Leadership And Cultural Awareness Commerce Essay

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Behavioural theories are classified as such because they focus on the study of specific behaviors' of leader. In these theories different patterns of behaviour are observed and categorised as styles of leadership. For behavioural theorist a leader behaviour is best predicator of his leadership influences. The two different leadership approaches and styles are which I am going to discuss here are autocratic and democratic.

Autocratic style of leadership:

This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want to done and how they want to do it without getting the advice of their followers. Autocratic leaders made their decisions independently with the little or no input from the rest of the group. The leaders keep themselves separate from their employees. The advantage of this style is that it helps in quickly decision making.

Democratic style of leadership:

This style is used when leaders don't make their decisions alone. It is also known as participative style of leadership. In this style of leadership everyone can able to give their opinions. Leaders encourage their employees to share their ideas for making better decision. The leader's role is that of conference leader, or chair, rather than that of decision taker. He or she will allow the decision to emerge out of the process of group discussion, instead of imposing it on the group as its boss.

Two leaders and their styles of leadership:

Here I am going to discuss the two existing leaders and their style of leadership. John key as a autocratic and Len Brown as a democratic style of leadership.


John key is the 38th prime minister of Newzealand. He has led the national party since 2006. According to me his leadership style is Autocratic. This style of leader takes the decisions and announces them expecting subordinates to carry them out without any question. John key as we know he is born in Auckland before moving to Christchurch. As Prime Minister Key leads the fifth national government of Newzealand.


Len Brown is the Mayor of Auckland city in Newzealand, the Head of Auckland Council. According to me his leadership style is Democratic. He believes in equal rights. He was born in Taumarunui and his family moved to Otara in Auckland, when he was seven years old. The Mayor leads the Auckland Council's governing body. His duties are promoting a vision for Auckland, providing leadership to achieve the vision and leading the development of Council plans, policies and Budgets.

Compare and contrast between two leaders:


According to me, John Key as a Prime Minister he has to think about the rights of the people of Newzealand. But he uses the Autocratic style of leadership. He always makes his decisions without the concern from public. So, I think his work less effective than Len Brown.

On the other side, Len brown wants to Auckland at a high level. He deals with all budgets, plans and policies about council. He always concerned with public by using Democratic style of leadership.

E.g. Very recently we have seen that at the time of rugby world cup, When Auckland transport became worse then John Key said this is not responsibility of centre government. He put all the responsibility on Len Brown to looking for transport. He said it is due to the ignorance of Mayer of Auckland.

Success of an enterprise:

Under the leadership of Len Brown, Auckland's standing on global live ability indices has improved, moving into the top 10 lists in all three international quality surveys. During his tenure, Auckland Council has developed a 30 year blueprint the Auckland plan and launched a robust Economic Development Strategy, to create a competitive and prosperous local economy and a city that attracts visitors, skilled workers, businesses and investment.

On the other side, John Key he first thinks about himself. There are so many examples of John Key pulling back. In 2003, he criticised Labour's handling of the country's relationship with the United States and he said Newzealand was missing in action.

Public recognition:

Both leaders have good public recognition. John Key as a Prime Minister, everyone known him. Even Len Brown has a good public recognition as a Mayor of Auckland. Both are working for the Economic development. Both are trying to do well by using their different leadership styles.

Use of power:

John Key used his power by applying Autocratic style of leadership. He says he is reluctant to support Auckland's proposed inner city rail link because it's all pain and not enough gain.

Auckland mayor's project is expected to cost $2.86 billion. But John Key said central government is hesitant to lend its support. Len Brown has a great concern for Auckland. He used his power by using Democratic style of leadership.

Employee satisfaction:

Len Brown has a great vision for development of Auckland. His style is clearly depicted from his vision. He wants to see Auckland at the top level. He is making lots of efforts day by day operations.

Where as John Key is also looking for the public. Due to his Autocratic style of leadership he just prefers himself instead of getting ideas from his subordinates. Len Brown always gets ideas from his followers.


