Management Can Be Classified Info Commerce Essay

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Management is very guide term. It helps directs various efforts to achieve definite objectives. Management is a purposeful activity management provides responsibilities & right to employees to obtain the goals of organization. It ensures availability of raw materials, determination of wages salaries, and formation of rules regulations.

Management can be classified info:-

Management as a process- Management is a process because it involves planning, organization, staffing, directing, controlling & decision making.

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Management as an activity- Management achieves the objectives of the organization with the help of others.

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Management as a discipline:- It refers to the study of principles of administration concepts theories.

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Management as a group:- Management is the group of persons who perform the task manging an enterprise

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Management as a science:- As a science it develop and apply the concepts to solve managerial problems.

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Management as an art:- Art involves skills so management is an art because it apply knowledge which is learned from practice and experience.

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Management as a profession:- Management brings people together for the accomplishment of pre- determined goals & objectives of organization & business with the appropriate usage of available resources raw materials.

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History to management

Management is an Italian word which means to manage handle. The Future of Working for Yourself, arguing that workers no longer need companies to employ them. A year or two later that proves to be a good thing when many of his readers are pink-slipped. The French word management" developed in the English word known as management in the 17th & 18th centuries.

Historical theories of management

Science management theory (1890- 1940)

Frederick Taylor developed the "science management theory" it believed in routine tasks & mechanistic work for the organization this include the standardization of products, rewards & punishment for the workers. As they expend more energy, they seek more structure to maintain stability. This trend continues until the system splits, combines with another complex system or falls apart entirely. Sound familiar? This trend is what many see as the trend in life, in organizations and the world in general.

Bureaucratic management theory (1930- 1950)

The theory was established by max we bur". It involves scientific of management. It refers to establishing authority and control in the organization. Including careful measurement and specification of activities and results. Management tended to be the same. Frederick Taylor developed the: scientific management theory" which espoused this careful specification and measurement of all organizational tasks.

Human relation movement (1930- Today)

This theory focused on the unique ideas, suggestions, & capabilities of workers. Workers are the most important input for the organization due to this theory human resource department developed in the organization which understands the needs of the workers for their better performance in the organization.

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Early writing

Background of work for assisting modem management by writers:-

Sun Tzu's in 6th century BC sun Tzu wrote" the art of war". It was based on strengths & weaknesses of organization of economy. Sun Tzu said: Whoever is first in the field and awaits the coming of the enemy, will be fresh for the fight; whoever is second in the field and has to hasten to battle will arrive exhausted.


In 300 BC chanakya wrote the "arthashastra" which include the management of economy. As you know, politics was practiced as an art much before Chanakya. Diplomacy and spying was honed into a skill, long before Mauryas. War strategies and Governance was taught and learnt in India from times immemorial.


In 1513" the prince "lay Niccolo Machiavelli's referred that leaders should use fear but not hated to maintain control.  Machiavelli has become infamous for such political advice, ensuring that he would be remembered in history through the adjective, "Machiavellian.


It was writing in 1776. This was focused on the specialization of laser. This work has been transcribed from the revised fifth edition, the last print made in Adam Smith's lifetime. Footnotes may not be completely transcribed; the edition used to transcribe this work had the editor's footnotes integrated without any differential marking, making any distinguishing between the authors' and editors' notes nearly impossible.

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School of thought

A school of thought is a collection or group of people who share common characteristics of opinion or outlook of a philosophy, discipline, belief, social movement, cultural movement, or art movement.

Scientific management

Science management theory was developed by Frederick Taylor in 20th century. This theory focused on a good work force by the workers with the help of' time & motion theory. It helped workers to increase improve their work ability but it locked in motivational steps.

Human relation management

This management observed the ha throne effects" according to this teamwork & interaction among the employees help them to improve their production skills give them better outcomes. It's both."  Usually, we dislike sophomoric "it's both" answers or hold such responses to a higher standard, but here, it's one of the few places where it's allowed and even encouraged.

Neo-Human Relation Management 

Many management theories were given by writers like Abraham Maslow Frederick Herbert and Douglas McGregor according to psychological factors it is very important for any organization to fulfill the needs team work appreciation, suggestion regard job recognazation health pension etc.

Motivational factors

Jaw factor theory by Frederick hergberg can't motivate employees motivation incentives are essential to improve the performance of the employees.

