Solid Freeform Fabrication is a technique which is being used to describe a series of manufacturing processes which aids in the process of production of solid objects with a substantial amount of energy pumped into the process. It provides the potential to create various products and parts using the local control of the composition (LCC). This has also lead to the development of various representations, methods, rules and designs that are needed to allow the designing of the parts and the fabrication of various parts of the same. The printing method using inkjet printers is referred to the three dimensional printing and this three dimensional printing helps in the prototypical Solid Freeform Fabrication. The ultimate aim of this study is to provide the manufacturers and many other scholars and researchers with tools that are sufficient to allow designer to create successful solid parts for the using a series of fabrication techniques. The ultimate goal of this project is identify and overcome various barriers to the distributed design and the fabrication of various parts using three dimensional printing on the prototypical Solid Freeform Fabrication process.
There always happens the dispersion of the inks when they are mixed with various solutions. The ceramic ink could disperse into two kinds of inks such as the aqueous ink and other inks. This study paper will also concentrate on the dispersion of these inks and how this ink disperses into two other forms. The next thing that this study will concentrate upon is the dispersion of the glass enamel into liquid. This thereby helps in the prototyping of various freeform solid parts building and production technologies.
Though there have been various improvements on the various aspects of printing and in the printing using the direct inkjet printing method there is a necessity for us to understand the various the various technologies that is being used in the understanding of the same and in the development of the Solid Freeform Fabrication of the products and parts like ceramics and other stuffs. The ultimate aim of developing this research paper is that it would be used to determine various improvements and the advances that have been brought about in the printing technologies and in the printing field. There have also been more factors such as the quality of the printing inks and their composition structures and various other factors that are related to the improvement of the printing materials. It is also necessary for us to understand the various methods in which the printing inks disperse when they are mixed with or used for printing. The composition of the printing inks and the enamel has also to be determined and understood especially when printing the materials in glass. Thus this research paper would address all the issues and hence the ultimate aim of understanding the printing using the Solid Freeform Fabrication method would be determined and addressed.
Solid Freeform Fabrication was formerly referred to as rapid prototyping, layered manufacturing, additive fabrication, rapid manufacturing and additive manufacturing. Until the recent past, many of the prototypes that are being used in the manufacturing industry to produce the products have been because of the construction of a product by very skilled persons using the 2 dimensional products that are being developed from the engineering drawings. Not with the upcoming of technologies such as Computer Aided Designing (CAD) etc, the time consuming and expensive process has been simplified upon these factors. Solid Freeform Fabrication technique is the new model that has replaced the old previous methods of manufacturing.
Inkjet printing is generally a very familiar method which has been used to print papers in the computer for a while now. In the industries it was widely used to print the dates and other information onto the cans and various kinds of bottles such as a coca cola. The recent development of the Solid Freeform Fabrication to develop products layer by layer has lead many people to increase their interest in fabricating the multi layer parts and circuits by direct inkjet printing techniques.
The structural ceramics have failed to live up to the expectations with the emergence of Solid Freeform Fabrication the electronic applications of ceramics has developed into a major industry. Recently the emergence of continuous inkjet printers recently in the building of structures coupled with the necessary requirements of speed and high throughput has made it an important emerging factor. The 3D printing system for the solid fabrication and printing has proved to be an important and very successful factor in the making of sintered ceramic moulds for the purpose of metal casting.
Among all the Solid Freeform Fabrication processes the three dimensional printing process using the inkjet printing method helps us more in a way and is an important factor in the development of fabrication of various parts. The three dimensional printing of the parts helps in the local composition control by analogous color inkjet printing of the required parts. The former method was that the printing actually happened in the 2D form which has now transformed to the three dimensional form. The primitive method of printing in the 2D form has now been eliminated and the three dimensional printing method has been adopted to bring about changes in the industry and on the industry requirements of the production of various parts such as ceramics.
The use of ceramics in the production of the prototypes and many small series production could be now made from with the help of Solid Freeform Fabrication. This method is actually a new method of fabrication which is actually helping people in the mould less manufacturing of the ceramic products. Actually the three dimensional inkjet printing which is used to make various parts and products is termed as Solid Freeform Fabrication. Actually Solid Freeform Fabrication is a mould less manufacturing technique which allows the manufacturers or the producers of a product to sequentially deposit slices of products to build up an object. The use of various inkjet printing systems such as the thermal inkjet printers and piezoelectric inkjet printers helps in the study of the products and the materials that are in need of.