Gardner, J. W. (1993). On Leadership. New York: Free Press

Jason, (2012). Leadership (handout). Auckland, New Zealand. kiwi institute of training and technology: NZIM

Wikipedia. (1994, December 30). Retrieved August 26, 2012 from wikipedia.org: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LeadershiP

Mini Essay 2: Leadership and cultural awareness

Leadership and Cultural Awareness:-

Leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal. Leadership inculcates the competence of knowledge, skills and expertise in the area that one is providing leadership. Leadership competence falls under the categories of leading self first before providing leadership to others, leading others in an acceptable manner, leading performance and change in order to achieve set goals. This shows that a leader has many responsibilities of fulfil. One must show leadership to the self before assuming leadership in an organization. To the self, one must show the qualities of accountability and responsibility. One must portray the aspects of self awareness and value to oneself.

It is only after one realizes that they become competent leaders. To lead others, one must be an effective communicator. Communication is the pillar of any leadership as it forms the medium of passing of the rules that are to be followed. To lead others a leader must have the capability to influence others through team building spirits.

Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, moral, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as member of society. Culture is a powerful human tool for survival, but it is a fragile phenomenon. It is constantly changing as easily lost because it exists only in our minds. Our written languages, governments, building and other man made things are merely the products of culture. They are not culture in themselves. Cultural awareness is the ability to look outside of ourselves and be aware of the cultural values and customs of the culture we are in. that may be normal and acceptable to us, may be unusable or unacceptable in another culture. Like if we are travelling or around people from a different culture we need to be aware of their beliefs and customs and respect them.

Cultural awareness is a key element of leadership. Cultural awareness involves being acknowledging and being respectful of the cultural differences in societies throughout the world. Organizational culture is simply the culture of an organization. By having a set culture for business or organization, one can define organization's employee expectations. More over one can also define the organization to the rest of the world or the clients. Without cultural awareness none of leader can lead his/her team properly.

Cultural awareness attempts to understand how individuals of different cultures interact with each other.

It has developed as a way to understand leaders who work in the newly globalized market. During these days international organizations require leaders who can adjust to different environments quickly and work with partners and employees of other culture. In this way they can lead their team very well and they can achieve their goals as well. Because it cannot be assumed that a manager who is successful in one country will be successful in another country as well.

There are multicultural people in New Zealand. Different people have their different background and they work in different organizations. For example people from Samoa, Tonga, Fiji, India, China, Europe, and Malaysia. All these people have different cultural values and beliefs .Even they have their own languages and different way of speaking.

So, that's why New Zealand leaders come under the category of leaders who have to lead people with different cultural backgrounds. Cultural Awareness is very important for New Zealand business leaders to achieve the common goals of organizations. The official languages of New Zealand are English and Maori. English is the language of day-to-day business within New Zealand, The Maori language has been part of New Zealand and its culture since the first people came to the Islands.

The Treaty of Waitangi

The Treaty of Waitangi is a treaty first signed on 6 February 1840 by representatives of the British crown and various Maori chiefs from the north island of New Zealand.

The Treaty established a British governor of New Zealand recognised Maori ownership of their lands and other properties, and gave the Maori the rights of British subjects. From the British point of view, the Treaty gave Britain sovereignty over New Zealand, and gave the governor the right to govern the country. Maori believed they ceded to the Crown a right of governance in return for protection, without giving up their authority to manage their own affairs. After the initial signing at Waitangi, copies of the Treaty were taken around New Zealand and over the following months many other chiefs signed. In total there are nine copies of the Treaty of Waitangi including the original signed on 6 February 1840. Around 500 chiefs, including at least 13 females, signed the Treaty of Waitangi.