'X & Y' theory

Douglas McGregor developed 'X' & 'Y' theory management gives constant supervision to employees. They seek job security perform orders. On the other hand 'Y' manager given the power of decision-making to its employees. It enhance their imagination, creativity.

focused on productivity and profit

workers were viewed as extensions of the machine

time/motion studies

division of work

did not address the emotional and social needs of employees

resulted in worker apathy, boredom, low creativity, wasted human resources

Contingency management

Each organization & business needs different types of management approaches sometime authorities an sometimes decision-making. Contingency management requires the identification of threats. A threat may take the form of a natural event such as a flood, tornado, earthquake or hurricane, or it may assume a technical or man-made form that may be radiological, chemical, biological, mechanical or electrical in nature. A threat may also be an intentional act such as an act of terrorism, a demonstration, a bomb, assault, theft or a computer incident.

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Critics on management theories

The four diverse function of management

Planning: - In essence such plans are organizational 'route maps' to get us from 'where we are at now' to 'where we want to get to' at some defined point, or points, in the future. They are also the essence of what, today, planning, something that has, since the early 1960s, grown steadily to become one of the essentials of modern business and organizational life.

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Henri fayol (1841-1925) firstly describe the four function of management.The four diverse function of management Management consists of the functions given below. It is based on Henri Fayol's thinking on the functions of management.

Planning: generating plans of action for immediate, short term, medium term and long term periods.

Organizing: organizing the resources, particularly human resources, in the best possible manner.

Staffing: positioning right people right jobs at right time.

Directing (includes leading, motivating, communicating and coordinating): Communicate and coordinate with people to lead and enthuse them to work effectively together to achieve the plans of the organization.

Controlling (includes review and monitoring): evaluating the progress against the plans and making corrections either in plans or in execution.






Planning involves taking steps to achieve the objectives decided to be achieved. Planning ensures survival, stability and progress of a business unit. It mini mistakes wastages if raw materials, human efforts & ensures the fullers utilization of available resources.


Planning is a primary function of management.

Planning is goals-oriented.

Planning is future-oriented & forecasting.

Planning is an intellectual process.

Planning needs to be dynamic in nature.

Planning is made to achieve desired objective of business.

The goals established should general acceptance otherwise individual efforts & energies will go misguided and misdirected.

Planning identifies the action that would lead to desired goals quickly & economically.

It provides sense of direction to various activities. E.g. Marti Udhyog is trying to capture once again Indian Car Market by launching diesel models.


The advantage of planning are:-

A organized picture of consequence.

Economy in operation.

Promotion of teamwork.

Prevision for control.

Direction setting.

Planning is decision making process.

It is making decisions on future course of actions.

Planning involves taking decisions on vision, mission, values, objectives, strategies and policies of an organization.


Some drawbacks & limitation of planning are:-

Lock of accurate information.

Time consuming process.



Environment constraints.

Planning is done for immediate, short term, medium term and long term periods.

It is a guideline for execution/implementation.

It is a measure to check the effectiveness and efficiency of an organization.


Organizing means placement of ideas' objects people in correct order. Organizing means formal assignment of tasks, authority and responsibility, coordination in effective manner. Organising is a step-by-step process. At each step, an important task is performed by the administrators working at the top-level of management.


Organizing involves determination and grouping of the activities.

Designing organization structures and departmentation based on this grouping.

Defining the roles and responsibilities of the departments and of the job positions within these departments.


Specialization and division of work.

Orientation towards goals.

Composition of individual and groups.

Differentiated function.


Defining relationships between departments and job positions.

Defining authorities for departments and job positions.


Basic purpose of organizing function is to ensure the best utilization of resources to achieve its goals.

Arrangement of position and jobs.

Optimum utilization of different resource.

Classification and specialization of work.

Organizing is a strategy to improve the effective of Operations.

Organizational structure is a network of relationships

Organizational structure helps in putting right men on right job which can be done by selecting people for various


 The organization starts adding parallel value chains to the existing organization structure to overcome loss of revenue.

2. Organization does not move forward or backwards in the value chain

3. The organization does not spawn new businesses that are "stars" / neither are they known for any innovation (other than the innovation of some of the principles / 3rd party brands that they may represent)

4. History of young star performers leaving the organization on a continuing basis

5. Boasting of people (the young starts) who have left the organization and gone to achieve great things as been trained at this organization.

6. Long serving staff in a particular discipline / technology / expertise

7. Some staff that leave the organization after a few years (not the stars) re-joins the organization again as a manager or a senior in the same field of expertise


The word leadership'' means to "lead". It means to give commands, guideless in organization.

Leadership is the area of motivation directing the employees to achieve the goals effectively and efficiently.

1 Leading - A continuous process of setting objectives and trying to achieve them through the efforts of other People

2 This definition of leading defines any leading, not necessarily good (successful) leading.

3 A definition of good leading would delete "trying to achieve" and substitute "achieving". Thus good leading means - a continuous process  of setting objectives and achieving them through the efforts of other people.

