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I am reflecting the situation during the year 2007 when I was one of the members of a small team of eight in a marketing company named Sale ways in Nepal. The company was a supplier of different goods in the market. Because of its punctuality it was earning well. A decision was taken to expand its branch in the city. Numbers of employees were added and new ones were given good opportunities to handle the branch along with some of the previous ones. There were many share holders but one of the seniors was handling the company. In the branch the newly employed staff became unsuccessful to handle the supply within the time limit because of lack of training. But the newly employed staffs belong to the senior partner. So strong conflict arouse there between them. They blamed the management of taking bad decision to expand the branch and select untrained staff. Because of irregularity and lack of sufficient skill in supply in new staff the market started to fall down. Clashes aroused between the partners.
As a result workload was added to previous staff, low job satisfaction was experienced, the mission of the company was void, gap was created between the partners, the common goal was destroyed and no motivation to work remained in the staff. Experienced ones felt unappreciated and unrewarded because of their increased workloads and constant reward and allowances.
The attitudes and perceptions of the employees were directly influenced by various existing problems, especially because of the partiality of the management to them. An attitude is tendency of individuals to respond in either a positive or negative way to a particular situation, person or something in the environment [wood et.al.2006, p.55].Perception is the process "through which people receive, organize and interpret information from their environment", [Wood et.al.2006, p.62].People's perceptions are affected by their attitudes [Goleman et.al.2002, p.12], needs, experiences, motives, values and personality [Wood et.al.2002, p.63].
Moreover, the experienced staff felt a gap between them and new ones in the same position. The level between them was made wider but in fact the employees wanted instead of the employees' quest of equal appreciation of the equal work efforts. Staffs want to be respected for who they are people and to know their contribution of work efforts is contributed. [Wood et. al. 2006].
Employees noticed distinct negative attitude about the bonuses and the pay being different in spite of their equal work effort. Therefore, it should be realized the most important attitude relevant in the work places job satisfaction that indicates the positive, negative degree of feelings toward work, pay, promotions, supervision and co-workers and other various job facts[Wood et. al.2006]. In this case, senior management may have 'perceived' unmotivated employees as being unappreciative of their jobs without any notice in the economic situation causing the workload increased due to the expansion of the company, which leads to the following discussion on 'differences of perception' in the workplace.
There was the lack of vivid objective creating different perceptions of work and organizational goals. Relating to this, management in power needed to be careful of the serving own self and blaming others when it is easy, so that people show outer intention when showing failures or unacceptable habits perceived to be out of their own capture- our intentional error is also allowing us to evaluate through our internal circumstances. Either behaviour lays praise or blame, thus recognising this bias in ourselves helps us better understands as managers the psychology of perception in order to create fairness in the workplace.
Two Motivational Theories and impact of events in scenario upon the motivation of staff [529 words]
The following two theories' relevant to the scenario will be discussed: Expectancy Theory and Herzberg's theory.
Theory One: Process Theory-Vroom's expectancy Theory
The employees were highly unmotivated due to undervalue for their work effort as a reward program was not existing; a promotional program was not launched to progress their career as it was necessary factor for the enhancement of the company. There will be motivation to employees to achieve promotion if they see high performance and hard work load to upgrading of the post. Victor Vroom's expectancy equation shows the Motivation [M], Expectancy [E], Instrumentality [I]and Valence [V] are all related by the equation:
M=EÃ-IÃ-V, Therefore if any single equational factor is missing a reduction will occur in motivational matter.
The employees would have low expectancy due to the lack of good systems in the workplace.[E],therefore high level of work performance does not only depend upon high pay and advantages[I].A formal reward system is not linked to high merit pay for low or high performance[V].As the expectancy reasoning applies, the senior partner should create a work setting where staff value work contributions relating to organisational needs as a path toward their own rewards and outcomes[Wood et.al.2006]
Although merit pay is both highly valued and considered accessible to the individual, its motivational power can be cancelled out by negative effects of high performance on the individuals' social relationship with co-workers. Expectancy logic argues that a manager must try to understand individual through process, then actively intervene in the work situation to influence them. If the same place workers may have difficulty believing that there will be instrumental links between their current performance and valued outcomes if their jobs are insecure. Extrinsic rewards are positively valued work outcomes that the individual receives from some other person in the works setting. Intrinsic rewards are positively valued work out comes that the individual receives directly as a result of task performance; they do not require participation of another person. In this context the newly joined employee was rewarded without evaluating his performance but only because of senior partners favour.
Theory Two: Herzberg's Two Factor Theory:-
Theory of Fredrick Herzberg is relevant to the scenario as it differentiates between work dissatisfaction[hygienic factors]and satisfaction[motivators] as management needs succession of two outcomes to simultaneously enlarge job satisfaction and minimize job dissatisfaction .As motivation is low across the branches ,factors such as achievement, recognition, ,advancement, responsibility and growth should be considered and used to increase job satisfaction, thus should be factored into the job and workplace[Wood et.al.2006]
Hygienic factors are associated with job context i.e. they are the factors related to a person's work setting. Improving working conditions [for example special offices and air conditioning] involves improving a hygienic or job context, factor].It will prevent people from being dissatisfied with their work but will not make them satisfied.
