Twenty-first Century is a challenging time, leadership is the most prominent aspect absolutely. Leadership can command the following departments how to carry out the operation of enterprises, according to the characteristics of sublimates coordinate the enterprise internal position reasonable , also played the important role of stable the people, able to take certain measures to motivate employees, make the interests of the company to maximize. Leadership is a kind of influence, or is an art or a process to exert an influence on people, make people be willing to efforts for the realization of business objectives. If there is no good leadership to optimize the management, enterprises will be lacking spirit of cooperation, leadership can be said is be the core of the enterprise, his arbitrary decisions will affect enterprise's operation. In this essay, i will discuss and analysis the four leadership theories, they are trait theory, behavior theory, contingency theory and transformational leadership.
Trait theory is to study a good and successful leadership's inherent quality and leadership behavior and performance relationship. This theory is start of leadership's personal qualities is the key to determine the effectiveness of leadership; leadership effectiveness depends on the qualities of a leader. It is now generally accepted that the leader's characteristics can be inherited and acquired. The main trait of Leadership include: physical attributes social background, intelligence, personality, motivation, focus on tasks and social participation. Dulewicz and Herert in one survey found that some outstanding leaders also have eight characteristics. In addition, in different countries, the trait theory is different and different gender is also different. For example, male tend to freedom of action. And female tend to communication, social skills. And compared with contingency theory, contingency theory is changed by external factors, it stressed that in different situations, different leadership have different effects. While trait theory ignored the subordinate's needs, not specified the importance of various characteristics, lack of cause and effect, ignore situational factors and contingency theory on the contrary.
Chinese women entrepreneurs accounted for about 20% of the total number of entrepreneurs, and nearly 50% of the women entrepreneurs to internationalization development. In global, the United States enterprise 51% for women. , Europe in the last 20 years the new employment opportunities, 1/4 are female entrepreneur business provided. Women leaders have stronger sense of responsibility than male, such as the maternity care. Women are more suitable for the flexible management, they have better communication skills and so on, and almost all successful female entrepreneurs have a high force of will.
Behavior theory is divided into two kinds, authoritarianism and democracy. Autocratic means the leadership with the right and order subordinates to obey compulsorily. Democracy means that they plan for their own work, play to their strengths and division of labor. Democratic it that the leader participation in group activities, and no distance with each other. In addition, there are two factors cause leaders to adjust their styles, respectively the character of subordinates and demands of situation. Behavior theory's representative work is the leadership grid, which is invented by Blake and Mouton, this is divided into five kinds leaderships, the first is poor leadership (1, 1), Second is club leadership (1, 9). Third is task leadership (9, 1). The fourth is team leadership (9, 9). Last is the middle leadership (5.5). Compare with trait theory, trait theory trend to the innate characteristics of leadership. Behavior theory believes that the leader's quality and ability is acquired through learning and training, learning and training determine their success, the two is opposite.
Yanhong Li, the founder of Baidu, from a technical engineer become an outstanding enterprise managers, he just in 9 years. Of course, he has nearly 40 years of education and experience. In the not too long management road, Yanhong Li has formed a set of management style and management philosophy for himself. In his thought of management, talent is the most important of all. He respects everyone's ideas. Every time before making a decision, he will ask colleagues' view. He never thinks that he is the boss and to subordinate with force command. He looks the team as a family. Yanhong Li's leadership style is the important guarantee that Baidu can develop to today.
Contingency theory research the situational factors related to leadership behaviors and the potential impact of leadership effectiveness. The representative of contingency theory is Fiedler contingency theory, Vroom and Yetton's contingency theory, and the path-goal theory. Contingency theory means that there is on immutable and frozen leadership model, a good leader should be a fickle person, according to the situational factors and change their style. Compared with behavior theory, leadership's behavior and the effectiveness of the leadership nearly depends on task structure, member relations, , subordinate's demand, while contingency theory remedies this shortcoming, puts forward effective leadership depends on the situational factors, and situational factors can be separated out.
Phil. Jackson is a famous coach in NBA, has won 11 championships. As a NBA Hall of Fame coach, Jackson's coaching style is different with others. He doesn't like to well-behave, he likes according the game situation, and the player's psychology to adjust. When the game into the final moments, he knows that his star player is sure to be other's stronger defense, he boldly give the last ball to the role players to complete, and several times they did not live up to the opportunity, make a killing. This ability is very difference with other coaches.
Transformational leadership is a new type of leadership followed trait theory, behavior theory, contingency theory, proposed by United States political sociologist James McGregor Burns . Transformational leadership is one hand by influencing and changing organizational culture creates a respect and individualized care situations. on the other hand, with its own charm to effectively vision- communication and create authorization to enhance staff's emotion and motivation, arouse employee's potential, formed the relationship of leaders and followers with mutual incentive and improvement , thereby achieving organizational goals. A transformational leader needs four qualities: charisma, inspiration, intellectual stimulation, individual consideration. and compare with the former three leadership styles, transformational leadership undoubtedly is the most flexible one , it needs not only the trait theory with some characteristics of talent, also need more behavior theory and contingency theory such as the effort, and surrounding the factors to change leadership style.
Zheng Xiu kang is the founder of Chinese Kangnai shoes. In the early, Kangnai was a small company. In a few years the company without any development. Later, Zheng Xiukang changed the company rules; offer the employees the opportunities for training and guidance, in addition to motivate subordinates, as long as the completion of performance required, everyone can be promoted. And let his staff recognize the significance of his work. Within a few years, Kangnai has made great progress, his reform plays a significant role, he motivating subordinates, satisfied subordinates needs, so subordinate transcend their original level of effort. Now, Kangnai has become the top enterprises in china.
In conclusion, leadership is like the light of boundless sea, leading the enterprise to prosperity. No doubt, leadership gives the enterprise a survive strength. Of course, when the enterprises is growing, it also brings opportunities to others .a perfect interpretation of win-win value. But undeniable, they are bearing the responsibility and pressure is inestimable. Therefore, how to be a good leadership is a compulsory course. I think, when every leader is improving their ability, please pay more attention to improve their own quality, create a good corporate culture, and make the enterprise to gain both fame and wealth.