A leader is the one who is able to lead and motivate the team with his ideas, plans and initiatives. As the business is growing today, all the organisation would like to have the effective and good leader at all the levels of the management. Leaders are the motivating factors. Leader led a group of people or employees to achieve a common goal. However leaders and global leader are a bit different as global leaders focuses their activities in vast geographical area; they need to be more skilful, most talented and most challenging. It is said by some research that global leader are the leaders for future, they have seen a global leader as a future leader with new skills and competencies. Global has to drive the company in the home country and all well in all the other countries where their function operates, which is a challenging task.
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Global leaders are the increasingly in demand to face the challenges globally and to grab global opportunities. Global leader had to think globally and act globally. A leader can be a global leader or a traditional leader, should posses some of the skills and abilities to achieve the organisational goals and objectives through achieving common goals of a team. Hence the desired qualities and skills of the global leader are discussed in the later section of my research paper.
Wayne Oppel in the article on The Global Leadership Challenge discussed the essential qualities a global leader requires which are listed below:
Ability to adopt the rapid changes in the technology.
Ability to manage and handle the inter-related international issues.
Leading the organisation with reliability.
As managing globally will involve people from all the back grounds, hence global leader should be able to cope up the gap between all the levels of people.
Global should be more flexible, creative and adaptable while formulating and implementing changes.
It is always advisable to have a experience leader to work as a global rather than a un experienced.
Constant maintenance of goals, objectives, policies and vision of the organisation in all his functions globally.
Ability to maintain and solve the issues out of cultural difference as this is the most important and the most sensitive issue in globalisation.
The author extended the study and provided the characteristics features of a global leader which are:
He should be professional in language.
A dynamic personality.
Have excellent people management skills.
Open to multicultural environment.
Renovate leadership skills.
Hence from the above discussion on the skills and abilities for a global leader we can say global leaders should have in combine, personal competencies, business and professional competencies and lastly cultural competencies.
2. RESEARCH AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The present research paper is to have an investigation into the concept of global leaders have the following aims and objectives:
To understand the concept of global leaders.
To analyse the skills, abilities and competencies of global leaders, and to understand how a global leader is different from traditional leader.
To analyse the role of global leader in the organisational development, organisational performance.
To analyse the role of global leader in multi national company.
To understand the problems and challenges of global leader.
To provide the solution for the problems faced by global leader.
3. LITERATURE REVIEW
Alder and Bartholomew (1992) have provided a definition to global leaders as "Global leader is an executive who executes global strategies across, rather than within, borders of time and geography, nation, function and product." As basing this definition another author gave the definition to global leaders as the world class executives. He defined global leaders as the "World class executive no matter where ever they go and operated but they carry the world class concepts, competencies and connections."
The concept of cross cultural leadership is highly recognised and the findings of Geert Hofstede in the book Encyclopaedia for Leadership, Volume 1 provided four way of culture through which the behaviour of the global leaders is easily understandable.
"High power distance - low power distance: The extent to which the members in a team or employees expect the power which is shared among them equally.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
High uncertainty avoidance - low uncertainty avoidance: the degree to which the members or employees face the uncertain situations and risk would intend to minimize such flow of uncertain situations and risks.
Individualism - Collectivism: The extent to which individuals would work independently from one other will work collectively in groups.
Masculinity - Femininity."
"A special set of knowledge, skills, and abilities is required for developing global leadership. The demand for global leaders is continuously increasing with the increase in the globalisation due to growing competition in market." (Brake, 1997)
Yeung and Ready (1995, 531) define global leadership which "effects the organisational interpretation of the existing environment" (Daft &Wieck, 1984; Dutton & Jackson, 1987) defines global leadership as "an effective way of communication of the business vision and strategy." Where as (Kotter, 1991) defines global leadership as "group which motivates the employees and members towards the common goal."
Global leadership gains the competitive advantage for its organisation. Today competition is not only in expanding business and gaining profits in business however we can find competition every where and especially in making career. Every individual would wish to make the career in multinational companies. Hence leaders also would like to make their career in multi national companies which have created a increased demand for global leaders.
