Management And Leadership Across Cultures Commerce Essay

Published: Last Edited:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Cultural diversity and ethnicity has never been of such importance as they are today. Every employment form of every organization has the section of ethnic background now and the core purpose of this is to gather statistics and to develop different cultural mixing measures in the organization. In China one of the fastest growing industries is tourism and hotel industry. Many international chains are expanding their operations in china and investing in asian continents so that the people from US and Europe would get the same environment which they have in their home continents. The cultural differences in the hospitality industry are getting broader in the sense that franchise hotel companies do not take the issue of homogeneity in consideration which needs to be addressed first and to make sure that the staff should be equipped with diversity of cultures.

Theories of leadership and motivation:

According to Motivation and Leadership at Work (Steers, Porter, and Bigley, 1996), in the early twentieth century researchers began to examine other possible explanations for differences in individual motivation. a quantity of researchers salaried attention on domestic force as a work out for motivated performance. Others calculated the source of study and how individuals base topical performance on the penalty of past behavior. in spite of everything others examined the inspiration of individuals' cognitive processes, such as the beliefs they give rise to concerning future events. ended time, these key theoretical streams of study in motivation were classified into two key schools: the gist theories of motivation and the process theories of motivation. little theories of leadership and personality assert unceasing to pick up and expand, the investigation of work motivation appears stagnant.

A review of many pleasant organizational behavior textbooks would indicate nearby has been unimportant progress while refined and broadened the work. The work motivation literature is replete with those scholars bemoaning the fact that real progress has been anemic (Shamir, 1990). Empirical studies have produced conflicting results and have rarely offered any compelling explanation of unique variance in work productivity (Katzell & Thompson, 1990). A amount of scholars own concluded with the aim of many established models are basically imprecise or, at best, deficient of salient variables that create them too simplistic. "There is a growing realization that traditional models of motivation do not explain the diversity of behavior found in organizational settings" (Leonard, Beauvais, & Scholl, 1999: 969).

Arguably, the most influential work motivation framework has been Porter and Lawler's (1968) expectancy theory. They enjoy recognized the relationships between the expectancy variables were more complex than Vroom (1964) had earlier envisioned. They unstated the relationship flanked by try and performance was to be expected mediated by human being perceptions, traits, and abilities and that enhanced running might not start to unusual satisfaction in and of itself. Just as important, though, was their assertion with the intention of the description of the task and perceived fair play of reward influenced unique motivation. even though Porter and Lawler's model has been criticized for a number of reasons, it is one of the mainly far and wide reproduced models of do motivation.

The reasons are many.

Leadership theories with reference to tourism and hospitality industry:

Yau (1988), Mok and DeFranco (1999) and Gilbert and Tsao (2000) investigated the impact of Chinese culture in hospitality marketing and showed the prevalence of guanxi and mien-tsu in those business relationships. Yet there is, from the viewpoint of the hospitality manager, a potential downside of guanxi and that is the abuse of intimate relationships by customers who manipulate situations to demand more services or value than is appropriate within the commercial realities of the business. The failure to observe customer demands leads to a loss of mientsu which also might have detrimental effects for the business.

Interest in leadership amplified during the before time part of the twentieth century. Early leadership theories focused on qualities distinguished among leaders and followers, while successive theories looked at other variables such as situational factors and aptitude levels. although a lot of discrete leadership theories have emerged, nearly all can be classified as one of eight most important types:


1. "Great Man" Theories:

Great man theories carries on with the aim of the part that leadership is inherent and that downright leaders are born, not made. These theories often portray boundless leaders as heroic, mythic and destined to get higher to leadership at what time needed.

The term "Great Man" was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality, especially in terms of military leadership. Learn more about the great man theory of leadership.

2. Trait Theories:

Similar in some ways to "Great Man" theories, trait theories assume that people inherit firm qualities and personality with the intention of style them better suitable to leadership. Trait theories often associate particular personality or behavioral characteristics collective by leaders. If particular traits are key skin of leadership, therefore how do we explicate people who possess people's qualities but are not leaders?

3. Contingency Theories:

Contingency theories of leadership focus on item variables connected to the natural environment with the aim of might agree on which particular cut of leadership is most excellent right for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership luxury is best in all situations. Success depends in the lead a come to of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers and aspects of the situation.

4. Situational Theories:

Situational theories propose that leaders choose the finest track of action based in the lead situational variables. Different styles of leadership may be supplementary appropriate for assured types of decision-making.

