First manpower planning world divide into two parts manpower and planning. According to casado (Housekeeping management 2000) planning means the arrangement where one should go and how should replace there. And planning means organization knows that those staff is sufficient and those are able to run organization smoothly.
Importance of manpower planning -
To maintain the staff is important because less or over staffing affects on business. If staff is less it can affect on loss of business, customers, profits and also orders. If staff is more it can be cause of wastage. For any organization require to maintain staff as well as distribute work for every person.(Casado,2000) Housekeeping Management 1st ed. Canada, John Wiley & Sons.
Advantages of manpower planning -
Manpower planning helps to identify shortage of staff.
Manpower planning helps to fulfill needs of organization.
Manpower planning also helps to motivate their staff towards their objectives
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Planning helps to take corrective actions.
Labour market strategy
The term interior labour market can be known a broad meaning. The most limited definition relations plan interior labour market a exact form of labour market organization to the development of internal job ladders with total of parts of entry, involvement workers the point of view of job safety, interior support finding, and senior life time earnings than they could control on the outdoor labour market. This definition is related with doe ringer and Piors' internal labour market model and with Williamsons' model of hierarchies. A weaker description would include employment plan which tends to protect insiders from outdoor labour market situation of employment than they could find out in the outdoor labour market. This definition is related with insider outsider copy of the labour market is or else of inner labour market is more often than not exact according to the level of pay, the level and occurrences of job support, the level of job safety, and the accepting of pay settlements to interior or outdoor topic (blanch flower and Oswald 1988). The second chance of an employer - center approach is that of ignore the control of external situation on internal policies. External situation provide the constraints and the opportunities which find out more space for exercises. A main capacity, where employers moves in the direction of a center - margin strategy were internal requirements of firm for superior efficient and statistical flexibility ( Atkinson 1985a ). Successive growth and analysis of labour-market change have advice that such moves are more correctly interpreted as firms responses to altering labour market situation. Which were possible to be inverted ones the labour market tightened (Rubery.J.(2006)
Employer strategy and the labour market:23-34).
B) In any organization supply and quality supply and the quality are the two different factors. Supply means how organization making efforts and what efforts taking by the organization to fulfill customers need means quality.
Following factors helps in supply and quality.
Age - In this factor staffs are different age groups.
Rate - To take care the rate of the staff wages are finalized on the basis their experience, skill and the age is also consider for their salary pay roll.
Labour force - It is an indicator for the number of the staff currently working with organization.
External factors -
During this supply and quality of labour procedure external factors plays important roll. PEST is external factors.
P - Political
E - Economical
S - Social
T - Technological
Political factors mainly related with government policies and rules. This government policies and rules plays important role in every origination. It is must to follow these policies and rules before and after opening the business. Followings are some political factors
1) Service Laws -
As per U K Employment Right Act 1999 and 2003 to keep all terms and condition in written format as a documentation proof. And also responsible to paid minimum wages as per National Minimum Wages 1998.
2) Tax Procedure -
According to U K government employment law every employer deducts a certain amount of tax from every staff. That deduction is around 31.38% as national insurance and income tax.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
3) Environment Laws -
Every organization is responsible of environment factors. For example
In every organization should have proper disposal for wastage.
No use of those machineries which make loud sound.
Effect on organization -
Visa policies -
U K government made new rules because of that hotel industry not able to hire new skilled and experienced staff from other country.
According British law workers should get minimum wages.
Economical factors -
Every organization has won financial status. Economical factors change financial budget. Some of economical factors are as bellows
Inflation rate -
Inflation rate depends upon general price and currency rate.Inflation rate depends on the position of country in the worlds finance market. It can be measured monthly, quarterly or yearly it is decide by retail price index. Every organizations progress depends on inflation rate.
Trade rate -
Trade rate means cost of one currency changes in other currency. Organization profit depends on trade rate.
Labour cost -
Labour cost include training, recruiting, wages and other employees benefits such as bonus, pension etc.
Effect on organization -
Due to high labour turnover organization effects on profit.
Due to recession many employees lost those jobs.
Social factors -
Social factors concern with social culture. This related with demographic and cultural points. Some of social factors are bellows
Living standard -
Living standard is totally depends on the income of person. It is main factor to get changes the demand and nature of people.
According to living standard people are changing day by day. So it is necessary to give proper education or training to staff and make changes within the organization.
Health conscious -
Now day's people are more conscious about their health. So that every hotel trying to introduce healthy food.
Effect on organization -
1) As per guest requirement every hotel starts launching vegetarian food.
2) As per new market trends hotels start introducing healthy food.
Technical factors -
For influences outsourcing decisions technological source is good. To getting accurate information changes is must that called technological changes. Followings are some technical factors.
Internet and telephone resources -
Now day's people don't want waste time. So many hotel start taking orders online or on telephone.
In U K people believes on self point places where they get products and its delivery because they not prefer to stand in queues.
Effect on organization -
Some time technological systems is costly.
For new system staff training is require.
Some time technical systems are complicated.
Manpower demand factors
It is important to identify manpower demand factors. Manpower demanding factors related with SWOT. It is helps to find out weaknesses and convert it in to strengths. SWOT means
S - Strengths
W - Weaknesses
O - Opportunities
T - Threats
Marriott has good reputation in market of good quality of service.
Now day's people aware about health. People are ready to spend more money instead of keeping their health in danger.
Because of goodwill, good reputation, good financial status and brand name they can get resources easily.
Marriott is big chain in world. So they require money to start new outlet. For new outlet they get loan easily because of good financial status.
As per the new trends Marriott use new technological factors and most those factors are costly.