"The Key to the global leadership has been the ability to become more adoptable and flexible in creating change and also in adopting change", said Della Valentina in an article of Regent Global Business Review.
3.1 THE ROLE OF GLOBAL LEADER IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES
Global leader has a significant role to play in multi national companies. They have to face problems and risk in adopting and learning the new cultures across the organisation. The main challenge faced by the multi national companies are to make the educated about the culture difference and encouraging them to work in different cultures. Some authors define global leaders as the leader of future. Authors say that global has to posses the special qualities apart from the basic qualities.
In order to play significant role in a multinational company, global leader should have a better understanding of both domestic market condition and internal market condition. Apart from this a global leader need to possess a good knowledge on changing technology and ability to face any kind of uncertain situations. The most challenging task of global leader is to have a good knowledge on business strategies and business goals and objectives. It is not enough if the global leader learns and adopt the cultural differences; however, it is the responsibility of top level management, global leaders, to educate all levels of employees about different cultures and make them flexible to adapt. This kind of learning process enables employees to work in healthy working conditions and also to maintain friendly relationship with counterparts across the globe.
From the above discussion it is very clear that the global leader plays a very significant role in multinational companies and organizational performance. It is identified by researchers that a global leader is different from a traditional leader. A global leader is the one whose functions are globally operated whereas a traditional leader is not. The duties and responsibilities of the global leader are very high in comparative with the domestic leader, which can be easily understood from the example provided in methodology. There are so many models and theories provided by the researchers for easy understanding of the role a leader plays in organizational development, which are discussed in the proposed project.
In order to present a good and effective research paper and to draw the effective findings I have provided hypothesis for my research so the risk of collecting irrelevant data is minimised.
Hypothesis: "The risk, challenges and the problems faced my global leaders are much more than that of the traditional who do not operate globally."
5. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The below listed are the list of research questions, for which I would like to obtain the answers from my investigation.
What is the role of global leader in organisation development, organisational performance?
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What is the role of global leader in multi national company is the role significant?
What are the problems and risks a global leader had to face in multi national companies?
What is the solution to such risks and problems?
Do traditional leaders need any extra training and learning programmes to act as a global leader?
The above listed questions are chosen for the current research paper as they are appropriate to the research and to solve the hypothesis. As the research questions, research aims and objective and the hypothesis need to be in one line and they cannot be different from that of the research topic. If any difference is identified then it will have a negative impact on the findings and analysis. This make the whole research paper irrelevant from the chosen topic. The next section of the research paper deals with methodology where the methods of data collection and the methods of analysis chosen to solve the issues and problems of the current research paper are discussed.
6. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research is the systematic learning and gaining knowledge for a specific purpose. My purpose of the research is to identify the role of global leaders in the multinational companies. To identify the problems they face and to provide the solution to solve the problems. As discussed above to solve the hypothesis the method I have chosen is to compare the two leaders from the banking sector where one bank is globally operated and has huge geographical scope and on the other hand the scope of the second is very limited where it functions in limited geographical regions. It is obvious that very organisation have effective leaders and managers. Hence my present hypothesis is to identify whether the risk and challenges faced by global leaders is more than that of the traditional leader. To solve this problem the skills, abilities, challenges and risk faced by the leaders of the both organisations are compared so that we can support the hypothesis and also solve the problems.
The two banking sectors chosen for the study are The Andhra Pradesh State Co-operative Bank Ltd. This bank products and services are committed to the agricultural and rural sector. This bank provides loans to the rural and agricultural based individuals for the purposes of business. The scope of this bank is very limited and hence it operates are only limited to Andhra Pradesh state in India. The other organisation chosen is the most popular and well know banking sector which has huge geographical scope Barclays Banking which is the largest financial providers in the world. This organisation employees more than 145000 employees where in business is expanded in more than 50 countries. The business strategy of such banking sector is invest, earn and grow.