5. Behavioral Theories:

Behavioral theories of leadership are based ahead the belief with the aim of great leaders are made, not born. Rooted in behaviorism, this leadership premise focuses on the trial of leaders not on mental qualities or domestic states. According to this theory, individuals can find out to develop into leaders through philosophy and observation.

6. Participative Theories:

Participative leadership theories hint at to facilitate the ideal leadership comfort is one with the intention of takes the effort of others into account. These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and benefit group members air new appropriate and committed to the decision-making process. In participative theories, however, the guide retains the absolute to allow the input of others.

7. Management Theories:

Management theories, also known as transactional theories, focus on the position of supervision, company and cluster performance. These theories heart leadership on a method of rewards and punishments. supervisory theories are often worn in business; as soon as employees are successful, they are rewarded; whilst they fail, they are reprimanded or punished.

8. Relationship Theories:

Relationship theories, also known as transformational theories, focus in the lead the contacts bent between leaders and followers. Transformational leaders motivate and inspire people by selection group members see the importance and higher mild of the task. These leaders are paying attention on the occurrence of group members, but too need each one person to satisfy his or her potential. Leaders with this tailor often have high ethical and just standards.

Motivational theories:

It has been said that "the only constant is change". This saying is just as true within the hospitality industry as it is in any other endeavor in life. Over recent years there has been a growing diversity within the hospitality industry; much of this has been fuelled by the liberalization of international travel. China is projected to become Asia's largest outbound market (Pacific Asia Travel Association, 2001). It grew as much as 16% from 2000 to 2001 with 12 million Chinese travelling overseas. The World Tourism Organization has forecasted an annual growth of 12.5% from 2000 to 2020 (1999).

The role of a leader is to get things done and drive change through other people.

There are three main styles of leadership:

Authoritarian: The authoritarian leader makes all the decisions and tells everyone else what to do. This style is particularly prevalent in the army and emergency hospital wards.

Consultative: The consultative leader will talk to everyone involved in or affected by a task to get their views and ideas. They will also keep them informed of any changes.

Democratic: The democratic leader will go one step further than the consultative leader and actively involve others in the decision-making process rather than just considering their input. It is very much a team approach with everyone talking responsibility for making decisions.

To determine which style will be most effective for a particular person or situation, a leader needs to know how to motivate each individual they are working with.

There are many theories of motivation.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs:

Maslow purports that community exist in a hierarchy of needs. The most basic need is physiological (food, water, friendliness and shelter) followed by wellbeing needs which include job safety and someplace long-standing to live. subsequently are social needs for company and involvement with others. Esteem wishes be a fan of next and this about gaining credit and respect from others. Lastly, but at the highest level, is self-actualisation wrapper the crave for type and personal growth.

Maslow states that each level must be satisfied before the next one will become a motivator. However this isn't always the case as Mahatma Ghandi certainly risked physiological and safety needs for the satisfaction of others when India was striving for independence from the UK.

What leaders can take from Maslow's model is that they should create opportunities for individuals to develop and make the most of their talents.

Herzberg's hygiene factors:

Herzberg felt at hand to be two groups of possessions to consider, one of which de-motivates and one which motivates. He called the things with the aim of can de-motivate 'hygeine factors' and these include ballet company policies, salary and the effective environment. He affirmed these to be basics which obligation be perfectly or also the employee may possibly be dissatisfied, but, he did not grade these as things which may possibly motivate. Motivators are in their own flash troupe and enter achievement, recognition, the control itself, accountability and career progression.

McGregor's X and Y theory:

McGregor had a to some extent different theory so as to near are two types of people. The to start with group, called X people, need an despotic method as they are inherently lazy, resistant to work and will work no responsibility. The second group, Y people, are greatly self-motivated and greatest management through contribution and involvement


No one theory will be right or wrong.

A self-ruled adapt of leadership will be on the whole appropriate to senior teams and those who are motivated by top order desires such as individual improvement and public recognition. On the extra hand employees involved in more everyday administration responsibilities may only be arrival to work for the community countenance and would be superlative managed with a more consultative style. The consultative and classless styles might be argued to be the a large amount motivating as generally people enjoy some degree of responsibility. still fill with functioning in the emergency air force such as hospitals and fire rescue may need an authoritarian sound out because nearby simply isn't time for consultation on what's best to do when lives are in danger.