Marriott is famous for service and quality. They never compromise with quality so they spend big amount on raw ingredients.
Due to Olympics may be U K government loosening their rules. That can be beneficial to international students to get work permits. It is beneficial to Marriott to reduce labour turn over. Such as recruiting and training.
Olympics come in 2012 that is also beneficial to Marriott. that is the time to get more profit.
As per the new trends Marriott starts new changes or introducing new ideas.
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Today's world is competitive world. Because of competition, pay package, working condition employees leaving jobs.
New staff recruitment is costly and also decrease profitability.
Due to society changes people's demands is change. So Marriott starts to introduce new products. Such as low fat food and low calorie food.
Labour turnover -
Labour turn over affects on business. It calculates as number of staff leaving job in specific time to the working staff that specific time.
Total number of staff leaving jobs X100
Average total number of staff working
Causes of labour turnover -
Some time organization not able to fulfill employee's requirements. Which result organization loose skilled and experienced staff.
Some time less motivation increase labour turnover. But Marriott try to motivate the staff to do work on guest satisfaction. For that they gives awards such as "employee of the month", bonuses.
In every organization effective manpower plays an important role. Within the organization exact no of staff should require to do work. It helps to increase profitability. For example - if Marriott not recruit exact number of staff in any section. Its means they are not saving money on wages. But due to over pressure employee can leave job.
If organization not able to recruit "right person at right place" it is also labour turnover.
Incorrect working condition also increases labour turn over.
Effect of labour turnover -
If any employee left job without informing the organization it affects on staff availability. Within that particular time there is staff shortage. Its outcome is delay of customer service.
Recruiting new staff is long as well as costly procedure. Because new staff require training
If any employee left job due to good offer by competitor, there should be possibility to leakage our secrets.
Some time due to continuous recruitment and provide training to new staff present staff are remain untrained. It affects on productivity and quality also standard of organization goes down. Its main outcome is customer dissatisfaction and guest complaints.
Armstrong(Human resources management, 8 th ed)
Principals of supply and demand -
As discuss earlier manpower planning plays important role in every organization. It helps to increase sale and standard.
As per my research followings are the principles of supply and demand.
Job specification -
This is a documents prepare by employer. In that employer mention requirements of job. For example - experience, qualification, skills, qualities.
Job description -
According to Casado (Housekeeping management 2000) job description means the information "how to get job done". Its mean explain to the applicant duties, standard during work, job work condition and working environment.
Employment schedules -
It prepares by supervisor or manager which include information how many staff working on particular day, week or month. It also helps to keep control and contact with staff.
Duty roster -
Duty roster indicates employee's name, working time/hours and offs.
Flexible working hours -
This system mostly used in small organization. In this system employee has freedom to choose those working hours. It is benibificial to employee to work without pressure and also increase working ability.
Part-time workers -
This system used by retired people and students. In this system workers allow to work specified time within a week.
Job sharing -
It allows to do employees within specify period.
Working arrangements -
Selecting and recruiting -
Interview is most effective method to find out suitable candidate. Interview is only way to face to face contact it helps to find out right candidate to right place.
Every organization has different training schedule it can be monthly weekly or quarterly. He aim is to get chance to every employee train themselves and at of the skills and standard. Training helps to get employees confidence.
Working hours -
Working hours helps work in convenient working conditions. It is also helpful to organization to find out exact number of workers on specific time.
Armstrong (human resources management)8th ed
Legislation can be defined as a process in which organizations are controlled by the legislative body such as parliament which is abided by the constitution of the country. To run a safe organization one should undergo all the legal requirements because each and every country has set certain rules and regulations for the development of the society
Name of the Act: Employment Act
It makes requirements to decide the argument between the workers. It also provides compensation for financial loss in case of underpayment or non-attendance.
It emphasizes high-quality outline of the workers by maintaining the disciplines and rules of the organizations.
Each and every member of staff of the all the age groups must go after this act.
Name of the Act: Health and Safety Act, 1974
It is shows that safety principles should be maintain at the labor force, correct training should be provide to each worker whether he is chief of the section or clerk and organization should supply safety equipments to the workers.
Under this act the duty of the owner is to give his workers with secure working environment which will decrease the risks of accidents throughout their work. The owner should give enough training to the workers about the handling of chemicals and serious machineries.
First aid kit should be accessible at the working place at any particular time. Correct training and knowledge about health and safety should be provide on suitable starting point. (www.iosh.co.uk)
Name of the Act: Fair Employment Act, 2002. Unfair Dismissal
It tries to decide the conflicts among the workers on official origin and the illegal actions of the worker with the company.
To implement a control situation in the labor force this helped the staff to increase their voice in case of unfairness done to them.
Employees should be made conscious of the control and their dealings of the organization.
Name of the Act: National Minimum Act, 1998
Minimum wages to be paid to the employees who working in an organization i.e. the workers are qualified to get paid minimum £5.93 as par Oct 2010 as up to that time they were permitted for £5.83 per hour wages.
The workers can be paid more but not a smaller amount than the minimum wage, the hour rate of the employee can rise according to his profile, skills and experience. As par the UK rules rate will increase in Oct 2010, which will affect on the profit of the organization in some part because the organization had to pay more for its workers.
All workers should be paid as per the legislation rules. The amount of hour rate went increase which results is staff satisfaction and they started working hard and openhandedly for their organization which shows the way to guest satisfaction and it is also beneficial to the organization.
After doing the research on the manpower planning, the information obviously states to operate a successful organization there is a need of efficient manpower planning. The organization requires keeping itself constant and maintaining the stability of workers all the time. The corporation should always priorities and follows all the legislation.