Maori have looked to the Treaty for rights and remedies for land loss and unequal treatment by the state, with mixed success. Maori beliefs and attitudes towards ownership and use of land were different from those prevailing in Britain and Europe. The English language version recognizes Maori rights to "properties", which seems to imply physical and perhaps intellectual property. The Maori version, on the other hand, mentions "Tonga", meaning "treasures" or "precious things"

This is the better example for leader, when they working in an environment where they have to lead people from different cultures. New Zealand business leaders also ready to aware this type of cross cultural communications to avoid confusions and misunderstandings.

During these days it is generally considered the founding document of New Zealand as a nation. Despite this, the Treaty is often the subject of heated debate, and much disagreement by both Maori and non-Maori New Zealanders. Many Maori feel that the Crown did not fulfil its obligations under the Treaty, and have presented evidence of this before sittings of the Tribunal. Some non-Maori New Zealanders have suggested that Maori may be abusing the Treaty in order to claim "special privileges.


Jason, (2012). Leadership (handout). Auckland, New Zealand. kiwi institute of training and technology: NZIM

Wikipedia. (1994, December 30). Retrieved August 26, 2012 from wikipedia.org: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LeadershiP

Brookfield, f.(1999).republic.org. Retrieved from www.republic.org.nz/tretyofwaitangi

Mini essay 3 (Influence of Leadership)


Telecom New Zealand (NZX: TEL, ASX: TEL, NYSE: NZT) is a Auckland, New Zealand-based telephone company and, through its subsidiary Xtra, an internet service provider. It has operated as a publicly traded company since 1990. It is also New Zealand's second largest mobile operator. Telecom is one of the largest companies by value on the New Zealand Exchange (NZX). Further, it is the 39th largest telecommunications company in the OECD.

Telecom was formed in 1987 from a division of the New Zealand Post Office and privatised in 1990. The selling price was considered by some to be extremely low, given that Telecom had a monopoly of all phone lines in New Zealand at the time.

On 31 March 2008, Telecom was operationally separated into three divisions under local loop unbundling initiatives by central government - Telecom Retail; Telecom Wholesale; and Chorus, the network infrastructure division.

Here I am going to discuss about Sir Simon Mutter as a CEO of telecom industry. He plays a vital role in telecom company.


Simon Mutter was responsible for leadership, strategic direction and management of the company. He was appointed as Telecom CEO in May 2012.He was the CEO of Auckland International Airport for a period of three years in which company experienced customer growth and significant uplift in its share price.

Telecom New Zealand's goal is to be number one in broadband, mobile and ICT. We provide a full range of internet, data, and voice, mobile and fixed line calling services for our customers.

Telecom Wholesale delivers next generation wholesale network connectivity products to service providers throughout New Zealand. It's broadband, business data, voice and interconnect products give wholesale customers the foundation on which to build their own network or telecommunications services for their end-users.


Social responsibility, Telecom provides following services as social responsibility.

1. Customer Service:- For any successful organization it is important to provide so many services to their customers and make sure that they all satisfied with their services. It is important to provide customer support by giving a quick and reliable customer feedback.

2. Employee Relationship Management:- Employee Relations involves the body of work concerned with maintaining employer-employee relationships that contribute to satisfactory productivity, motivation, and morale. Essentially, Employee Relations is concerned with preventing and resolving problems involving individuals which arise out of or affect work situations. .

3.Cost and Performance Optimization:- In the simplest case, this means solving problems in which one seeks to minimize or maximize a real function by systematically choosing the values of real or integer variables from within an allowed set. This formulation, using a scalar, real-valued objective function, is probably the simplest example; the generalization of optimization theory and techniques to other formulations comprises a large area of applied mathematics.

The main goals are as follows:-

High degrees of process integration and automation.

Highly flexible business information infrastructure.

Supporting a wide range of emerging services.

Transforming the business to deliver sustainable revenue growth lower cost of operations and better customer service.

Fast time-to-market

Rapid Response to business change and market competition.

Industry open standard based modular, distributed and secure system.

SLA guarantees.


It is crystal clear that social responsibility has a significant role in leadership.