Each style will graft well in different work situations and for different people. One style is unlikely to work brim all the point and the same person. an important person who is normally satisfying the top order self-actualisation needs according to Maslow's theory could drop back into safety needs and easily slip into being a McGregor X type worker if they feel that their job is under threat and they may be made redundant. The leader must know when to adapt.

Cultural diversity:

Understanding the dining experience within the hospitality industry is a complex process. Numbers of researchers have commented that the heart of this complexity is due to the extent of customer participation in the service process (Parasuraman, Zeithaml, & Berry, 1985; Kandampully, 1997)

Increasing globalization requires more interaction surrounded by family from diverse

cultures, beliefs, and backgrounds than eternally before. nation no longer settle and

do in an blinkered marketplace; they are now part of a worldwide economy amid

struggle coming beginning practically every continent. For this reason, organizations

need diversity to befall more creative and open to change. thus

maximizing and capitalizing on workplace diversity has become an worthy

issue for management today.

Since managing diversity what's left a significant

organizational challenge, managers must learn the management skills considered necessary in

a multicultural work environment. Supervisors and managers must be prepared

to teach themselves and others within their organizations to attach importance to multicultural

differences in equally associates and customers so with the intention of all is treated among

dignity. Diversity issues are now well thought-out critical and are projected to become

smooth new important in the opportunity due to increasing differences in the people

of lots of countries.

Companies may well do as well as to focus on diversity and peep for customs to

happen to entirely inclusive organizations for the reason that diversity has the capability of

docile greater productivity and competitive advantages. successively and valuing

diversity is a key component of real populate management, which can get stronger

point of work productivity. Unmanaged diversity in the bureau force come to pass to an

barrier for achieving clerical goals.

Therefore diversity can be perceivedas a "double-edged sword".

Concepts of diversity:

Diversity is a subjective phenomenon, formed by classify members themselves

who on the foundation of their different common identities tag others as similar or dissimilar: "A group is diverse if it is composed of individuals who differ on a

characteristic on which they base their own social identity" . Loden & Rosener [1991] define diversity as that which

differentiates one group of people from another along primary and secondary

dimensions. Primary dimensions of diversity, those exerting first influences

on our identities, are gender, ethnicity, race, sexual orientation, age and mental

or brute abilities and characteristics. The core dimensions shape our vital

self-image as well as our vital world views. Additionally, they give birth to the

as a rule bang on groups in the headquarters and society. minor dimensions of

diversity are take away visible, make use of a more unpredictable influence on individual uniqueness and

add a additional faint lushness to the primary dimensions of diversity. They include:

educational background, geographic location, religion, chief language, descendants

status, work style, work experience, armed forces experience, organizational role and

level, takings and communication style. The secondary dimensions blow our

self esteem and self definition.

There is a definite trend towards definitions of a multiplicity of diversity

dimensions; Arredondo [2004] adds culture, social class and language to

the primary dimensions and healthcare beliefs and recreational interests

to the secondary dimensions. She further adds a tertiary dimension, which

encompasses historical moments experienced. Maier [2002, pp. 132-134] lists

38 possible diversity dimensions, and further suggests that his item "character

traits" is "infinitely expandable". He illustrates this multi-dimensionality by reference to the individual as a kaleidoscope.

Cultural homogeneity and diversity in the workplace - a comparative


Cultural diversity has been defined as "the representation, in one social system,

of people with distinctly different group affiliations of cultural significance".

It has been studied in both laboratory and field settings. Laboratory studies,

grounded in the value-in-diversity perspective, have shown that diversity within

work groups increases their effectiveness [Cox et al. 1991]. On the other hand,

field studies, guided by public individuality and interrelated self-categorization theories,

give suggested that diversity is associated with off-putting performance outcomes

. Within culturally homogeneous groups, members will have a tendency to

communicate with each another more often and in a greater variety of ways,

perhaps because they share worldviews and a unified culture resulting from

in-group attachments and shared perceptions [Earley & Mosakowski, 2000].

According to social identity theory, cultural homogeneity in management

groups may along these lines increase the alongside of satisfaction and cooperation and decrease

emotional conflict. given that standardized groups do not

possess major cultural barriers to social intercourse, unquestionable social associations

and in-group social contacts are fostered. This formulation suggests

with the aim of lethal social identity and self-categorization processes command not inhibit

an concern amid a culturally all the same management group. As cultural

diversity increases, however, shared contrast and categorization processes

occur, and in-groups/out-groups and cognitive biases may occur, creating barriers to communal intercourse.

