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Management is a worldwide phenomenon. It is a extreme popular and broadly utilised period. All associations - business, political, cultural or social are involved in management since it is the management which directs and helps the diverse efforts in the direction of a decisive reason. According to Harold Koontz, "Management is an art of receiving things finished through and with the people in formally organized assemblies. It is an art of conceiving an environment in which persons can present and persons and can co-operate in the direction of attainment of assembly goals". According to F.W. Taylor, "Management is an art of understanding what to do, when to do and glimpse that it is done in the best and cheapest way".
Management is a purposive undertaking. It is sure thing that directs group efforts in the direction of the achievement of definite pre - determined goals. It is the method of working with and through other ones to competently achieve the goals of the association, by efficiently utilising limited assets in the changing world. These goals may differ from one organisation to another. E.g.: For one firm it may be introducing of new products by leading market reviews and for other firm it might be profit maximization by minimizing the cost.
Management includes considering an interior natural environment: - It is the management which places into use the diverse factors of production. Therefore, it is the blame of management to conceive such situation which is conducive to greatest efforts so that people are adept to perform their task effectively and effectively. It encompasses double-checking availability of raw components, conclusion of salaries and salaries, formulation of directions & guidelines etc.
thus good management comprises both being productive and efficient. Being effective means doing the befitting job i.e. putting the square pegs in rectangle holes and around pegs in around holes. Being efficient means doing the task rightly, at least possible cost with smallest wastage of assets.
Management can be characterised in detail :
1. Management as a Process
2. Management as an undertaking
3. Management as a control and respect
4. Management as a assembly
5. Management as an art
6. Management as a science
7. Management as a Profession
History of Management
The verb organise arrives from the Italian maneggiare (to handle - particularly tools), which in turn draws from the Latin manus (hand). The French phrase mesnagement (later ménagement) leveraged the development in significance of the English word administration in the 17th and 18th centuries
referred from- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management
Historical theories of Management
Scientific Management Theory
At the turn of the years, the most prominent organizations were large and industrialized. Often they encompassed on-going, routine tasks that constructed a kind of goods. The United States extremely prized technical and scientific affairs, encompassing very cautious estimation and specification of result and undertakings. Frederick Taylor evolved the: scientific management idea" which espoused this very cautious specification and measurement of all organizational tasks. Jobs were standardized as much as likely. Employees were paid and punished. This approach emerged to work well for organisations with assembly lines and different routinized, mechanistic activities.
Bureaucratic Management Theory
Max Weber embroidered the technical management idea with his bureaucratic idea. Weber concentrated on dividing associations into hierarchies, launching strong lines of control and authority. He suggested associations evolve comprehensive and detailed benchmark functioning methods for all routine tasks.
Human Relations Movement
finally government and unions regulations answered to the rather dehumanizing consequences of these theories. More vigilance was granted to individuals and their exclusive capabilities in the association. A foremost belief encompassed that the firm would flourish if its workers grew as well. Human Resource agencies were supplemented to associations. The behavioural sciences performed a powerful function in helping to understand the needs of employees and how the needs of the association and its employees could be better aligned. diverse new ideas were spawned, numerous founded on the behavioural sciences.
Traits of Progressive Management Development Programs
With the Human Relations action, teaching programs documented the requirement to cultivate supervisory skills, for example career development, coaching, inspiring, mentoring, delegating etc. Progressive management schools have students reconsider a wide body of management topics and discover those topics by applying that information in the workplace and mirroring on that submission. Learning undertakings incorporate learners' real-world undertakings in the workplaces or their lives. Allotment encompasses reflection and investigation on real-world know-how. Discovering is enhanced through extending dialogue and response among learners. Very good schools organise to include types of self-development, too, identifying that the cornerstone for effective management is effective self-management.
Productive management development programs help scholars (learners) take a system's view of their organizations, encompassing reconsider of how foremost functions affect each other. Assignments encompass identifying and addressing consequences of one activity on their whole organization.
Contemporary Theories of Management
Basically, contingency idea asserts that when managers take a decision, they should take into account all facets of the current position and proceed on those facets that are key to the position at hand. Mostly, it's the method that "it depends." For example, the continuous effort to recognise the best authority or administration method that the best style depends on the position. If one is premier troops in the Persian Gulf, an autocratic method is likely best. If one is leading a clinic or university, a more participative and facilitative authority method is likely best.