Hygienic factors missing in the company are based around inter personal relationships with a lack of communication, individual feedback, and formal policies and procedures implementation. This theory also draws strong attention to the value of job design and motivation.
Group Dynamics and Teamwork: (407words)
The team was given with certain tasks of supplying goods in the market. Each individual has got the duty to perform but they had to report to the management as one. Even though the team was responsible if all the supplies were handled within the time limit to the fixed customer. There must not be any gap of misunderstanding between them. But the new employees were not regular in their duty which caused workload to others and they could not perform the given responsibility within the time directed to them. The remaining work was loaded in the head of old and experienced staff because they know how to handle it well. Meetings were called many times but the decision making process was isolated and this strategy became the silent norm for the job satisfaction to most of the employees because their voice and experience was not heard. Even though this norm is of the silent subconscious, opportunities to air doubts and objectives should be encouraged by leaders if they want independent feedback from subordinates, (Janis in Wiesner 2008). Staffs were not given the chance to voice their intensions as group and departmental meetings were scant, if at all existent. Company cross-communication did not flow and there created a gap of verbal bridge between them.
As a result, team work did not exist and social interaction was limited resulting in employees feeling isolated and unmotivated that group meetings were a ritual reserved only for senior management. It is known that the objectives for different types of teams are related to employee involvement, problem solving, self- management, cross-functional and virtual teams, hence teams need to be established for these reasons (Wiesner 2008).
Moreover, factors that grow team cohesion such as inter-group competition frequent inter-action and personal attraction have no chance of occurring while team meetings are nonexistent. The lack of team spirit and schedule made it hard for the company to be creative or innovative as values, norms and beliefs play a supportive or inhibitive role or innovation depending up on how they affect group behaviour. The factors for the team development are vision/goals, team selection and information, training/skills development and supporting culture and management systems.
All staff in the company cannot be innovative or creative it they have a nonexistent shared mission or vision. A holistic approach is required to link team culture, role, key, competencies and systems of reward to be alignment with business goals and objectives.
Task 3: Recommendations
While viewing the discussion above, the following recommendations are made regarding actions that could be taken to manage the (i) attitudes and perceptions of staff (ii) motivation of staff and (iii) Group dynamics functioning in the scenario.
Managing Attitudes and Perceptions
Peer Assistance Network
The senior management must create a networking situation among the peers for example communicating with each other, solving common goals, peer to peer interaction in the office. This concept is equal to employee assistance program.
Because of the feeling of negativity the senior management must be careful about the attitudes of the employees. Unfavourable attitudes may bring the destructions like resignation, costing the company financially. Therefore, reward programs manage setting the attitudes long term and it also can develop mutual understanding. Freedom of initiatives and working condition must be give to the employees so that they can utilise their talent which can be fruitful to the company.
Feedback: departmental equality and cross-communication.
Feedback: departmental equality and cross-communication should provide a framework for team and new recruit inclusiveness. Employees in the company were not aligned because all the factors were being missed. Therefore, poor communications do not develop positive attitudes amongst staff member (Lawton in Human Resource Management International Digest 2008).
Assistance in management.
As the senior management was not aware of the faults that he did so the management is needed assistance to guide in the right track to enhance the future of the company. As all decisions taken always by every leader are not correct and far sighted.
Process and content theories of motivation should be introduced as an integrated model.
Process and content theories of motivation should be introduced as an integrated model for example Lyman et. al's mode extension i.e. Vroom's expectancy theory building on the performance equation linked to rewards returning to job satisfaction. The contents theory will guide to high level of individual satisfaction contributing to motivational environment. Improvement in team networking and relations a way.
Actions to Improve Group and Team Dynamics.
To improve the team dynamics essential things must be corpora ted.
A certain set of essential things for team work such as specific goals team purpose and clear approach creates inclusiveness, (Katzenbach & smith in Wiesner 2008). The management should operate the team building program such as collective group efforts. promotive programs should be initiated to improve their working efforts.
Task 4: (268 words)
Reflection in relation to conclusions drawn from the scenario
The inert attitude of the employees is a very difficult thing to be changed. To understand the behaviour of the employees is the succession of the management. Change in the prevailing approach is necessary to repower the employees.
All the previous rewards were changed i.e. the reason for low job satisfaction so high quality leadership using various approaches to improve motivation is required to achieve the success. The company needs a shared vision instead of a sole vision with the promise of upgrading all employees which may take a long time but the result will certainly be positive. To ensure the sustainable growth the senior partners should motivate and empower the staffs which are the key ingredient of success in the present world. At all the time hiring and retaining top quality talent with the important attribute of success is the development of clear organisational culture. The company owners should utilise share values and beliefs to staff from the top most position up to the lowest position educating and training them.
So, the company should be liberal and supporting to all new and experienced staff while using their work- ethic and talent. To secure future market supplies, they must train and reward all of their employees equally giving lots of opportunities to enhance career and upgrade their initiative. The company should organise different meetings to improve the communication between the staff at two branches. So that they can be well informed about what is going on in the company. The employees must be given the chances to perform the work independently so that the company can become one of the important ones.