Models Of National Culture And Motivation Commerce Essay


To research with how case study of two business based in Singapore seek to motivate employees from Singapore, China, India and the Philippines. These businesses are Global Recruitment Consultancy and Risheek Global.

To assess the most effective method available to motivate employee from these different culture.

Employee Motivation is an important area because it is strongly reviewed and employees job performance and so to different aspects of business performance such as productivity, quality and therefore profit, in a globalising world, firms are increasingly employing foreign national, and so need how motivation methods may need to be adopted to the needs of different national culture.

3. Literature Review

National Culture is a way of life of a group of people, the configuration of all the more or less stereotyped patterns of learned behaviour which are handed down from one generation to the next through means of language and imitations. Constituting the distinctive achievements of human groups are the core of culture, involves many traditional ideas and especially their attached values (Geert Hofstede, 1980).

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Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. It is internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested in and committed to a job, role, or subject, and to exert persistent effort in attaining a goal (Michael Armstrong, 2001).

3.1 Models of National Culture and Motivation

In the mid 1970's, the Dutch academic, Geert Hofstede, defined organisational culture is an idea system that is largely shared between organisational members, by filtering out IBM's dominant corporate culture from his data on IBM's national subsidiaries, Hofstede was able to statistically distinguish cultural differences between countries. Hofstede classified a county's cultural attitudes as five dimensions which are Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism versus Collectivism, Masculinity versus Femininity and Time Orientation (Hofstede, Geert 1980).

According to Dutch theorist, Fons Trompenaars the field of cross-cultural communication and international management has developed a model of differences in national cultures. This model includes seven dimensions, which are believed to shed light on how people in different national cultures interact with each other to portray different dilemmas of everyday life. The different dimensions are useful in understanding different interactions between people from different national cultures, and can give guidance to expatriates having managerial tasks in different cultures. The seven dimensions are Universalism versus particularism, Individualism versus collectivism, Neutral versus emotional, Specific versus diffuse, Achievement versus ascription, Sequential versus synchronic and Internal versus external control.(Fons Trompenaars,1997)

Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in 1940-50s USA, and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development. Indeed, Maslow's ideas surrounding the Hierarchy of Needs concerning the responsibility of employers to provide a workplace environment that encourages and enables employees to fulfil their own unique potential.

According to Maslow's theory, he has classified his Hierarchy of needs into five stages which will be Physiological needs, Safety needs, Social needs, Esteem needs and finally Self-Actualization (Abraham Maslow, 1954).

Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory, also known as the two-factor theory, has

Received widespread attention as having a practical approach toward motivating

Employees. Herzberg perceived motivational and hygiene factors are being separated into two dimensions affecting separate aspects of job satisfaction. This belief differed from the traditional approach of viewing job satisfaction and dissatisfaction as opposite ends of the same continuum (Herzberg, 1966).

Equity theory focuses on individuals perceptions of how fairly they are treated compared with others. It is been developed by J.Stacy Adams, equity theory proposes that people are motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they expect for performance. According to the equity theory, if people perceive their compensation as equal to what others receive for similar contributions, as they will believe that their treatment is fair and equitable. People evaluate equity by a ratio of inputs to outcomes (J.stacy Adams, 1965).

Expectancy theory suggests that motivation depends on individual’s expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards. Expectancy theory is associated with the work of Victor Vroom. Expectancy theory is concerned not with identifying types of needs but with the thinking process that individuals use to achieve rewards. Expectancy theory is based on the relationship among the individual’s effort, the individual’s performance and the desirability of outcomes associated with high performance (Victor H.Vroom, 1964)

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Goal-setting theory is developed by Edwin Locke and Gary Latham, proposes that managers can increase motivation by setting specific, challenging goals that are accepted as valid by subordinates, and then helping people track their progress toward goal achievement by providing timely feedback (Lock and Latham)

3.3 Research on National Culture and Motivation

According to the research there has been general upsurge in cultures and managerial research in the last decades done by Osarumwense Iguisi (March, 2009). He did a research to confirm profound differences in cultural values for motivation among the five countries with collective interest playing a more important role in Africa-Nigeria. The main key points which he has emphasized on are about the meaning of motivation and how it was develop. It was also then followed by, the two motivational theories by Hierarchy Maslow and Herzberg’s two factor Theory. He also used the National Culture theory by Hofstede work-goals motivation theory.

The Research studies the influence of culture on employee motivation and suggests framework for a cross-cultural employee motivation study by Hyeong Deug Kim & Dr. T.J.Kamalanabhan (2009). This researcher has covered a few main ideas which are related to my title: Cross-cultural employee motivation as a critical success factor and Employee motivation theories in cultural perspective.

Nothing on the national culture featured on this research.

4. The Research Strategy and Methodology

Research method

The research methods are vital as the methodology as a whole refers to the process and the procedural framework within which the research is conducted. These are the following method which will be used for the dissertation:-Primary Research and Secondary Research.

4.1 Primary Research

Primary research refers to the collection of fresh data, which means that has not been published by anyone before. All the data has been collected with purpose. Primary research was essential to the researcher because it has brought in validity which makes up the quality of the research.


Questionnaires will be useful to the researcher, as they enabled the collection of standardized information. I would be sending out questionnaire to managers and employees via email or Facebook. The questionnaires will be based on my literature review of motivation theories and techniques.


Interview is a qualitative method research. The reason Interview was chosen is because purely because natural answers and nothing should be predefined or taken for granted was a need for the research. I would follow up with the interviewer to help identify possible cultural reasons for motivation differences. I would be also interviewing managers and employees from different national culture through Skype or Msn Messenger.

4.2 Secondary Research

The secondary research would be more to academic research. I will study the journals to get the actual fact of Motivational skills from different national culture and to be more specific and valid findings. Books and online researcher would also be one resource. All the journal and cartilages been used will be references to avoid plagiarism. I would also do a case study based on two companies which is Global Recruitment Consultancy and Risheek Global which based in Singapore. Global Recruitment Consultancy is a firm based on recruiting and outsourcing foreign workers to potential clients. Risheek Global is a company based on logistics and shipping.

5. Logistical and ethical Consideration

I have attached the logical and ethical consideration form.

6. Outcomes

By carrying out this research the outcomes would be the research will be able to classify the basic skills and what motivates the employees and to get the best out of them in a right way.

7. Planned Timetable