Systems theory has had an important effect on administration science and comprehending association. A scheme is a collection of part unified to complete a general goal. If one part of the scheme is removed, the nature of the scheme is altered as well. For demonstration, a stack of sand is not a scheme. If one eliminates a sand element, you've still got a stack of sand. However, a functioning car is a system. Remove the carburettor and you've no longer got a working car. A scheme can be looked at as having inputs, processes, yields and conclusions. Systems share feedback amidst each of these four facets of the systems.
Inputs would encompass resources such as raw materials, cash, technologies and people. These inputs proceed through a method where they're designed, organized, inspired and controlled, ultimately to meet the organization's goals. Outputs would be goods or services to a market. Outcomes would be, e.g., enhanced value of life or productivity for customers/clients, productivity. Response would be data from human resources carrying out the method, customers/clients using the goods, etc. repsonse furthermore comes from the bigger natural environment of the association, for example, influences from government, humanity, economics, and technologies. This overall system structure applies to any scheme, including subsystems in the general organization.
Systems theory may appear quite rudimentary. Yet, decades of management teaching and practices in the workplace have not pursued this idea. Only lately, with tremendous alterations opposite organizations and how they function, have teachers and managers come to face this new way of looking at things. This understanding has brought about a important change in the way management investigations and advances organizations.
The effect of systems idea in administration is that writers, teachers, advisors, etc. are assisting managers to gaze at the organization from a broader viewpoint. Systems idea has conveyed a new viewpoint for managers to interpret patterns and events in the workplace. They recognize the various components of the association, and, in specific, the interrelations of the parts, for example, the coordination of centred management with its programs, technology with constructing, supervisors with employees, etc. This is a foremost development. In the past, managers normally took one part and concentrated on that. Then they moved all attention to another part. The difficulty was that an association could, e.g., have a magnificent centred administration and magnificent set of educators, but the agencies didn't synchronize
As chaotic and random as world events appear today, they appear as chaotic in organizations, too. Yet for decades, managers have acted on the basis that organizational events can always be controlled. A new idea, chaos idea, recognizes that events indeed are rarely controlled. Numerous chaos theorists mention to biological systems when interpreting their idea. They propose that systems routinely proceed to more complexity, and as they do so, these systems become more volatile and should expend more energy to maintain that complexity. As they consume more power, they search more structure to sustain stability. This trend extends until the scheme divides, blends with another convoluted scheme or falls apart solely. This tendency is what many see as the tendency in life, in organizations and the world in general.
Schools of Thought
There are a number of distinct 'schools' of management thought that have been evolved over the past years. The main 'schools' of considered are:
This was evolved by Henri Fayol and it highlighted the following components as being vital to an productive administration process:
a) The division of work.
b) A broad span of control.
c) A big organisational structure.
d) An authoritarian method of management.
This method was evolved in the USA in the initial part of the 20th years by Frederick Taylor, construction on the previous work of Henri Fayol.
Taylor furthermore accepted that a high partition of work was needed to produce more output, and he presented a piece-rate style of fee for the workforce
This method of administration paid close attention to 'time and motion' investigations, where each worker is timed when accomplishing a task, and then this supplies the cornerstone for the worker's grade of output per day
If the worker accomplished more than his designated number of jobs per day, then he would be eligible for a monetary bonus.
Taylor accepted that effectiveness and control and respect were the two utmost characteristics of a good manager and a good workforce
Human Relations Management.
The Human relatives 'school' of management considered examines after mere economic and productivity variables in concluding the best way to manage a workforce.
Likely the most famous study of Human Relations Management was conveyed out by Elton Mayo between 1927 and 1932 at the Western electric powered business, at Hawthorne in Chicago, USA.
He researched a group of six feminine employees over this time, and tried to set up a connection between their working conditions and their productivity grades. He altered numerous of the employed situation and he found out that the grade of output rose each time.
He concluded that the only component that was required to consistently accomplish a high level of productivity was a powerful level of communal interaction and teamwork amidst the 6 employees. He called this the 'Hawthorne Effect '.