Therefore, as heterogeneity in management

groups reaches moderate levels, the psychological processes allied and

community characteristics scheme and self-categorization processes may be other likely to

emerge. These processes create distinct behaviours such as commonality by means of

others in a race- or gender-based group, accord to the norms of one's group,

and discrimination towards out-groups To the extent

that multiple subcultures exist in moderately heterogeneous groups, conflict is

potentially maximized [Earley & Mosakowski 2000], and intergroup interaction

and communication may be blocked [Alexander, Nuchols, Bloom, & Lee 1995]. For

example, Earley and Mosakowski [2000] found that moderately heterogeneous

groups exhibited rapport conflict, contact problems, and low

identification of members with an complete do group. in management

groups, the difficulties linked with moderate levels of heterogeneity may

lead to refusal act outcomes for an organization. even though moderate

levels of cultural heterogeneity may create barriers to effective social intercourse,

high levels of heterogeneity might in fact flag these barriers ,

since group members will be more evenly diffused over the categories of cultural diversity, and in-group/outgroup identities will be reduced.

Double Effects of Diversity:

In sum, in charge with on hand above look into diversity might exhibit positive

and denial contributions to organizational functioning depending on its level.

at hand are some advantages and disadvantages for organizations which deserve

to be discussed in allocate


There is substantial literature which argues that diversity has performance

advantages over homogenous work structures [Cox, Lobel and MacLeod 1991].

First, multicultural organizations grasp an advantage in attracting and retaining

the best talent. The capabilities of women and minorities offer a wider labour

pool. Organizations that are able to create a center of attention and maintain qualified alternative

set members and keep faith with them from side to side fair-minded and equitable career

improvement treatments, improvement competitive lead and draw from elevated quality

human property dividends. Second, a multicultural organization is better

apt to wait a diverse exterior clientele in a supplementary increasingly overall market.

Such organizations cover a better tolerant of the requirements of the legal,

political, social, economic and cultural environments of foreign nations.

Third, in research-oriented and hi-tech industries, the broad station of talents

generated by a gender-and ethnic-diverse tidiness becomes a costly

advantage. Fourth, multicultural organizations are start to be in good health at unruly solving, possess advance power to drag delayed meanings, and are additional apt to exhibit manifold perspectives

and interpretations in dealing with complex issues. Such organizations are fewer

susceptible. Fifth, multicultural organizations be apt to possess

more organizational flexibility, and are better able to adapt to changes. Women,

for instance, are said to give senior tolerance for ambiguity than men.

Negative impact of failing to create workplace diversity:

A review of diversity copy shows that sometimes increasing diversity is portrayed as a captivating formula with the intention of willpower robotically provide employers amid competitive advantage. But empirical research evidence is conflicting


Results can show advantages and disadvantages (Williams and O'Reilly 1998, Raghuram and Garud 1996, Dwyer et al 2003, Chevrier 2003). In fact, workforce diversity isn't a competitive organisational strength unless it's effectively managed. Allard (2002 p14) notes that, 'Just having diversity does not by itself guarantee greater business success nor does it guarantee qualitative social and creativity improvements.'

Research findings suggest that simply changing the structure or composition of the workforce doesn't lead to business success (Haight 1990, Cox and Blake 1991, Ancona and Caldwell 1992 p321, Phillips 1992). On the contrary, in some instances, workforce diversity may even undermine business performance.

Allard (2002 p13 observes the hoped-for advantages of diversity engineering. He explains with the aim of desired outcomes comprise such intangibles as inventive outlooks, upper morale, enlarged flexibility, manifold perspectives, increased problem-solving skills, increased creativity, decline in intergroup tensions, and better market opportunities. But potential disadvantages include impasses in success agreements, miscommunication, confusion, ambiguity, fear, resistance and backlash commencing best part members, unrealistic expectations, lofty price tag of litigation, and recruitment difficulties.

The negative outcomes of not managing diversity include low morale, ambiguity, conflict and tension, confusion and communication problems. These undermine organisational attachment and reduce effectiveness and workforce cohesion (Chevrier 2003, Wharton and Baron 1987; Tsui et al 1992; O'Reilly et al 1989, Tsui and Ashford 1991, Thomas and Ely 1996, Cox 1993, Nemetz and Christensen 1996, Robbins 2001).

