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Management is in every organisation. Depending on the type of business an organisation is in can determine a managers function, type and role. At some point all managers carry out some of the same functions to ensure that their organisation runs effectively and efficiently. The concept behind management is to assist current employees in the direction of achieving common goals. It is management's role to help assess all of the employees recognise talent and encourage creativity.
In this assignment we will see how Managers play very important functions and roles in today's rapidly changing business organisations, by looking at different models including Mintzberg "What do managers do?", McGregor's Theories X and Y, Taylors Scientific Management, using SEMCO and CMS to relate to why people need managing.
Mintzberg "What do managers do?"
Henry Mintzberg believes that management is how you apply human skills to work systems, not applying systems to humans, a belief that is demonstrated in his writing, of the "How Managers Work article" . In another article," The Manager's Job: Folklore and Fact", Mintzberg shows the reality of what managers do, the theme that runs through this article, is that the pressures of the job "drive the manager to take on too much work, encourage interruption, make decisions in small increments, and do everything abruptly".( Mintzberg 1990)
Through these articles Mintzberg , stresses the importance of managers roles and the need to understand them thoroughly before attempting to train and develop those responsible for carrying out the tasks. According to Mintzberg (1990) " no job is more vital to society than that of a manager."
Mintzberg's (1990) study on the "nature of managerial work" exposed many managerial myths requiring change such as replacing the reflective strategists carefully planning the organisations next move. Mintzberg found that although an individual's capabilities influence the implementation of the role, it is the organisation that determines the need for a particular role, addressing the common belief that it is "a manager's skill set that determines their success" Mintzberg (1990). Effective managers develop protocols for action given their job description and personal preference, and match these with the situation at hand.
Mintzberg (1973) described managerial work as consisting of 10 roles classified into the following 3 groups: 1) interpersonal roles including the figurehead, leader, and liaison roles. 2) informational roles including the monitor, communicator, and spokesman roles; 3) decisional roles including the disturbance handler, resource allocation, and negotiator roles.( http://www.provenmodels.com/88/ten-managerial-roles/mintzberg 02/04/20 01:52 PM)
McClelland - Human Motivation Theory
The willingness of the team depends on the type of person, David McClelland (1968) proposed that an individual's specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by life experience. The majority of these needs are classed as achievement, affiliation, or power McClelland (1968). A persons motivation and effectiveness in certain job functions are influenced by these three needs. McClelland's theory sometimes is referred to as the three need theory or as the learned needs theory. Receiving orders is far less motivating than taking part in the planning and decision making , enabling employees to achieve ambitions and the organisations desired results.
David Mclelland suggest that people choose their roles as a need for achievement, based on the learning that occurs early on in life that leads to a stable feature of personality. Child rearing practices and the parents occupation were seen as influences on a child's level of achievement and motivation. Families that produced high need for achievement children were seen to influence high standards, individual initiative, independence and high standards. Mclleland and Burnham (1968) suggests that people who are high in the need for achievement don't make very good managers and are better suited in entrepreneurial roles as they find it hard to delegate believing they are the most competent person for the job.
McGregor - theories x and y
However, McGregor argues some people are motivated by power and telling others what to do in an authoritative way, whereas others need facilitating to do their own work by making the conditions under which they operate more conducive. Mcgregor (1961) argued that managers operate from their personal view of how employees function. Mcgregor (1961) separated managers into two groups based on Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. He related Theory X managers to lower order needs in the hierarchy and Theory Y managers to higher order needs.
According to Mcgregor (1961) , using Theory X managers take the traditional approach of order and obey this is based on people that are lazy, will take no responsibility, can be incapable of self-discipline and go to work for security.
The Theory Y in contrast to theory X approach, sees that self discipline comes from enjoying responsibility. Meaning managers will see that theory Y employees enjoy their work, they are self motivated, have direction and want responsibility.
Managers would use theory X to provide foundation for discipline, employees will carry out instructions. Theory Y would be used to bring out employees natural desires to succeed. A mix of Theory X and Theory Y are used to inspire motivate and continually challenge employees to achieve an effective organisation.
Theory X and Y can be related to hard and soft HR systems.