Neo-Human Relations Management.
There are a various number of management theorists and writers who constructed on the previous work of Mayo, acquiescing that the way that workers are treated, and the praise and recognition that is granted to them by their managers, can have a tremendous psychological effect on their productivity grades. The main writers in this area are Abraham Maslow, Frederick Herzberg and Douglas McGregor.
Abraham Maslow's 'Hierarchy of Needs' can be seen in the diagram below:
We first need to satisfy the basic obligations of continued reality one time these desires are satisfied, then we request to satisfy the higher grade needs.
Until a lower alignment need is satisfied, you will not advancement up on a higher grade need. therefore, one time the smaller grade desires is satisfied, then further motivation for the worker can only arrive by giving them larger scope for utilising ability, start and creativity.
Most persons come to the security and social categories, some come to the ego class, yet very few reach the self-fulfilment category.
As a outcome of this progression, the size of each of the sections in Maslow's hierarchy weakens the higher they get, as less and less persons reach them.
Applying this theory to workers, physiological needs encompass pay and employed situation, safety desires include Health & security defence and retirement benefit designs, social desires include the need to work in a group and blend with other ones, and ego needs may encompass a company vehicle, job title or dimensions of office. Self-fulfilment desires will count on the individual worker, if he has achieved his full promise or not.
Frederick Herzberg conveyed out some investigations of administration and motivation and he tried to identify the factors that inspire workers.
For managers, the significances of Herzberg's work are that it is necessary to supply strong motivational components, while at the same time double-checking that the contradictory, hygiene factors are minimised.
This administration 'school' of thought was evolved in the 1960s and, different the other theories, it believes that there is no lone approach to administration which will match all businesses and all workers. In other phrases, some situations in a business will call for a more authoritarian administration method, whereas in other positions a more participative 'hands-on' approach to management will be required
CRITIQUE ON MANAGEMENT THEORIES
The different historic theories of management gives us a clear view that the todays management theories are derived from the historic theories from different people with different management ideas and techniques which we are applying them today in organizations however with some changes. Whereas the different schools of thought include Totemism, Syncretism, Structuralism, Relativism, Primitivism, Postmodernism, Marxist anthropology, Functionalism, Evolutionism, Diffusionism, Animism which focus on the various factors for the improvement in the organizational goals and attaining profits
4 FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT
Management has been described as a communal process involving responsibility for economical and effective designing & guideline of operation of an enterprise in the fulfilment of given reasons. It is a dynamic process comprising of diverse elements and undertakings. These undertakings are distinct from operative purposes like trading, finance, purchase etc. Rather these undertakings are widespread to each and every manger irrespective of his grade or rank.
Distinct experts have classified functions of management. According to George & Jerry, "There are four fundamental functions of management i.e. designing, coordinating, actuating and controlling". According to Henry Fayol, "To organise is to forecast and design, to coordinate, to order, & to control". Whereas Luther Gullick has granted a keyword 'POSDCORB' where P stands for Planning, O for Organizing, S for Staffing, D for administering, Co for Co-ordination, R for describing & B for making allowance for. But the most broadly accepted are functions of management granted by KOONTZ and O'DONNEL i.e. designing, Organizing, Staffing, Directing and commanding.
For theoretical reasons, it may be befitting to separate the function of management but virtually these purposes are overlapping in environment i.e. they are highly inseparable. Each function blends into the other & each sways the performance of others.
According to Koontz & O'Donell, "PLANNING is concluding in advance what to do, how to do and who is to do it. PLANNING connections the gap between where we are to, where we want to proceed. It makes likely things to occur which would not else occur". PLANNING is deciding in accelerate what to do and how to do. It is one of the basic managerial functions. Before doing certain thing, the supervisor must formulate an concept of how to work on a specific task. Therefore, PLANNING is nearly attached with creativity and discovery. But the supervisor would first have to set objectives, only then will a manager know where he has to proceed. Planning hunts for to bridge the gap between where we are and where we want to go. PLANNING is what managers at all grades do. It requires taking decisions since it engages making a choice from alternate techniques of activity.