The common way of printing on glasses was using the traditional painting stained glasses and it was the most common and comfortable way of painting the glasses. But with the evolution of technology the painting with the glass enamels has grown significantly to popularity. Traditionally there have been many kinds of enamel ink composition that has been used to develop solid glasses and various methods of application of the enamel have also been practiced for long. Interests have been developed in the market to produce various kinds of enamels such that it fills inside the gap between the glass sheets such that it does not conducts electricity is another method of the same. The dual firing process is the common method of using the enamel for the coloring of the glasses. There have been various attempts made to make changes to the composition of the glass enamels over the periods one of which includes adding various oxygen releasing agents to the glass enamel composition. There is also an interest in the industry to develop enamel coating in between two glass sheets in the second surface position. Apart from this there is also a requirement for the screen printing of the glass enamel as it only requires low heat cycle for drying of the enamel on the surface of glass. There is also a necessity to identify a combination of enamel paste that could have a potentially sustainable shelf life when stored in unopened containers and when they are being stored at a normal temperature such as a room temperature (Say 40 degrees).
The dispersion of ceramic inks is commonly of into two types. One is the aqueous ink and the second kind is the other type of inks. The ceramic inks itself can be classified into two kinds. They are solvent based ink and the water based inks. The solvent based inks have the vehicle as an organic solvent while the water based inkâ€™s vehicle is water.
Research rationale and motivation
The emergence of Solid Freeform fabrication and the high success of the Solid Freeform Fabrication have proved very much to the manufacturing industry and help the industry in terms of production of solid particles along with the help of direct inkjet printers. Direct inkjet printers help in the production of solid particles using the Solid Freeform Fabrication technology. The layer by layer production of solid materials such as ceramics helps in producing or manufacturing high quality products at a higher speed and strength.
Fairly this is also a new field of study as the Solid Freeform Fabrication is helping people in the elimination of flaws. On the other hand the products manufactured through Solid Freeform Fabrication helps in the potential increase of the strength of the product by improving on the toughness of the same. But these strategies have been found only as partly successful. Ceramic capacitors and other ceramic solid form products are mostly based on multiple layers, each of which are several layers thick and are of high dielectric constant ceramics.
The purpose of the motivation to this study is not only because of the above factors but the usefulness of the technology in many other fields such as in the production of tablets in the pharmaceutical industry using the layer by layer method of Solid Freeform Fabrication. The recent experiments of quite a few researchers in the use of Solid Freeform Fabrication techniques to directly prototype functional ceramic parts has also helped in the freeform design and utilization of ceramic structures.
Also the potential of Solid Freeform Fabrication to fabricate various heterogeneous products has made it more important study about the topic and the importance of the same. Also as it is one of the most rapidly growing techniques for fabricating solid materials like ceramics many scholars and researchers are not aware of what other possibilities this Solid Freeform Fabrication technique is capable of. Hence it has created a curiosity among the scholars and many manufacturing people to identify the real potential of the Solid Freeform Fabrication technique.
There have been notable changes in the ceramics manufacturing space in the recent past decade and many notable advances have been made. With the emergence of â€œtop downâ€Â methods such as inkjet printing and the bottom up methods such as self assembly for synthesis techniques have made it more important to study and understand the process.
This study will also use the motivation from the other kinds of fabrication and the dispersion of the ceramic ink into two other kinds of inks such as the aqueous ink and other kinds of inks. As the study of dispersion would help in the three dimensional printing and in the Solid Freeform Fabrication technique it is more important that we consider this topic. Then the dispersion of the glass enamel would also help in the production of various parts using Solid Freeform Fabrication.
