Leadership Procedures Used In A Business Commerce Essay


Leadership is a process of getting things done through people. The quarterback moves the team toward a touchdown. The senior patrol leader guides the troop to a high rating at the camporee. The mayor gets the people to support new policies to make the city better.

These leaders are getting things done by working through people -- football players, Scouts, and ordinary citizens. They have used the process of leadership to reach certain goals.

Leadership is not a science. So being a leader is an adventure because you can never be sure whether you will reach your goal -- at least this time. The touchdown drive may end in a fumble. The troop may have a bad weekend during the camporee. Or the city's citizens may not be convinced that the mayor's policies are right. So these leaders have to try again, using other methods. But they still use the same process the process of good leadership.

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Leadership means responsibility. It's adventure and often fun, but it always means responsibility. The leader is the guy the others look to to get the job done. So don't think your job as a troop leader or a staff member will be just an honor. It's more than that. It means that the other Scouts expect you to take the responsibility of getting the job done. If you lead, they will do the job. If you don't, they may expect you to do the job all by yourself.

That's why it's important that you begin right now to learn what leadership is all about.

Wear your badge of office proudly. It does not automatically make you a good leader. But it identifies you as a Scout who others want to follow -- if you'll let them by showing leadership.

You are not a finished leader. No one ever is, not even a president or prime minister. But you are an explorer of the human mind because now you are going to try to learn how to get things done through people. This is one of the keys to leadership.

You are searching for the secrets of leadership. Many of them lie locked inside you. As you discover them and practice them, you will join a special group of people-skilled leaders.


Good leaders are made not born. If you have the desire and willpower, you can become an effective leader. Good leaders develop through a never ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience. This guide will help you through that process.

To inspire your workers into higher levels of teamwork, there are certain things you must be, know, and do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired through continual work and study. Good leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills; they are NOT resting on their laurels.

Before we get started, let's define leadership. Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership attributes, such as beliefs, values, ethics, character, knowledge, and skills. Although your position as a manager, supervisor, lead, etc. gives you the authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives in the organization, this power does not make you a leader...it simply makes you the boss. Leadership differs in that it makes the followers want to achieve high goals, rather than simply bossing people around.

Bass' (1989 & 1990) theory of leadership states that there are three basic ways to explain how people become leaders. The first two explain the leadership development for a small number of people. These theories are:

Some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. This is the Trait Theory.

A crisis or important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion, which brings out extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person. This is the Great Events Theory.

People can choose to become leaders. People can learn leadership skills. This is the Transformational Leadership Theory. It is the most widely accepted theory today and the premise on which this guide is based.

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When a person is deciding if she respects you as a leader, she does not think about your attributes, rather, she observes what you do so that she can know who you really are. She uses this observation to tell if you are an honorable and trusted leader or a self-serving person who misuses authority to look good and get promoted. Self-serving leaders are not as effective because their employees only obey them, not follow them. They succeed in many areas because they present a good image to their seniors at the expense of their workers.

The basis of good leadership is honorable character and selfless service to your organization. In your employees' eyes, your leadership is everything you do that effects the organization's objectives and their well-being. Respected leaders concentrate on what they are [be] (such as beliefs and character), what they know (such as job, tasks, and human nature), and what they do (such as implementing, motivating, and providing direction).

What makes a person want to follow a leader? People want to be guided by those they respect and who have a clear sense of direction. To gain respect, they must be ethical. A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future.

The Two Most Important Keys to Effective Leadership

A Hay's study examined over 75 key components of employee satisfaction. They found that:

Trust and confidence in top leadership was the single most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in an organization.

Effective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the key to winning organizational trust and confidence:

Helping employees understand the company's overall business strategy.

Helping employees understand how they contribute to achieving key business objectives.

Sharing information with employees on both how the company is doing and how an employee's own division is doing -- relative to strategic business objectives.

Characteristics of good leadership


1. A good leader has an exemplary character. It is of utmost importance that a leader is trustworthy to lead others. A leader needs to be trusted and be known to live their life with honestly and integrity. A good leader "walks the talk" and in doing so earns the right to have responsibility for others. True authority is born from respect for the good character and trustworthiness of the person who leads.

2. A good leader is enthusiastic about their work or cause and also about their role as leader. People will respond more openly to a person of passion and dedication. Leaders need to be able to be a source of inspiration, and be a motivator towards the required action or cause. Although the responsibilities and roles of a leader may be different, the leader needs to be seen to be part of the team working towards the goal. This kind of leader will not be afraid to roll up their sleeves and get dirty.

3. A good leader is confident. In order to lead and set direction a leader needs to appear confident as a person and in the leadership role. Such a person inspires confidence in others and draws out the trust and best efforts of the team to complete the task well. A leader who conveys confidence towards the proposed objective inspires the best effort from team members.

