It is a cardinal fact that todays modern organizations face a dynamic and changing business environment . They must realize that change is an inherent aspect of management and that to survive they need to adapt to these changes . The reasons for these changes are varied , ranging from having a multicultural workforce to technological trends that have an
impact on the functioning of the organization . Further , the sophistication of information technology and the globalization of organizations has brought new challenges and led to the development of new products . Successful organizations will be those that face these
challenges and develop a workforce that will be able to tackle the competitive business environment . To survive in such an environment ,organizations must , among other things , train and develop managers so that they are able to cope with new demands , new problems and new challenges .
Actually, it is necessary to outline two the most important statements are "people fear change it happens to them" and "truth is more important during periods of change and uncertainty than good news", because change is essential and inevitable part of the modern society and it significance is really dominant and great. Every public and private organization is subjected to rapid and frequent changes, because the world changes as well. Simply saying, it is practically impossible for the company to avoid changes, because they are universally accepted phenomena. Actually resistance to change doesn't mean that that the staff is against them, it means that they object only the way the changes are implemented. Staff resists to changes simply because the reason for the change is unclear for them. Negative reactions can be caused by, for example, by ambiguity in jobs, costs and equipment. It means that employees are willing to know what is going on in organization, especially if their jobs may be affected. Truth is also important, because every employee is certainly aware of uncertainty which may be caused by changes.
There are many causes of resistance to organization change . One factor is the fear of the unknown . Also , insecurity is another good reason . Further , lack of a felt need to change can be considered . Furthermore , change generates a threat to vested interests . In addition , contrasting interpretation of change is another hurdle . Finally , lack of resources is may be a big factor .
One factor is the fear of the unknown . For example , the drug distribution company has decided to relocate a few of its trusted head office personnel in New York to its Los Angeles , California and it London Branch . This is in line with the company 's policy to rotate the key employees to its different drug distribution centers in order to get first hand information on the different problems and successes of the branches . For , company normally plans to promote people to management position after learning the realities of branch administration . Some employees would prefer to hold off the transfer as along as possible because they fear the transfer to a new location . One good reason is that they have heard from their relatives , friends or from the news of gang wars and other violent crimes committed in the streets of Los Angeles .
In addition some employees may fear transferring to London because they fear that many of the British people especially the British employees of the drug company many not be too culturally friendly the employee being transferred to London . Also , some of the employees will fear that they not be able to maintain the same standard of work quality because they have to learn the new tricks of the trade to continue the smoothly operations of the branches . Clearly , one factor is the fear of the unknown (Shaw 2002 , 134 . Also , insecurity is another good reason . It is easier to bend a tree while it is young than when it has grown to a full grown tree.
Resistance to change is any attitude or behavior that characterizes a person 's unwillingness to make or support his or her superiors ' plans to change the current working environment . Consequently , the heads of these resisting persons must think of ways to overcome the opposition to the company 's approved changes . Management can look at resistance as a feedback mechanism from the lower ranks in the accomplishment of over
-all company goals .
Managing change is one of the greatest challenges that leaders face .Change is usually associated with dislodgment and uneasiness . In organizations , change causes stress and there is often difficulty in dealing with it . Leaders need to leverage on the forces for change latent in the organization to ensure that change is brought about successfully . They have to be clear about their role and plan of action . The translation of a powerful new strategy into effective action needs active leaders at the helm , a constructive corporate staff and a compatible organizational structure . Suitable management processes and a supportive corporate environment are essential for change to take place .
The management needs to keep in mind the following basic assumptions in effecting change (Gregory and Griffin , 1999 , p . 266 : Organizations are unique , and so are the working systems in them . Leadership is the engine that drives the vehicle called change in the organization . Leading change is a process , not an event . Managers in an organization know the direction of change better than outsiders such as consultants , psychologists etc . Change has to be driven , both bottom-up , and top-down . Employee-participation is the key that unlocks change . Change can involve both rational and non-rational situation . A proper sense of timing is most important in ensuring change.
Individual Resistance to Change:
The needs , perceptions and personalities of people form the basis for individual resistance to change . Individuals may resist change because of the following reasons (Philip , 2005 :Habit : Human beings tend to develop habits . A person may need to make several decisions everyday . Instead of considering all the possible alternatives for each decision , he depends on habits for most of his responses . These habits-based responses are also called programmed responses . When change is implemented , it may require employees to
forego or change some of their habits . This is often met with resistance because changing one 's habits is a painful task.
Different models of change help to build up an effective and efficient change management system. The most profound change model is Kurt Lewin's classical model being a three phase model of change which could be applied in organizations to overcome the resistance and to cope with change. As per this model the first step is to unfreeze the situation. The second step is to push the change ahead which is almost a transition state from the old state to the new state. The third phase is the refreezing state where the change is accepted and the systems and process gets adapted to the induced change. This leads to the new state of the organization where the environment is fully equipped with the new changed scenario with flow of operations in the newly designed pattern. The model is consistent with the selected principles, because it promotes the idea of truthfulness and shows that employees should fear changes to be implemented. (Nickols 2004).
Overcoming Individual and Structural Barriers to Change It is said that the majority of people do not truly understand what change is and the huge task needed to in order to implement change . People are often resistant to change . Leaders should always remember to never underestimate the magnitude of the forces that actually reinforce complacency and reinforce beng satisfied with the status quo . But failure to change can be attributed to more than simple bureaucratic malaise . Empirical studies have shown that there is strong resistance to change existing within two levels : individual and structural (Sherman ,
n .d .
At the individual level , people may be afraid of the unknown . Many people have this mindset that since everything is fine and is working , there should be no reason for change to transpire . Why should there be a need for structural and organizational change ? Organizational management should always consider the individual 's point of view . It is almost impossible to implement structural change if there is no existing program in order to address the individual 's concerns . Many are inherently cynical if not antagonistic about change , particularly from reading about the notion of "change " as if it is a mantra . Many doubt if there are authentically effective means to accomplish major organizational change . It is then a cultural issue in part in order to address the individual 's concerns . Often , there are conflicting goals in the organization , e .g , to increase resources to accomplish the change yet be able to concurrently cut costs to remain viable .
That is why much of organizational change literature discusses needed changes in the culture of the organization , including changes in members ' values and beliefs and in the way they enact these values and beliefs (Bahe , 2005 . Organizational change management should always consider how an individual would react to the proposed plan of action . The proponents should consider how this program would affect the current culture and how would if affect an individual 's emotional status in the company . More often that not , leaders often mistake people as robots -without feeling and without thought to follow what ever whimsical decision the management would play . This is not the case however . Management should always consider people as people .