Leadership Is An Influence Relationship Process Commerce Essay

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Leadership is an influence relationship process that happened among leaders and followers to share the leaders purposes and intend to perform real changes and outcomes. It also can be defined as activity of leading a group of people in an organization or society. Leadership in an organizational role are involves establishing a clear vision for people in organization. In between that, it also share that vision with employees so that they willingly to follow and achieved the vision. Meanwhile, leaders need to provide the information, knowledge, and ways to ensure the employee realize about the vision, and then coordinating and balancing the interest and conflicts occurred between all members and stakeholders. (Leadership, n.d.)

When a leader comes to the forefront in case of crisis, he is able to critically think and act in creative ways to handle the difficult situations that occurred. Unlike in management, leadership is flowing from the core of a personality and it cannot be taught, although coaching or mentoring process might teach them the leadership qualities. Leadership is an important function in management, because it helps to maximize efficiency and effectiveness of the management flows and to achieve goals of the organizational. (Leadership, n.d.)

 

2.0 Objective

- To understand what is leadership

- To understand the objective of leadership

- To analysis what type of quality of leadership on three leader

- To understand how the leader's leadership quality bring success.

- To learn all the great type of leadership

3.0 Research Methodology

In this assignment, we have done two type of researches to accomplish the assignment. One is articles or journal review. We use at least ten different source journals to prove the findings for literature review (Leaders are born or made?)

For content of research, we choose conduct with internet research to accomplish the assignment due to time factors. Another reasons is the leaders been choose are very famous and common and has been interview by many article editor or magazine editor and represented at the website with original contents. Hence, it is reliable sources to be depending for finding in this assignment.

4.0 Literature review

According to Joan F. Marques (2010), leader are born and awaked thru process of life and certain environment factors that contribute to polish the leadership skill on the person (Awakened leader). The author says about due to factors of globalizations, diversity of the leaders are essential in current status. (Ayoko and Hartel, 2006, p. 345). A study of research was done, the participants was show the result that concluded this leader may have been born with certain skills that enhanced his or her chances and marked his other initial aspirations toward becoming a leader, the wakefulness within the leader was born through from trial and error process . It means that the leader might be born with certain natural leadership skills and they might get more leadership skills thru the trial and error process to derive their skills. Although many organizations are think of trial and errors are wasting the times and resources, but trial and errors process must go thru to get more awakened leaders. (Marques, 2010)

According to Great leaders: Born or made (2009) , Some people born to be natural leaders, but that is a massive simplification. However, there are many of them have worked hard in their life to acquire those leadership skills. To the author opinion, he believed that the best leaders , those leaders must keep every working day presents a challenges to let them to learn up new things in their life to polish up their leadership qualities and it might bring them to the top level in the leadership level not matter in organization or society. However, former CEO of the Arrow Electronic, Stephen P. Kaufman, believed that threat to the bosses when they reach the top level in the leadership. Therefore, he stated that CEOs should improve their leadership from time to time to compete with globalization factors and also reduce the threat that what he claimed. (Great leaders: Born or made?, 2009)

According to Kippenberger, T,(1997), he believes that leadership skills can be improved thru experience (made). Author was explained about John Adair's Action- Centred Leadership model unites managements and leadership perspectives in set of skills that individuals can be improve through experience. John Adair are argued that there is three level of leader which is teams leader, operational leaders, strategic leader that emerging to be replace one single leader in the top level. He also explain about the leaders should recognized themselves in first step before develop their leadership. He also listed what leader need to know four types of the authority such as position, knowledge, personality, and also moral authority to order to makes people more cooperate with the leaders. His approaches was focus on a group of people's actions. The groups of people work together to develop a unique personality, which contain three overlapping section, achieved the task, maintained the team, and develop the individual (satisfaction). Whole model is concludes that leadership can be learned thru experience. (Kippenberger, T, 1997)

According to Essentials steps in leadership (2008), leadership is made but not born. The journal stated that leadership could be polish thru combination of potential and training. A good example provided inside the journal is Thomas Watson Jr. from IBM Corp. who was struggled completed the high school education but now he become role model in IBM Corp. Another example given in journal was Kegan's theory. A study was done about psychosocial development occurred during the four years of academic and military instruction. The result is showed that students who showed the greatest psychosocial growth also demonstrated specific leadership behavior in their interactions with colleagues. In today, there are more demands from employers that employees need to arise and develop the leaderships by themselves not from their employees or CEOs. Journal also stated that many corporations spend tons of money to investing training to polish their potential employees to be a good corporate leader, such as HP, AMEX, General Electric and others. Journal also explained that leadership also can be develop in family in teenagers stage before their get on the jobs. (Leaders are made not born: Essentials steps in leadership, 2008)