4 The above two definitions do not state that the objectives have to rate as good or wise.   good leading can involve getting people to achieve bad objectives.

A Difference between Leading and Managing

5 The definition of good leading almost equals the definition of managing used in these posts ; i.e. managing: a continuous process of determining objectives and trying to achieve them through the efforts of other people.

6 As with the definition of leading, this definition of managing defines any managing, not necessarily good managing.

7 Good managing involves a continuous process of determining wise/good managing objectives and achieving them through the efforts of other people.

8 An attachment to these notes called "managing and leading" discuss in more detail differences between managing and leading.


Attainment of group goals.

Ability to influence the thoughts & active.

Motivating the followers.

Communication skills.

Social skills.

Self-confidence & emotional stability.

Leaders know what their mission is

You must be seen by your advisors, stakeholders, employees, and the public as being an expert in your field or an expert in leadership

Successful entrepreneurs are comfortable relating to other people; they easily create rapport and are at least more extroverted than they are introverted


Leadership is very important for corporate sector.

Leadership show the way leads their followers.

Organization performance depends on leadership.

Leader is a person who starts the work by communicating the policies and plans to the subordinates from where the work actually starts.

leader has to not only supervise but also play a guiding role for the subordinates

Confidence is an important factor which can be achieved through expressing the work efforts to the subordinates, explaining them clearly their role and giving them guidelines to achieve the goals effectively.


Control of an undertaking consists of seeing that everything is being carried out in accordance with the plan which has been adopted, the orders which have been given, and the principles which have been laid down. Its object is to point out mistakes in order that they may be rectified and prevented from recurring


Control and manipulation can be seen in animal behavior particularly in studies of chimpanzee society. So it really is a biological issue. However that does not make it the best way of doing things or even the best way of getting what one wants. 

A controlling personality tends to be an extremely jealous person

A controlling personality would always want to emotionally hurt

When your partner forces you in certain intimate acts even if you are not comfortable

Definitely not about controlling someone's life to the extent of driving a person up the wall.


Control helps to reduce the wastage of human, material and financial resources. This increases the profits of the organization

Control helps the organization to make optimum utilization of the available resources. This also increases the profit of the organization.

Control helps to fix responsibility of a particular job

Control fixes certain standards. All the work has to be done

Control minimizes the deviations between a planned performance and actual performance.


The Control Process Slide 1 / 32BAC-4131 Food and Beverage Management Cost Control

Learning objectives KCM Define control and discuss the significance

Scope Introduction to Control. Cost Control.


Management is the process of reaching organizational goals by working with and through people and other organizational resources. Management of an organization is the process of establishing objectives and goals of the organization designing the work system, the organization structure, maintaining an environment in which individual, working together in groups, assertive their aims & goals of the organization.

Character of management:-

Management is a process.

Management applies to every kind of organization, government, profit making or non- profit making.

It applies to managers at all levels.

Management is concerned with effectives and efficiency.

Management has the following 3 characteristics:

It is a process or series of continuing and related activities.

It involves and concentrates on reaching organizational goals.

It reaches these goals by working with and through people and other organizational resources.


The practitioner of successful sciences is given direct experience in using his technical skills in the laboratory. But the unsuccessful sciences, in the opinion of Mayo, "do not seem to equip students with a single social skill that is usable in original human situations.

No continuous and direct contact with the social facts is contrived for the students. He learns from books, spending endless hours in libraries; he reconsiders ancient formulas of the clinic or indeed of the laboratory". Management, perhaps, falls between these two types of sciences and may be closer to unsuccessful sciences.


1. The driving force behind the evolution of management theory is the search for better ways to utilize organizational resources.

2. The Evolution of Management Theory 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Scientific Management Theory Administrative Management Theory Behavioral Management Theory Management Science Theory Organizational Environment Theory

3. Evolution of modern management began in the late nineteenth century, after the industrial revolution. Economic, technical and cultural changes

4. Mechanization changed systems like crafts production into large scale manufacturing, where semi or unskilled workers operated machineries.

5. Small-scale Crafts Production Large-scale Mechanized Manufacturing Managed by engineers who only had Technical orientation Problems faced: How to handle people Social problems relating to working together in large groups How to increase efficiency of the worker-task mix

6. Job specialization and the Division of Labor Famous economist, Adam Smith, journeyed around England in 1700's studying the effects of industrial revolution.