Selection of data collection methods are very important, it is the responsibility of the author that data collection methods are in line with the research, or wise the overall findings of the research will be affected. The data collection method used to collect the information from two various banking sectors are secondary data collection methods. Secondary data is the information which is already available for a specific purpose. This is the data which is used by another authors, or researchers for a specific purpose. Such kind of data is very complex to collect and as well such information is relatively less reliable. One more disadvantage of this method is such information is not frequently updated. As I have to collect the information regarding the two banking sectors for my research, the secondary data collection method is best suited.
6.1 Andhra Pradesh State Co-operative Banks Ltd:
The main objective of the bank is to provide assistance to the agricultural sector and the rural areas.
Range of products: The products of Andhra Pradesh State Co-operative Bank Ltd are long term and short term loans for agricultural and it also extends its services in providing short term loans to the rural areas and to bring them above the poverty line.
Responsibilities of a leader: In such organisations leader do not have a significant role to play, however responsibilities include:
Delegating work to the team.
Focus on time management and dead lines.
Provide good customer service.
Conduct timely meetings.
To publish the purchase tenders.
6.2 Barclays Bank Plc
The main objective of the bank is to establish the vast financial business and to expand globally. Apart from this bank look forward to fulfil the needs and requirements of the customer and clients and help them to achieve their goals and objectives.
Range of products: Whether domestically or internationally Barclays provides a wide range of products and services such as cash management and trade, deposits and liquidity, foreign exchange, online banking, raising finance, risk management.
Responsibilities of a leader: This banking sector is operated globally and hence the responsibilities of leader would are complex.
To maintain the company strategy in all the countries.
To provide an excellent customer service.
Expand business operations globally.
To be pioneering and entrepreneurial spirit and make Barclays one of the best banks globally.
To explore new markets.
Ready to face new challenges, new tasks, risk and uncertainty.
To be innovate and build successes.
Hence from all the above discussion we can say that a leader whose functions are global have to face much risk, uncertainties and problems. As a company with low scope have low duties and responsibilities and low risk for leaders and managers and on the other hand it is vice versa.
7. LIMITATIONS OF RESEARCH
The method of data collection selected for current research paper is secondary and then all the limitations for the secondary method of data collection would apply such as:
The present research has the limitation to get accessed to the information.
The information which would solve the purpose of the research is the information regarding the internal business, which is not easily accessible for a student not it is published in the internet.
An outline of the leaders is available in the internet however in depths look into the internal affairs of the banks neither are available on the internet nor published in the magazines.
One of the banks is Andhra Pradesh State Co-operative Bank Ltd, which is the oldest bank of India, and the information available is less reliable as the information for such banks are not frequently updated.
8. ETHICAL ISSUES
The present research paper involves in collection of information of two different banking sectors and to compare the product range, function of leaders which is following by analysing and comparing. In this process of data collection and analysis all the ethical issues are being followed. The data hence collected with in integrity, fairness and carefully.
As a student I am only able to access only limited information for collecting data, hence all the site which I am not accessible to are not been used for the data collecting and in the whole process of the research. The information hence collected is provided with the appropriate literature evidence along with the reference list at the end of the research paper. I acknowledge that the information hence collected is best and real to my knowledge and all the ethical issues are been followed through out the research paper.
I would like to conclude the research paper by stating that every organisation needs effective leaders at all the levels of management. It is obvious from all the above discussion that leader play a significant role in the organisational development, organisational performance, and organisational expansion. Global are also referred to the leaders in future with additional qualities and skills then traditional leaders. The main responsibility of the global leaders is to carry the business strategy in all the functional areas and in all the countries. Global leaders play a significant role in all the multi national companies as they are the ones who take initiative to make employees learn and adopt the cultural differences.
As the research paper has come to an end and as a conclusion I would like to give some recommendations for the problems which a global leader faces in multi national companies. The main problems faced by the global leader are the cultural differences and the reason why global leader faces such problems is due to the insufficient knowledge on the business strategies, goals and objectives. Hence the recommendations:
Global have to be provided with the sufficient training before they start such a project.
Global need to have a considerable knowledge on the cultural differences, culture management and people management.
A good knowledge on the business strategies, goals and objectives would also help global leader to solve the problems very quickly and also assists in quick decision making.