Importance of PLANNING:
ƒ˜ PLANNING presents directions
ƒ˜ PLANNING reduces the dangers of doubt
ƒ˜ PLANNING reduces overlapping and wasteful undertakings
ƒ˜ PLANNING promotes innovative ideas
ƒ˜ PLANNING facilitates decision making
ƒ˜ PLANNING sets up measures for controlling
ƒ˜ Setting Objectives
ƒ˜ Developing Premises:
ƒ˜ recognising alternative techniques of activity
ƒ˜ assessing alternative techniques
ƒ˜ Selecting an alternative
ƒ˜ Implement the PLAN
ƒ˜ Follow-up action
one time the PLANs have been laid down and objectives particular therein, the next step is to organize assets in a kind which leads to the accomplishment of objectives. Organizing can be characterised as a method that initiates implementation of PLANs by clarifying occupations and working relationships and competently establishing assets for attainment of recognised and yearnd results or goals. The management function of organising double-checks that efforts are directed in the direction of the attainment of goals laid down in the PLANNING function in such a kind that resources are used optimally and people are adept to work collectively and competently for a common reason. Thus, it is in the context of productive management that the association function earns due importance. It is a means for converting PLANs into action.
Importance of organising:
ƒ˜ assists in specialization
ƒ˜ Clarity in working relationships
ƒ˜ Optimum utilization of assets
ƒ˜ Adaptation to change
ƒ˜ productive management
ƒ˜ Development of staff
ƒ˜ Expansion and development
ƒ˜ Identification and division of work
ƒ˜ allotment of duties
ƒ˜ setting up describing connections
Directing refers to the process of instructing, directing, therapy, motivating and premier people in the association to accomplish its objectives. Directing integrates persons in the direction of accomplishment of widespread objectives. Through directing, managers not only notify the persons in the association as to what they should do, when they should do and how they should do but also glimpse that their instructions are implemented in correct perspective. Very often, this becomes important component in the effective and effective functioning of the organization.
Directing as a function of management is concerned with instructing, directing and motivating people in the organization to accomplish its objectives. It involves overseeing people at work, making provision for the essential facilities and creating a work natural environment, whereby employees may present to the best of their abilities.
It comprises of handing out instructions and instructions by a better to his subordinates. It furthermore encompasses the process of m9otivation subordinates and supplying authority with an comprehending of their hopes, beliefs and demeanour pattern. Through the administering function managers convey about a balance between one-by-one concerns of employees and the concerns of the organization as a whole. Directing is a function of all managers of the association. It is an ongoing activity of managers.
significance of directing:
ƒ˜ It Initiates Actions
ƒ˜ It Ingrates Effort
ƒ˜ Means of Motivation
ƒ˜ It Provides steadiness
ƒ˜ contending up with the alterations
ƒ˜ Efficient Utilization of assets
Managerial command suggests the estimation of accomplishment against the benchmark and the correction of deviations to guarantee attainment of objectives according to plans (Koontz and O' Donnel) controlling is one of the important functions of a manager. In alignment to request planned results from the subordinates, a supervisor needs to workout productive command over the undertakings of the subordinates. In other phrases, controlling means double-checking that undertakes in an organization are presented as per the plans. Controlling also double-checks that an organization's resources are being utilised competently and efficiently for the accomplishment of predetermined goals. Controlling is, therefore, a goal-oriented function.
significance of controlling:
ƒ˜ Accomplishing organizational goals
ƒ˜ Judging accuracy of standards
ƒ˜ Making efficient use of assets
ƒ˜ advancing worker motivation
ƒ˜ Ensuring alignment and control and respect
ƒ˜ Facilitating coordination in activity
ƒ˜ Setting presentation standards
ƒ˜ Measurement of genuine presentation
ƒ˜ Comparison of genuine presentation with measures
ƒ˜ Analysing deviations
ƒ˜ Taking corrective activity
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For any company to function correctly and for goal accomplishment at the right time it needs to comprise of managers who are productive and productive in utilising the assets of the business i.e. human assets, economic assets, technological resources and natural resources exercising the functions of administration. Over the ages different theories have been worked out on purposes of management yet till date it is the most significant part of the making or shattering of any business. An association can be thriving in its functioning if the assembly dynamics of the organization can be well understood by the managers. Employees are important to any association and therefore correct engagement should be done to hold them involved and inspired in the direction of company's aim achievement