According to William Gentry, Jennifer J. Deal, Sarah Stawiski, Marian Ruderman (2012), a study was conducted among 361 people who took the Center for Creative Leaderships (CCL) World Leadership Survey (WLS), most of them are top executive in corporations that show result 19% of them agreed that leader are natural borned, mean while 29 % of them are agreed equal of born and made of leader, the rest of the respondents which is 52% agree that leader are made but not born. Majority of them believe leader can be made thru training, trait and also experiences that the potiential leader go thru about in their life. (William Gentry, Jennifer J. Deal, Sarah Stawiski, Marian Ruderman, 2012)

According to Graf , Consultants (2004), most of the people might not possess the knowledge and authority from the traditional leader. In fact, people gain confidence through the couragement. The commitment that them accepted must be exceeds their previous experience in other commiments.When the opportunity come and make the differents and it sufficiently compelling, people willingly to be risk taker forward to be a leader. The author are trying to say that cofindence and new power which naturally born individual on leaders are bring the leadership on themselves more that the experience that them have go thru. (Graf , Consultants, 2004)

According to Ronald E. Riggio, Ph.D., He stated that research about leadership and show result at one-third was born naturally and other two-thirds was made. He concluded that leaders are mostly made. He also stated research suggests that extraversion is consistently associated with obtaining leadership positions and it brings effectiveness of leadership. Leaders also need to analyze situations smartly and figure out action from the courses. In other words, intelligence is also associated with leadership, but not refers to general IQ, but social intelligence which means understanding of social situations and processes. In opposite, introverts persons of average social intelligence are not means particularly empathic to be a good leader. Perhaps, remember that leader are made. Leader can be change to be a better one thru process of training and other which polish up their leadership skill. Lately, there are very strong emphasize on important of self- development among the leader themselves rather wait for series of training from organizations. (Ronald E. Riggio, 2012)

According to Mike Myatt, Chief Strategy Officer, N2growth, he stated that leader are made by both which means born and made. He believed that some people are born nautrally with certain leadership qualities. There are some people are not born with natural with leadership qualities , but they can aquirced the leadership qualities in later. He also mentioned about those natural born leader need to be developed themsleves from times to times. If this do not happened, they sooner later might be replaced by made leader. He also agreed that those are not natural born leader can acquired the leadership with hardworking thru developing process on themselves. It also can be taught with only that particular person have put lot of effort to learn it. In conclusion, he mean three qualities need to be in the person to be a effective leader which are character, efforts, and also desire. (Mike Myatt, 2012)

According to Professor Preston C. Bottger and IMD Research Fellow Jean-Louis Barsoux , the leadership mostly are made. We understand that many organizations educators are tend to be agreed that leadership can be developed, with given adepaute amount of personality, intelligences and psychical energy. Nowadays, job are become more complex. Most of the organizations are heavily invest with leadership course to polish out their potiential leaders in the organizations which could help them to contribute the expanding of profitable business. Author also mentioned about the leadership need to be keep it up from time to time basis. (Bottger & Barsoux, 2013)

According to wall block, leaders are sort of born, but they're always can be made.Some of leader are born naturally with psychological and character traits which their will demonstrate in their life about the leadership. They are intelligent enough to do the job which have been assigned at most of the time. By the time, the people become adult, they can help other people how to achieve the results. When they adult, we have expected the basic elements on leader which we not need to waste the time to train up them. But, he also agreed that leadership can be taught at most of the time. The learning leader can emulating other leader what the best of the other leader was doing. The learning leaders also can be getting feedback from other to modify to become better in leadership quality.Most important is , they willing to develop by themselves. That is a Marshall Goldsmith and Howard Morgan have do research about study of the progress of 88,000 managers who had been to leadership development training. The people who involved in the training, did deliberate work to apply what their learning in training were and judged that them becoming more effective in leadership. None of them showed that no improvement. The author are claim that leadership study is lifetime process not a moment of process. A effective leader always seeking new opportunity to develop new skill in leadership, and also visibility. He conclude that there are not any formula that develop quality leader in any organizations. (Are Leaders Born or Made?, 2006)

In generally, my opinion about leaders are mostly made but not born. It is because I believed that leaders can be produced from anyone as long as they learned thru the process of training, experience and development.