There are many research problems pertaining to which the research paper is made. The evolution and the development of the direct inkjet printing on the Solid Freeform Fabrication has to be considered and has to be studied in order to understand the procedures and the principles based on which the concept of direct printing on Solid Freeform Fabrication works with respect to the inkjet printing. There is also a necessity to understand the development of the direct inkjet printing on the Solid Freeform Fabrication and the recent advances made and the recent techniques that is being handled in order to bring about more knowledge and developments in this space and hence more advances which could help in saving time and the costs that is being incurred in the manufacturing. The next research issue is that the recent development in the method of printing in the glass and enamel. Since various people are using various methods of printing on glass and enamel it becomes more necessary to study on the various methods of printing on the glass and the enamel that would help us know on which is the most widely used method apart from the traditional basic method.
The commonly used printing inks usually disperse into various forms and it is necessary for us to identify and learn the various forms into which the inks disperse. Especially it becomes necessary for us to learn on how the ceramic inks disperse into the aqueous ink and the other forms of inks and how they react when mixed with other forms of solvents. Then the next issue is that there is an essentiality for us to understand what kinds of enamels are used in the printing of various substances including the solid products such as the glasses. With the usage of the enamels for printing on various kinds of products it is essential for us to understand the various compositions that are required for the production of enamel for printing. It is also necessary for us to understand the various forms into which the enamel would disperse when they are printed on the glass surface. Hence it could help us in understanding the various dispersion forms of the enamel.
It has also become necessary and essential to learn about the various advances and the recent techniques that has emerged and evolved recently in order to understand the evolution and the development of the printing industry. The main problem and the major problems of the printing industry would be addressed and would be developed and necessarily have to be substantiated and this research study would be mainly concentrating on the addressing of the above issues thereby to provide a clear schema of understanding various concepts and developments of the technology.
Research aims and objectives
The main research objectives of Solid Freeform Fabrication are as follows. These research objectives aim at studying the development of inkjet printing and in the studying of the purpose of inkjet printing in Solid Freeform Fabrication technology that is being used. The main research objectives of the project are as follows.
Research Objective 1:
To review recent development of direct inkjet printing on solid freeform fabrication.
This objective could help in reviewing the recent development of direct inkjet printing and the impact of direct inkjet printing on Solid Freeform Fabrication. This study will also help in clearly understanding the evolution of the direct inkjet printing techniques.
Research Objective 2:
To review the method of printing of glass and enamel.
This objective will help in the reviewing f the method of printing on glass and enamel and on how to improve the same. This study will also concentrate on the uses and the recent evolution of the method of printing of the various products such as glass and enamel.
Research Objective 3:
To investigate the dispersion of ceramic ink into aqueous and other ink.
Through this objective we would be able to study and understand the various kinds of dispersion of the ceramic inks and other kinds of inks and on how they disperse. Generally they disperse into two kinds of inks and this would concentrate on the aqueous ink and the other kinds of inks that are involved and are the resultants of the process of dispersion.
Research Objective 4:
To investigate and review the composition of enamel for printing.
This objective would mainly concentrate on the required composition of the enamel for the printing of the inks on the solid particles which would thereby help in the Solid Freeform Fabrication technique. This objective could also help us in understanding the various compositions of enamels that are used for printing on glass and other ceramic objects.
Research Objective 5:
To investigate the dispersion of glass/enamel into liquid.
This research objective would help us to understand the dispersion of the glass enamel and how it disperses into a liquid when there is a necessity of the dispersion for printing. This would also try to understand that why the glass enamels disperses into a liquid.
There would be various research questions which would be asked to understand the purpose of the project and hence to satisfy our research goals and the research objectives that are necessary in order to understand the basic objective of studying this paper. The various questions that would be asked in order to satisfy the research objectives are as follows.
Research Question 1:
How has direct inkjet printing evolved in the Solid Freeform Fabrication technique to produce various kinds of products?
This research question would help in understanding of the purpose of the paper and in the evolution of the direct inkjet printing over a period and in the production of various Solid Freeform Fabrication based products. With this research question we would also be able to understand various other processes and the various methods of using a direct inkjet printing and other forms of printing on Solid Freeform Fabrication of the products and various parts that are either produced in ceramics and glasses. This question will also help us to satisfy our research objective 1.
Research Question 2:
How is the method of printing used to print on glass and enamel?
This would help us to study and understand the various methods of printing on the glass and enamel and would help us to satisfy the research objective 2 in the above give criteria. This also would help us in studying the various methods and the importance of printing on glass and enamel. The alternatives that are used in the printing of the glass using enamel and the various methods through which the enamel is used to print is the glasses could also be identified and studied with this research question.