In their review of the literature on the effects of diversity, Milliken and Martins (1996 p408) found that diversity in gender, race or age may lead to higher turnover rates.

Similarly, Jackson and colleagues (1995) noted that diversity may create discomfort for individual members of a workforce and result in lower organisational integration and attachment. Still others argue the possibility that, even if diversity fosters better performance, the costs of co-ordinating diverse workforces can impede its advantages (Ancona and Caldwell 1992; Murray 1989).

Ancona and Caldwell (1992 p323) explain the negative effects of diversity:

'The group literature points to the difficulty of merging different cognitive styles, attitudes and values, such as those found in teams with diverse members. If not managed effectively, this diversity can create internal processes that slow decision making and keep members from concentrating on the task. Teams made up of individuals from different "thought-worlds" may find it difficult to develop a shared purpose and an effective group process.'

Cordero et al (1996 p206) conclude that 'homogeneity in group composition creates positive outcomes because of the effects of the similarity-attraction effect, that is, that people are attracted to those who are similar to themselves.'

The diverse impact of diversity on individuals:

Studies analysing the bang of diversity on diverse groups of employees indicate to facilitate the effects of and reactions to workforce diversity may show variations in the middle of special groups of persons.


For instance, white men react more negatively and display lower levels of morale, job satisfaction and innovation in diverse work groups than women and those from ethnic minorities, who react more favourably and show evidence of increased job satisfaction and participation (Wharton and Baron 1987, Tsui et al 1992, Cordero et al 1996, DiTomaso and Hooijberg 1996).

Soni (2000) conducted case research inquiries in huge unrestricted sector organisations to sift the relationship between race/ethnic and gender identities, perceived discrimination, job satisfaction, interpersonal relationships, and attitudes on the way to place of work diversity and diversity management initiatives

The results of the learn showed with the intention of women and ethnic-minority employees were additional receptive to diversity management initiatives, perceived greater discrimination and reported minus job satisfaction and not as much of rewarding interpersonal relationships than their white guy colleagues.

. Similarly, Rubaii-Barrett and Beck (1993) examined the differences in composition climate perceptions and levels of job satisfaction involving not the same ethnic groups in a scrutinize administered to 268 indigenous authority employees in New Mexico. The findings of this revision not compulsory so as to attitudes towards diversity are moderated by the ethnic identities of employees.

These conflicting investigation findings on the property of diversity suggest with the purpose of it's not diversity per se that automatically leads to affair sensation or failure.

Two main general points can be made about the affiliation between diversity and multinational success


1 The belongings of labor force diversity are conditioned by further organisational and contextual factors


2 Diversity false piety be used as a competitive organisational dilution but for it's managed effectively


Factors that influence the effects of diversity

There are at smallest amount four main moderating or intervening variables with the aim of condition the property of diversity:

o the nature of go to work everyday jobs

o corporate business strategy

o diversity and organisational background

o diversity and context.

The nature of work tasks

Regarding the belongings of the nature of work odd jobs on the diversity-business-success rapport .

, Cordero et al (1996 p206) suggest that, 'Homogeneity appears to be a charity performance for groups by more schedule tasks, while heterogeneity produces benefits for groups with other complex and interdependent tasks.' In other words, diversity with employees delivers a competitive lead for organisations when the performance of work of fiction and multifaceted household tasks with the intention of require high levels of creative thinking, innovation and problem-solving skills are intricate (Dwyer et al 2003, Jackson 1992).

Corporate business strategy

The impact of diversity on business performance also displays variations in accordance with corporate business strategy (Richard 2000, Schuler and Jackson 1987).

Dwyer et al (2003 p1010) tell us, 'A growth-oriented, culturally diverse organisation benefits from employees who are flexible in their thinking and who are less likely to be concerned about departing from the norm.' Their research findings suggest that firms adopting growth strategies benefit from the increased levels of performance stemming from gender diversity at managerial level.

The positive relationship relating issue accomplishment and workforce diversity in growth-oriented organisations holds faithful for run diversity as well as gender diversity; but race diversity is shown to be linked with injurious and unenthusiastic outcomes for the downsizing firms (Richard 2000).

Diversity and organisational culture :

The third point with the purpose of desires to be considered in analysing the advantages and disadvantages of diversity regarding production victory is organisational culture. It's argued to facilitate positive organisational cultures cultivate the positive special effects of diversity while others dampen them.