5.0 Finding

5.1 Brief history of Steve Job

Steve Jobs was born in San Francisco, California at 24th February 1955. He was adopted by a couple names Paul and Clara Jobs. Paul Job is car mechanical at point of the time. His father is very skillful in this section of repairing the car. (Steve Jobs Biography, 2012)

In Steve's child stage, he likes to do things by himself. He loves to swim, but not join other group activity. He discovered his interest in electronic and gadget when he spent most of the time working in neighbor's garage who worked at Hewlett-Packard company position as an electronics manufacturer. Later, Steve Job was enrolled into the Hewlett-Packard Explorer Club. Then, he saw the demonstration of new products from Hewlett-Packard engineers, and get impressed. It makes Steve Job want to work in computer industry. (Steve Jobs Biography, 2012)

Occasionally, he asked William Hewlett for some information that needs to be completed his project. Hewlett was so impressed of him, and offered him a summer internship at his company. (Steve Jobs Biography, 2012)

One of day, Steve job has chance gone to study eastern religion in India in year 1973. Jobs joined the Homebrew Computer Club. Steve Wozniak, which is one of the members in the club, was trying to build a small computer. In later, them was formed a company, called APPLE Computer. In the starting stage, they only sell microbus and calculators. (Steve Jobs Biography, 2012)

After a while, Job has realized there are huge gap in the computer market. They was redesigned the computers from big size (Main frame, which is used for commercial use) to small size (individual use). It gone well in the market at point of the time. IBM was their biggest competitor at point of the time. Macintosh was introduced at year 1984. But, it not selling very well due to lack of the features with it if compared to competitors. It's failure lead to Steve Job has resigned at APPLE and formed his own computer company with his former colleagues, called NEXT. (Steve Jobs Biography, 2012)

In year 1986, NEXT Company has purchased the company called PIXAR, whose is specialized in computer animation. But, due to well response, in year 1996, APPLE has use 400 million to bought over NEXT company software. Steve Job become part time consultant for the APPLE 's Chief Executive Officer. In end of year 1997, Steve Job has introduced their product sell over webpages and by call. Year 1998, his also introduced IMac and IBook machines, which contains advance features and yet affordable price to the market user. Those two factors bring APPLE success in the market and Steve Job has been appointed become CEO of the APPLE Company. In the next few years, he was introduced IPod and IPhone in the markets. (Steve Jobs Biography, 2012)

In year 2011, he was resigned his position as CEO in APPLE Company, but he still remained his position as chairman in the company because his health condition was not allowed. Finally, few months later, he was died and suffered from pancreatic cancer in his hometown, California. (Steve Jobs Biography, 2012)

5.2 Brief history of Bill Gates

Bill Gates was born on 28th October year 1955. He was born at rich family. Bill Gates 's father was a prominent lawyer at that point of time. Bill Gates has the chances to send by his family into to private school for better education. (Bill Gates Biography, 2012)

There were a lakeside at the private school which is the place fostered the Bill Gates 's intellectual excellence. In the lakeside, his met his friend, Paul Allen and his first experience with machine called computer. After that, Bill Gates was went to study at Harvard University. (Bill Gates Biography, 2012)

In Harvard University, Bill Gates have not graduated from his course of BASIC developed at Dartmouth. At that time, he was co-authored with his friend, Paul Allen to interpreter for the Altair 8800. (Bill Gates Biography, 2012)

In one day, Allen has come across a idea of business when he saw the magazine that with the headline (first microcomputer), and his saw to Bill Gates. After he read the magazine about the news. He realized that the consumer market for computer was very potential and he foreseen someone need to design and developed the software for this computer. (Bill Gates Biography, 2012)

In year 1970s, IBM enter the personal market and the company need company which can develop the operating system for IBM company. Bill Gates did not take the opportunity to take over the job but let other company called Seattle to chase the chances. (Bill Gates Biography, 2012)

After that, he bought over the operating system on behalf of Microsoft at dirt cheap rate which only cost $ 50,000. In consequence, Microsoft license the Operating system to IBM company. MS- DOS was the famous operating system at that time. (Bill Gates Biography, 2012)

In year 1900s, internet was become famous among the computer user. Microsoft was refined the existing browsers was available in the market and developed the internet explorer version 1.0. It also lead to Microsoft acquired the Hotmail which concept invented by Sabeer Bhatia and Jack Smith. (Bill Gates Biography, 2012)

Bill Gates and Melinda was met in charity event. They fall in love and get married at year 1994. Bill Gates was promoted long-time to be Chief Executive Officer. (Bill Gates Biography, 2012)