Research Question 3:
How is the ceramic ink dispersed? Kindly explain about the aqueous and other forms of inks that are the resultants of the dispersion of the ceramic ink.
This research question helps us in understanding the dispersion of the ceramic inks and how it is used in the dispersion. It also helps us to understand what kinds of inks result as result of the dispersion of the ceramic ink and how would this help for the printing processes. This research question would also help us in understanding the research objective 3 which could be found in the previous section.
Research Question 4:
What is the composition of enamel that is used for printing?
This research objective would help us in understanding at what are the requirements of the enamel and what percentage of the components are to be mixed in order to arrive at a fine composition of the enamel for the printing of the product. This would also help us to understand the various combinations and compositions of the enamel that is currently being used for the printing purposes and the future trends could also be identified if anyone pioneers with any advanced composition mixtures and composition techniques. This research question would also help us in understanding the research objective 4.
Research Question 5:
How the glass/enamel does disperse into a liquid? What are products that are found due to the dispersion of the glass/ enamel as a result of dispersion into a liquid?
This research question would help us to understand how the glass/ enamel would disperse into a liquid and what would be the products that are produced as a result of the dispersion process thereby understanding the various technologies for dispersion and the resultant products of dispersion. It is also essential to understand the various techniques of dispersion of the the enamel as a result of the printing on the glasses which would primarily be considered. This research question is a resultant of the research objective 5 and would satisfy the same.
Structure of dissertation:
The structure of the dissertation would be made in such a way that it helps in the easy understanding of the various research objectives. The research problems would be defined first and then the research objectives would be set first. Then after setting the research objectives the various research questions would be developed such that the research questions address the various requirements that have been put forth by the research problems and the research objectives. Then the research answers would be addressed and developed and the research answers that has been collected through various sources would be learnt and understood and would be represented in such a way that it is easily understandable by everyone who looks into the research paper. The dissertation would actually start with the development and various advances that is involved in the printing technologies and in the manufacturing of the products. The introduction and the background would actually provide a brief understanding of the business techniques and technologies that is required for the development of the research and paper and would act as a starter. The data requirements and the assumptions and the hypothesis of the project and the paper would follow then following which the research findings and the understanding of the various concepts would be stressed and provided to the readers. The outline of the dissertation would be as follows.
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION.
1.2. Background/Context of the Study.
1.4 Project Aim..
1.5 Project Objectives.
1.7 Desk Based Research.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW.
2.2. Direct inkjet printing
2.3. Solid Freeform fabrication and its recent trends
2.4. The ceramic ink and its dispersion
2.4.1. Aqueous ink and other forms of inks
2.5. Dispersion of glass enamel
2.6. Composition of enamel for printing on glass
2.7. Recent advances in the printing industry
2.8. Discussion and conclusion
CHAPTER 3: DATA HYPOTHESIS AND METHODOLOGY.
3.3. Methodology and Sampling.
Chapter 4: EMPIRICAL RESULTS.
4.2. Basic Results.
4.2.1 Summary of Direct inkjet printing on Solid Freeform Fabrication
22.214.171.124. Factors influencing the Solid Freeform fabrication
126.96.36.199. Various requirements of the Solid Freeform Fabrication
188.8.131.52. Difference between Solid Freeform Fabrication and the various other forms of fabrication
4.2.2. The ceramic ink and the use of ceramic ink for the purpose of printing
184.108.40.206. Using Ceramic ink for printing on glasses.
220.127.116.11. Dispersion of the ceramic ink.
18.104.22.168. Aqueous ink
22.214.171.124. Other forms of ink
4.3. Printing on glass/ enamel
4.3.1. Composition of the enamel
4.3.2. Dispersion of the enamel
4.3.3. Printing methods on the glass using the enamel
4.4. Main Results
4.3.1 Advantages of direct inkjet printing on Solid Freeform fabrication
4.3.2 The new age printing advances and the developments
4.3.3. Major factors that are influencing the development of the printing methods
4.3.4. Various compositions and combinations of the Ceramic inks and the enamels
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS.
5.1 Summary and findings of the Study.
5.2. Implications and Recommendations.