7. Each worker responsible for All tasks Each worker performed only 1 or a few tasks to produce Crafts-style Factory System Poorer performance Few thousands p/d Cannot be equally Skilled in all tasks Better performance 48,000 pins p/d More skilled at their tasks


1. Business organization and management management thoughts

2. Management thoughts mathrough nagement thoughts has passed various stages to reach its present level for the purpose of study it is divided into three stages

3. Stages in management thought the classical theory of management bureacratic model - max webber scientific management - fw taylor process management - henry fayol

4. Stages in management thought neo classical theory human relations movement - elton mayo behavioural science movement - a maslow & mcgregor

5. Stages in management thought 3 modern management theories quantitative approach - taylor systems approach - boulding, johnson contingency approach - lorsch, lawrence

6. Classical theory of management it was only in the second half of 18 th century that - james watt, boulton,robert owen and charles babbage gave serious thought to problems of management this period is also known as pre-taylor period. It is only when max webber introduced bureacratic model around 1900 that the first systematic management theory is said to have emerged

Robert owen (1771- 1858) he is called as father of modern personnel management he stressed on improvement in working conditions reduction in working hours providing necessities tworkers on subsidised rates fixing minimum age for child workers

( -thought-reference/management-thought)


It was one of the earliest attempts to apply science to the engineering of processes and to management. Its development began with Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s within the manufacturing industries. Its peak of influence came in the 1910s; by the 1920s, it was still influential but had begun an era of competition and syncretism with opposing or complementary ideas. Although scientific management as a distinct theory or school of thought was obsolete by the 1930s, most of its themes are still important parts of industrial engineering and management today. These include analysis; synthesis; logic; rationality; empiricism; work ethic; efficiency and elimination of waste; standardization of best practices; disdain for tradition preserved merely for its own sake or merely to protect the social status of particular workers with particular skill sets; the transformation of craft production into mass production; and knowledge transfer between workers and from workers into tools, processes, and documentation



Management science also goes by the name operations research, which pretty much explains the approach management scientists take when working in a business setting. Just like the scientific method, the management science approach identifies a problematic issue or process within a business' operations. It then develops possible theories for how the problem developed and designs possible solutions. Scientists develop models from which to test proposed theories and gather data from the results. Analysis of the data then provides practical solutions for solving a problem.


A conceptual model of the contingency approach was developed by Kiser and Kubrick.[6] According to the model, the formal structure of an organization defines the roles of its members in a specific way and thereby directs their behavior to a certain degree. The performance of the organization depends on the degree to which these role definitions enable members to cope with the requirements resulting from the context of the organization. Contingency approach evolved during the 1960s. Management theory and research began to adopt a new orientation, one that embodied a simple concept and enabled significant advancements in the study of management and organizations, now referred to as the contingency approach. It emphasized the importance of situational influences on the management of organizations and questioned the existence of a single, best way to manage or organise. Today, the contingency approach dominates theory and research in the management literature


The material that is studied is always behavior. Because behavioristsare not interested in the mind, or its more rarified equivalents such as psycheand soul, inferences about the conditions that maintain and reinforce humanbehavior can be made from the study of animal behavior. Animal research hasprovided a very important foundation for the behavioral approach. Thebehavioral researcher is interested in understanding the mechanisms underlyingthe behavior of both normal individuals and those with problems that might bereferred as "mental illness". When the behavioral model is applied tomental illness, it tends to be used for a wide variety of presenting problems. It is perhaps most effective in treating behavioral disorders and disorders ofimpulse control, such as excessivedrinking, obesity, or sexual problems. Behavioral approaches may bequite useful in treatment of anxiety and have occasionally been helpful in themanagement of more severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia.

Each of these functions is explained in some detail below.

2. Organizing

Organizing involves determination and grouping of the activities.

Designing organization structures and departmentation based on this grouping.

Defining the roles and responsibilities of the departments and of the job positions within these departments.

3. Controlling

It includes verifying the actual execution against the plans to ensure that execution is being done in accordance with the plans.

It measures actual performance against the plans.

It sets standards or norms of performance.

It measures the effective and efficiency of execution against these standards and the plans.

It periodically reviews, evaluates and monitors the performance.

If the gaps are found between execution levels and the plans, controlling function involves suitable corrective actions to expedite the execution to match up with the plans or in certain circumstances deciding to make modifications in the plans.


While organizing, the top managers carry out following important tasks:-

In this general eight-stepped process, the top management first fixes the common objectives of the organization.

In the second step, they (top management) identify all the activities (i.e. works or jobs) which are required to achieve these predefined objectives.

In the third step, they group similar (related) activities and make their individual departments.

In the fourth step, they define the responsibilities (duties) of all the staff members (employees and managers).

In the fifth step, they delegate authority to staff members.

In the sixth step, the authority relationships between superiors and subordinates are established.

In the seventh step, they provide the staff members with all the essential requirements like money, machines, materials, etc., which are used for achieving the objectives.

In the eighth final step, they co-ordinate the efforts of all staff members and direct it towards achieving the common objectives of the organisation.