4. A leader also needs to function in an orderly and purposeful manner in situations of uncertainty. People look to the leader during times of uncertainty and unfamiliarity and find reassurance and security when the leader portrays confidence and a positive demeanor.

5. Good leaders are tolerant of ambiguity and remain calm, composed and steadfast to the main purpose. Storms, emotions, and crises come and go and a good leader takes these as part of the journey and keeps a cool head.

6. A good leader, as well as keeping the main goal in focus, is able to think analytically. Not only does a good leader view a situation as a whole, but is able to break it down into sub parts for closer inspection. While keeping the goal in view, a good leader can break it down into manageable steps and make progress towards it.

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7. A good leader is committed to excellence. Second best does not lead to success. The good leader not only maintains high standards, but also is proactive in raising the bar in order to achieve excellence in all areas.

These seven personal characteristics are foundational to good leadership. Some characteristics may be more naturally present in the personality of a leader. However, each of these characteristics can also be developed and strengthened. A good leader whether they naturally possess these qualities or not, will be diligent to consistently develop and strengthen them in their leadership role.

Two great leader of the world

Mahatma Gandhi

(Mohandas Karamchand) Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869 in Porbandar, India. He became one of the most respected spiritual and political leaders of the Twentieth Cnetury. Gandhi helped free the Indian people from British rule through nonviolent resistance, and is honored by his people as the father of the Indian Nation. The Indian people called Gandhi Mahatma, meaning Great Soul.At age 13, joined Kasturba, age 12, in a marriage arranged by their parents. The Gandhis had four sons: Harilal and Manilal, born in India, and Ramdas and Devdas born in South Africa. While Gandhi displayed loving kindness to everyone else, he was quite demanding and severe with his wife and sons. Use the links below to learn more about Gandhi's relationship with his family.

Gandhi studied law in London and returned to India in 1891 to practice. In 1893 he accepted a one year contract to do legal work in South Africa. At the time South Africa was controlled by the British. When he attempted to claim his rights as a British subject he was abused, and soon saw that all Indians suffered similar treatment. Gandhi stayed in South Africa for 21 years working to secure rights for Indian people. He developed a method of direct social action based upon the principles courage, nonviolence and truth called Satyagraha. He believed that the way people behave is more important than what they achieve. Satyagraha promoted nonviolence and civil disobedience as the most appropriate methods for obtaining political and social goals.

In 1915 Gandhi returned to India. Within 15 years he became the leader of the Indian nationalist movement. Using the tenets of Satyagraha he lead the campaign for Indian independence from Britain. Gandhi was arrested many times by the British for his activities in South Africa and India. He believed it was honorable to go to jail for a just cause. Altogether he spent seven years in prison for his political activities. More than once Gandhi used fasting to impress upon others the need to be nonviolent.

India was granted independence in 1947, and partitioned into India and Pakistan. Rioting between Hindus and Muslims followed. Gandhi had been an advocate for a united India where Hindus and Muslims lived together in peace. On January 13, 1948, at the age of 78, he began a fast with the purpose of stopping the bloodshed. After 5 days the opposing leaders pledged to stop the fighting and Gandhi broke is fast. Twelve days later he was assassinated by a Hindu fanatic who opposed his program of tolerance for all creeds and religion.


He is the honor of being India's first pilot; was Chairman of Tata & Sons for 50 years; launched Air India International as India's first international airline; received Bharat Ratna in 1992.

JRD Tata was one of the most enterprising Indian entrepreneurs. He was a pioneer aviator and built one of the largest industrial houses of India.

JRD Tata was born on July 29, 1904 in Paris. His mother was a French, while his father was Parsi. JRD's full name was Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata and he was popularly known as Jeh to his friends. JRD's father Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata and Sri Jamsetji Tata shared their greatness from the same great-great-grandfather, Ervad Jamsheed Tata, a priest of Navsari.

JRD Tata was the second of four children. He was educated in France, Japan and England before being drafted into the French army for a mandatory one-year period. JRD wanted to extend his service in the forces but destiny had something else in store for him. By leaving the French army JRD's life was saved because shortly thereafter, the regiment in which he served was totally wiped out during an expedition in Morocco.

Part B

Poor Communication 

The entire purpose of senior management is to set a direction for an organization and then translate that direction into a strategy and tactics to be executed by the organization's staff. For this to happen, a leader must communicate the direction and attendant strategy and tactics to the organization's staff.

Some leaders fail to communicate at all. In such an environment it is impossible for staff to establish a coherent direction and the entire organization can only be expected to meander along under its own steam.

Other leaders may say one thing with their words and another with their actions-frequently referred to as "do what I say, not what I do". Such discrepancies between words and actions raise questions as to the leader's integrity and more importantly, his or her credibility within the organization.