"Storey (1989) distinguished between hard and soft forms of HRM, typified by the Michigan and Harvard models respectively. 'Hard' HRM focuses on the resource side of human resources. It emphasizes costs in the form of 'headcount's' and places control firmly in the hands of management. Their role is to manage numbers effectively, keeping the workforce closely matched with requirements in terms of both bodies and behavior. 'Soft' HRM, on the other hand, stresses the 'human' aspects of HRM. Its concerns are with communication and motivation. People are led rather than managed. "They are involved in determining and realizing strategic objectives." (Storey J 1989)"
Taylor "Time and Management"
Frederick Taylor looked at a "Time and Management" within a production setting. With his book, The principles of Scientific Management in 1911, He was one of the earliest believer of professional management and believed that the relationship between tasks and workers could be standardised. Taylor's scientific management theory, was about observing members of the work force to record how they carried out their daily tasks. Taylor then took each task and broke it down into smaller tasks - units of work, the tasks were then automated. This was so the task was set out in a way to ensure that employees were not performing tasks beyond their abilities. Another aspect of the scientific method is that jobs are divided into small segments for the worker to perform, a method that works well in establishing expected levels of worker performance. This type of job specialisation would mean workers would undertake tasks with a narrow definitive range, for which they were rewarded according to how much they produced. Payment schemes rewarded those who produced the most. While not as popular historically, many organisations use Taylors method of job design today. (Taylor 2004)
However Taylor's model of work is very different from the business needs of today's modern working environment. Today, organisations need people with greater flexibility and competence. For example at SEMCO, staff across the organisation applies their knowledge and skills when different situations are presented. The Semco "idea" is that the work force are the ones who identify strategic / business opportunities, for both the organisation and themselves.
After effectively developing several businesses in mobile maintenance services, environmental consultancy, real estate consultancy, facilities management, and inventory services, SEMCO Group is said to currently be market leader in industrial equipment and solutions for document and postal management.
"A organisation based on innovation, SEMCO does not follow the standards of other organisations with a predefined hierarchy and excessive formality. At SEMCO, people work with substantial freedom, without formalities and with a lot of respect. Everybody is treated equally, from high-ranking executives to the lowest ranked employees. This means the work of each person is given its true importance and everybody is much happier at work" ww.semco.com
SEMCO Group don't have a rule book, any written policies or a mission statement, there is no HR department, organisation chart, they don't even have a fixed CEO the job rotates and the CEO is selected by the workforce. At SEMCO, the type of culture encourages the work force to become more involved in the organisations objectives, suggesting and implementing improvements. Control as it was originally suggested by Taylor, the removal of personal responsibility, is not what SEMCO's work culture entails. Control is in existence but the work force are encouraged to work together and become involved in deciding the best way to improve the organisation and hit the workforce set goals. All members of the workforce are company shareholders, amongst decisions the workforce make is the they decide who stays and who goes, ensuring everyone pulls their weight and does what is best for the organisation, no promotions are actioned without co-workers contributing to the decision. Employees select managers by vote, and managers hire new staff by agreement from workers who will be working closely with them.
SEMCO style is revolutionary for our time, the way its evolved to the current structure even more so because of the structure itself. Maybe SEMCO will be a model of how other successful organisations may look in the future. Although many people admire the SEMCO style there is no evidence of other organisations that have copied it.
CMS intelligent banking a independent, privately owned organisation is unique with over 19 years experience in the marketplace, working for some of the biggest names in the retail, banking, and financial services sectors, e.g. McDonalds, Body shop, Travelex and Northern Rock. The organisation expresses high values, to achieve set goals and objectives, including maximizing profit and maintaining reputation as an organisation.
At CMS McGregor - theories x and y.
Theory X, can be seen in that in the Retail Finance work force there is a structure of team members, team leader and senior manager. The traditional "order and obey" approach to managing people seems to be the most effective way of motivating employees. The manager tells the team what to do and how to do it and they either perform as ordered or pay the penalty, in this case reduced bonus payments. While it is true that managers have had certain practical authority delegated to them, like setting work schedules for their team. Retail Finance are only as powerful as making their work force successful. However in contrast to Theory X, theory Y states that self-discipline comes from enjoying the responsibility. The more skilled and educated the workforces are the more you can depend confidently on the natural drives. Theory Y works well only when people have strong goals and objectives.
Having studied the models and compared a organisation SEMCO Group where everything is completed as a democracy, to CMS that is a standard hierarchical organisation, we can see most workforces need to be managed or led. Whether you're assertive or not, everyone needs direction and control.
At CMS, McGregor Theory X and Theory Y need to be combined in order for the organisation to be successful due to the diverse range of tasks set out to achieve the company objectives. Certain objectives would not be met if there was not a manager to control the whole process from start to finished detailing to each member of the work force there specific autominated task.
It is part of a manager's role to ensure the workforce performs their roles satisfactory, and that company objectives are received. In the past, as Taylor has highlighted, motivation theory is connected very closely to pay and output. Workforces now need to be completely motivated in order to achieve maximum performance. Without effective management, often the quality and quantity of work suffers. Workers need managers who can drive them to get on with a task, add direction, help to manage the work life balance, create means of motivation, encourage and continually ensure peak performance is achieved.
Even in SEMCO group there is some sort of Management team all though this is chosen by the workforce, there is a group of people who can point the rest of the workforce in the right direction to ensure that they are a successful organisations meeting the set goals.
Management is key to the joining of organisations functions to organise, plan, control, and direct the workforce and other resources to achieve the organisations objectives.