5.3 Brief history about Michael Dell

Michael Dell was born in Texas, America at 23th February 1965. In early stage, he shows his interest in computer and gadget section just like Steve Job. In his age of 15 year old, he purchased APPLE Computer to get to know how the computer works with its function. (Michael Dell biography, 2012)

In his college time, he starts to selling computers directly to the people with lowest rate of price. He was mainly focus on strong customer support and cheap price strategy. Finally, DELL computer become remarkable world largest computer maker. In initially stage, Dell was only starting his company with $ 1000 from his saving account. He was not emphasis on quality of the machine but, cheap in price and better customer relationship management in his business concept. He was sell the computers direct to the user by bypassing the middle- men to avoid any markups in between. (Michael Dell biography, 2012)

His business become growing. In year 1984, his have 6 million sales in the record. In sixteen years later, he becomes billionaire. In the following years, he was surpassing the Compaq place become world largest computer maker in the world. In year 2004, Dell stepped down as CEO position in the company, but he remained position as chairman in the board. (Michael Dell biography, 2012)

In recent of year, DELL computer quality was poor after Michael Dell has stepped down to be CEO of the company. It cost 300 million to refixed the issue of poor quality computer in worldwide. (Michael Dell biography, 2012)

Michael Dell had returned and take over the CEO place in year 2007. He has change the company by make the awareness of the poor quality issues to his worldwide employees in the company. He has settled the accounting fraud case which filled by Security and Exchange Commission by pay more than 100 million as penalties. (Michael Dell biography, 2012)

5.4 Comparison leadership qualities among Steve Job, Bill Gates, and Michael Dell

Steve Job

Bill Gates

Michael Dell

Confident (risks taker)

Visionable

Well Plan and know what is the target to be achieve

Willing to accept any opinion as long as it is creative. (listener)

Learn from failure (never give up)

Smart thinking of strategy

Visionable

Push self-esteem higher

Constant Analysis

Creative (Market Dominant)

Be first mover

Continue Learning

5.4.1 Evidence (Steve Job)

5.4.1.1 Confidence:

Initially, Steve Job was found that iPhone plastic panel was easy scratch easily than corned glass. He speak to Wendell Week, CEO of corning glass (gorilla glass), he want lot of shipment of corning glass from him to replace all the plastic material to corning glass to resolve the issue in next model of IPhone (IPhone 5) in six months. Wendell Week was afraid than the time given was too short and reply to Steve Job, it is impossible. But, Steve Jobs was replied him with message "Get your mind around it. You can do it." Wendell was recall his production of LCD Screen in Kentucky, and immediately convert it to production of corning glass for IPhone. Finally, They able to make it within six month as what Steve Jobs say. (10 Leadership Tips from Steve Jobs, 2012)

5.4.1.2 Willing to accept any opinion as long as it is creative and innovate:

He believed that creative are come from spontaneous way. It can be from meeting or other way such as observation from other people daily life, opinions form the employees. He also stated that "a building (PIXAR) did not encourage innovation; you lose the magic sparked by serendipity " in Forbes interview. (10 Leadership Tips from Steve Jobs (pg. 2), 2012)

5.4.1.3 Visionable:

In year 2000, Steve has his grand vision that personal computer should become center to for managing the user contents and everyone should have apple as a personal device. I Cloud was introduced by Steve Jobs in year 2010. It became successor in today as everyone are using it building the huge server to sync their personal contents. Almost everyone in the world has Apple personal device (IPod series, IPhone series and Mac computers). (10 Leadership Tips from Steve Jobs (pg. 2), 2012)

5.4.1.4 Creative (Market Dominant)

Apple has use latest technology to penetrate the market than his competitor. ITunes was invented by Steve Job to eliminate the CD players or burner in the market to make users more convenience to buy, download, and share the music content thru ITunes. (Kaneshige, 2011)

5.4.2 Evidence (Bill Gates)

5.4.2.1 Visionable:

Bill Gates has his grand vision on everyone not matter is running business or household must have a computer that run Microsoft software. At point of that time, many people was not aware software industry is the pathway to make IT industry become more prominent. He take this opportunity and now he was almost achieving his vision, but at least he was become richest men in pass over thirteen years continuously. (7 Key Lessons from a Greatest Leader of all times - Bill Gates, 2008)

5.4.2.2 Learn from failures:

Bill Gates never afraid to lose or win deals. There are many customer in worldwide are using Microsoft software, there have several of unhappy customers too. But, Bill Gates never escaped from them, but in another way , he was learn to be listener to the customer complaints and update the buggy everyday according to the customer complaints. He was like to celebrate the failures, because he believed failure is the key of success. (7 Key Lessons from a Greatest Leader of all times - Bill Gates, 2008)

