or act in desire ways.
'Instrumentality' is the belief that if we do one thing it will lead to another and it states the people only work for money. It assumes that a person will be motivated to work if only he will get a reward and penalties for his performance. This theory is based on the principle of reinforcement which was promoted by psychologist B.F Skinner. The theory is also known as the Operant Conditioning Behaviorism of the law of effect. According to this, behavior is dependent upon its consequences. The persons are rewarded for behaving as require.
3.3.2 Content theory
Content theory is also known as the need theory. Content theories focus on the individual needs that activate tensions, influence satisfaction and behavior. Needs theory was developed by Maslow, who postulated the concept of a hierarchy of needs. They are physiological or biological, safety or security, social or belongingness, self-esteem and self-actualization.
Figure : Maslow hierarchy of needs
Physiological - the need for oxygen, food, water and sex.
Safety - the need for protection against danger, need of employment and of the family.
Social - the need for love, affection and acceptance as belonging to a group.
Self-esteem - the need to be stable and to be confidence and to have the respect of others.
Self-actualization - desire for personal achievement.
3.3.3 Process theory
Process theory is also known as cognitive theory because it is concerned with people's perceptions of their working environment and the ways in which they interpret and understand it. Process theory can be more useful to managers than needs theory because it provide realistic guidance on motivation techniques. The processes are:
Expectation (expectancy theory)
Goal achievement (goal theory)
Feelings about equity (equity theory)
Expectancy theory suggests that motivation is based on how an individual want something and how the individual think to get it.
Goal theory suggests that managers and subordinates should set goals for the individual on a regular basis and that reward push the individual in the accomplishment of goals.
Equity theory suggests that once a person has chosen an action that is expected to satisfy his needs, the person assesses the equity or fairness of the outcome. Equity is a person belief that he or she is being treated fairly by the treatment of others.
Links of motivation with recruitment and selection
Motivation factors are needed to motivate an employee to higher performance. The motivation factors are:
An individual before entering the organization want to know if the organization have all these factors that will help the person to achieve a good career in his life.
Measuring employee motivation is often a challenging prospect as motivation is a qualitative, rather than quantitative. Some of the ways how the ANAHITA Resort is measuring the performance of the employee are:
Customer satisfaction form
The resort conducts a survey of customer satisfaction. A form is being given to the customer to know if the customer likes the service that is being offered. By the form the management will know the performance of the employees and if the employees are motivated in their job.
Annual performance appraisals
Conduct annual performance appraisals to measure employee performance. Once the employee joins the resort the performance management begins. The performance of the employees will be measured throughout the year. The management will have a record for the performance of the employees, if the employees have a good performance in the resort that mean they are motivated to work in the resort.
3.5 Benefits of motivation
3.5.1 To the organization
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Motivation is very important for an organization since it contributes to a lot of benefits. Firstly, it provides an increase in labor efficiency which results in an increase in productivity. Secondly, motivation contributes largely in the coordination among employees and management. This helps to achieve corporate objectives and favorable corporate image.
Thirdly, motivation leads to a friendly working environment which helps in stability at work where objectives and goals are achieved easily without disputes among employees. Lastly, it reduces operation costs and labor turnover thus leading to the progress of the organization.
3.5.2 To the employee
Motivation is very important to employee since, it provided a lot of benefits to an organization. The benefits are:
Motivated employees work more efficiency to produce better product.
Higher Quality of Service or Product
Motivated employees give time, effort and brainpower to produce the best products or service.
When the employees increase productivity and higher quality of service and product, the organization will earn a lot of money.
Employee Retention Rates
If the employees are motivated the organization will be able to retain more of them. Every time the organization hires a new employee, the organization invests time to explain the work. This make the organization waste his time in the new employee where the organization can do other works. Existing employees save time and money.
Pleasant Work Environment
When employees are motivated, they are happy. It leads to a pleasant work environment and better productivity.
3.6 Cost of de-motivated employee
When employee is de-motivated, the employee may leaves or remains in the organization and it cost the organization in:
When the employee is de-motivated they will not give their best service in the organization therefore productivity will decrease. When the employee leaves the organization, the productivity will usually take a downturn because of fewer employees.
When the productivity has decrease, money will also be decrease into the organization. In addition the organization has to pay employee overtime until they can a replacement for the employee that left.
The organization have to spend time to motivated the employee and also spend their time and money in advertising, interviewing and looking for a replacement employee. De-motivated employees take more time that usual to complete their daily tasks thus resulting in less work done in more time.
Chapter 4: Analysis
Anahita resort is currently addressing motivation problems at work and how the organization is facing the problem are as follows:
4.1 Problem 1:
About eight month ago the motivation level of the staff was at an all time low. This was by the ignorance and stubbornness of the senior management. Some employees left the organization because they have low salaries, delayed payment, lack of respect and lack of listening. Therefore, the moral of the employees reflected in the performance of the organization.
The management decided to replace the senior management and proceeded to realign the organization with new strategies:
Generating more participation of employee in decision making process
Making the employees feel like a member of the organizational family
Recognition by circulating memos amongst employees
Life and accident insurance benefits
Establishing an "Open Doors" policy
Praise staff for their work
The senior management actions directly influence the employee motivational levels. The steps that have been taken improved the performance of the organization. Employee motivation is high and the attrition level is low. In the last few months, no employee has left the organization.
4.2 Problem 2:
Another problem that the organization is facing is that the employees lack of proper work culture. This becomes a problem initially. The entire employee used to sit around leisurely, chat with each other without doing their work. It was very difficult for the organization to make the staff committed towards the work. The employee motivation was extremely low. The staff used their mobile phone during their work. Staff turnover started in the organization.
So the organization decided to provide the employee with regular training and awareness building helped them to be more productive. Making the employee aware on the mission of the organization and help them to increase their involvement into the organization. Making the employee aware that "customer come first - not personal interests" and helped them to reach their goals. The management should be available as a resource for the staff. They should feel comfortable to approach the management with question and concerns and not feel as if they are imposing on your time. The management should give the employee guidance to do their work.
Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendations
Motivation in work environment is very essential to have an optimum level of productivity. Company must always find new ways to keep the employees motivated. De-motivated employees result in staff turnover. Decrease in productivity and work conflicts are also a result of de-motivation.
In order to maintain the motivation level of employees, managers must be given proper leadership and man management training so that they can help other employees in their daily work routines. New motivation schemes must be developed to ensure that the employees are well entertained in the work. Schemes like bonus, appraisals and praises must be used to keep employees motivated to gain the rewards.