Sometimes a leader may decide to keep things secret, feeling that he or she is unable to trust his or her staff. Some leaders may decide that their position is dependent upon their knowledge, and that they therefore cannot share any knowledge with others for fear of making themselves obsolete.

In some organizations, decisions on personnel movements are made by a group of senior managers who are tasked with observing all employees throughout the organization, comparing their strengths and weaknesses and their suitability for any positions which may become available. The information gathered by this group is carefully guarded-restricted to the group members themselves and the senior figured within the Human Resources department.

Such a secretive policy on succession planning leads to an uneven distribution of knowledge throughout the organization, to resentment from staff who feel they have been hard done by, and on more than one occasion when a corporate restructure came around, to the best and brightest leaving the organization because they either had no idea how much they were valued, or they had received inside information that they had been overlooked for promotion for ridiculous reasons.

The poor communication skills of the leaders of this organization have directly led to the hemorrhaging of talent over the past five years.

Office politics

No individual is allowed to know what his or her prospects for promotion are, or which positions he or she may be being considered for. Usually, supervisors will not be told of the group's assessments of their direct reports.

This complete lack of communication is broken only when either:

office politics dictate that it would be beneficial for an individual to "leak" some information from the group; or

An individual within the HR department tells one of their friends about the group's assessments because it's a juicy piece of gossip.

In fact, despite those locked into a negative stereotype of organizational politics, mastering organizational politics is a crucial aspect of leadership. The sad fact is how so many intelligent people don't understand how acting ethically can actually increase their influence. It provides 'shark repellent' to avoid becoming victimized by organizational politics. The major structural groupings for subjects that emerged were the 'avoiding politics' group: ~65-80% (this group had three discernable subgroups),'negative politics' group:~15-25% and 'positive politics' group: ~5-10% of subjects. While people move in and out of the groups. The group structure remained fairly stable.

The most significant mindset difference was the 'rational systems' view of the avoidance group and the 'human systems' view of the two active political groups.

There is also a major mindset difference between the two active political groups. There is the win-lose, non ethical, upward focus, self interest, competitive, personal gain mindset of the negative politics group, versus the win-win, ethical, organization focus, enlightened self interest, collaborative, best interests of the business mindset of the positive politics group.

In terms of behavioral differences, major ones include the high networking and constant small risking taking of the positive politics group versus the relatively low networking and risk avoidance of both other groups.

The positive politics group have the higher innovation success rates and higher success factor indicators in terms of performance, and promotion. They are more likely to be viewed as leaders than the other two groups.

There are not any major distinguishing factors between the positive politics group and the avoidance group in terms of personality, interpersonal skill, and intelligence. 

Negative politics did seem to involve an interpersonal skill in terms of manipulative skills such as of impression management in influencing both how they are perceived and how potential rivals are perceived.

Team work

Whether you are a team leader or a team member, teamwork is important. One of the essential components to an effective team is:

Positive Corporate Culture

In order to recruit long-term effective team members, the corporate culture of your organization must be positive, open, and invigorating. Potential team members will thrive in a challenging and creative work environment. Organizations with high turnover, negative attitudes, distrust, and secrecy will, at best, lose their best people and, at worst, make them a product of the destructive organizational climate.

Positive corporate culture comes from the top down. Management is largely responsible for the type of culture that an organization develops. As a manager, you can help foster a good climate in several ways. First, you should always make your expectations of your team members clear. You can accomplish this with a thorough and detailed job description followed by personal discussions for clarification. Secondly, when delegating, always empower each team member. Make sure to give the team member the authority to make and carry out decisions that are required. Furthermore, always support and back up the decisions made by the team member. If you disagree with their decision, instead of chastising or reprimanding, coach the employee and help them to understand your reasoning.

Politically correct language

Most organizations are unaware of their culture as it pertains to ethics. Most employees would ask their leadership to define ethical behavior, and today's leadership would avoid such a question or give what they perceive is a politically correct answer. Dr. Ergun Caner (2004) said that, "If something is politically correct it is usually morally corrupt". What he meant is, we are so obsessed with the correct response that we allow corruption to exist that may have an impact on others to avoid personal implication. so as a leader one should be careful when addressing groups or talking about others,uselanguage that would not cause any individual of any demographic(social or cultural) to feel excluded, offended or diminished.


Culture and leadership underscores the complexity of the leadership process and how it is influenced by culture. There is a Need for each of us to expand our ethnocentric tendencies to view leadership from only our own perspective and instead to "open our window" to the diverse ways in which leadership is viewed by people from different regions around the world. There are many ways to view leadership and the integration of culture, and studies of leadership help us to expand and develop a richer understanding of the leadership process.