5.4.2.3 Put Higher Self- Esteem:

Bill Gates never puts himself in comfort zone. Although, he have a great success on today result in IT industry after his long time hardworking contribution, but he always push him higher target to be achieve in next step. One upon time, IBM was pull out corporation with Microsoft about license for every clone IBM computers, but Bill Gates choose to stay on although face lot of hiccups, and his invented Microsoft access, Database software that lead to failure of corporation between Omega Database and IBM. He was seeking opportunity to set him and achieved to greatest height in the industry. (7 Key Lessons from a Greatest Leader of all times - Bill Gates, 2008)

5.4.2.4 Be First Mover:

Bill Gates believed that opportunity only knock once not twice. Therefore, he did not choose to sit back and do something that anyone can do. But, he choose to do something the reins into his hands to almost single handedly take Microsoft to this great heights. He believe when he show the people problem, and provide them solutions. They will moved to the action. (7 Key Lessons from a Greatest Leader of all times - Bill Gates, 2008)

5.4.3 Evidence (Michael Dell)

5.4.3.1 Well Plan and Know what leaders need to be achieve:

Michael Dell had planned well in his life since he was teenagers. He was full pursued his plan after he have finalize the plan. This can be explained that how he can get $1000 in his age of twelve years old with he only a stamps seller. In later of time, he was sold the newspaper subscription that make his more confidence to earn more money. In his age of sixteen year old, he made enough money to purchase a BMW car, which other people cannot believe the fact. In this fact, clearly we can see Michael know his target, well plan it, and always get to achieve his targets. (Michael Dell's Success Story, 2009)

5.4.3.2 Smart Thinking of strategy:

Michael Dell has think how to start up his business before his entered into it. The Customer Direct Method are a successful method or we can say is a smart strategy whose invented by Michael Dell from starting stage until current business. It has bring greater successful and taken over place of largest PC maker in world from Compaq Company. (Michael Dell's Success Story, 2009)

5.4.3.3 Constant Analysis:

He did not like to do thing that he favor, but he like to do anything that bring great contribution success of his company. He always constantly analysis about condition of market, competitors, customer needs, opportunities and others will able to bring success to his company. He just like Bill Gates never put himself into comfort zone after achieved the first success in his company (DELL). In other way, he seeks opportunities to improved his company business. (Michael Dell's (CEO Dell) management style and CIOs, 2010)

5.4.3.4 Continue Learning:

He believed that leaders need to improved themselves by time to time by continuously learning from anywhere any sources that might bring new knowledge which is the input bring the success to company. He always visits the company that impressed him by paying them to learn their good side and invented back in the company. (Michael Dell's (CEO Dell) management style and CIOs, 2010)

6.0 Recommendation

Since leaderships are made not born at most of the time, we can know that everyone can be leader. It can prove by three leaders in above. All we can see is that all the leader are born in nothing (no talent), they are go thru the process of experience, training, and development to polish up their leadership.

In above we can see, there are most common characteristic on the three leaders, which is Visionable and well planning. Both of the characteristics are connected each other. Three of them also have a far vision and well planning to achieve their goal in future.

Three of the leaders are also never put themselves in comfort zone after they achieved the success in the business. They will go further higher and get prepare for future challenges.

In my recommendation, leaders need to have combination of this three leaders' leadership quality in above. Although, three of them also have their unique leadership qualities. But, in this assignment, we are analysis their leadership quality. The reason of this assignment is to analysis and we learned to be like them, which can obtain the leadership qualities thru the process. Leaders also need to constant learning just like Michael Dell, to get prepare the new challenges in the daily life, not matter is business or other related problems which can be solved by knowledge which come from constant learning.

Not only of that, Such as creative and smart thinking of strategy are essential in the leaders themselves. It is because the world are globalization, there are many new problems which might be first time happen in leadership, it required leaders to be think like creative and smart to create solution to resolve the problems. Furthermore, leaders need to be humble or willing to listen to any opinion as long as it creative is which able to help in growing of the organization (Steve Job). Leaders need to be like Bill Gates too, for his "never give up (learn from failure)" as we know Microsoft has faced a lot of problems on it software itself, but what Steve Job say is he love failures because is key of learning to be success.

7.0 Conclusion

In conclusion, we can draw that leadership are made at mostly but not naturally born. Everyone can be leaders if them willingness to be learn, go thru hardship in the process of training, experience and development before to be a qualified leaders. Leaders need to be constantly analysis and improve themselves from time to time to match up the standard of the leaders in globalization in current situation.

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