According to the research findings of Chatman et al (1998) organisational cultures based on communalist ethics positively moderate the liaison between workforce diversity and business act by dissolving the conflicts stemming from and fostering the impending profit of diversity


Dwyer et al (2003 p1017), in their research of 535 banks on the relationship between management-level gender diversity, growth orientation and organisational culture, found that 'the impact of gender diversity on performance was dependent on the organisation context.'

Using the typology of cultures developed by Quinn and his colleagues, Dwyer et al argued that workforce diversity provides business benefits in a 'clan culture

- characterised by participation, teamwork, employee focus, consensual problem-solving and decision-making - and in an adhocracy culture - characterised by flexibility, spontaneity, individualism, entrepreneurship, creativity, and adaptability (Dwyer et al 2003 pp1011-1012).

Another feature of the organisational culture that moderates the effects that diversity has on business performance is the extent to which equal opportunities and diversity are part of it.

Knouse and Dansby (2000) argue that organisations that embrace equal opportunities and diversity gain advantage through increased effectiveness, satisfaction and commitment among employees. They say the diversity of employees, such as their race, ethnicity, gender, age, education and rank, affects individual behaviours and attitudes towards equal opportunities, which in turn affects personal satisfaction, effectiveness and commitment.

In their survey of 922 employees, Rynes and Rosen (1994) found that employees who received diversity training were more supportive of diversity.

Bendict et al (2001), in a survey of 108 US diversity training providers, concluded that diversity training is most beneficial when it embodies an organisational development approach.

Swann et al (2004) observed a group of MBA students over a semester and found that verification of personal self-views fostered identification with and performance in diverse groups.

Similarly, Polzer et al (2002) investigated the moderating get done of self-verification processes on the correlation linking diversity and act on MBA students. together demographic characteristics (for example, sex, race) and functional categories (for example, job function) featured in the explanation of diversity they used. They originate occurrence was other enhanced in groups wherever levels of self-verification were high.

But Bhadury et al (2000 p144) initiate several studies which suggested with the intention of workforce diversity can carry out both clear and downbeat impacts on organisations. However, the nature of the contact diversity has, depends to a large scope on the environment of the diversity climate more readily than the existence of diversity.

In their experimental research, Gilbert and Stead (1999) examined the possessions of diversity management on the perception of qualifications and competences of employees beginning special battle and gender groups. Two experiments involving samples of 179 and 220 undergraduate transnational students were conducted and the fallout showed so as to the qualifications and competences of women and racial minorities hired in diversity management programmes were viewed extra positively than individuals of nation recruited beneath positive action programmes.

Recommendations and Conclusion

However, the key in both staff guidance and the provision of guest services is to offer flexibility and choice. Cultural diversity may make available many challenges, but it also presents right as countless opportunities for delineation and synergy.

The increasingly competitive the human race economy, gradual globalization of intercontinental

companies, and fast changes in demographic trends and work structure are posing talented challenges to management in the hospitality industry. discernment and supervision diversity has like so become imperative to the contemporary welcome industry.

Cultural diversity brings grand opportunities and payback to the companies in the

warmth industry. But at the same time, these companies are at rest facing a big challenge as how to for practical purposes organization the multicultural workplaces. Many cultural barriers such as transmission obstacle, discrimination and stereotypes unmoving want to be overcome. To mushroom the awareness and sensitivities of cultural diversity management, interrelated exercise list should be designed and conducted in the industry.

even if the welcome industry's relevance in the outcome of cultural diversity is

increasing, it seems with the intention of in the moot return few educators have been uneasy in the midst of the implications of adding cultural diversity management into hospitality curriculum. a large amount of the burden of multicultural education as a result has been on industry training . As the potential managers who choice input the office and do business in the midst of the cultural diversity. issues directly, generosity graduate students need to be educated among multicultural management knowledge and skills. nearby is necessity that cultural diversity management training is incorporated interested in academy curriculums, such as in a being reserve course. Companies of the hospitality industry, specially the HR departments of these companies, should too coin and conduct in force preparation programs for employees, providing diversity management training to employees to augment their awareness and sensitivities to cultural diversity.

Current managers and future mangers be supposed to be given additional multicultural management working out to polish their management skills in dealing with cultural diversity issues. Cross-cultural working out must be known to persons folks that spirit be entering the global marketplace of welcome management field. Hence, manipulative some training programs is needed for the hospitality industry. In the subsequent fart of this paper, a cultural diversity managmanagement training module will be open as a practical case in point for the welcome industry.