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Knowledge management in organisation is important became it is the key assert to drive organizational survival and success. When an organization capture ,codify and disseminate this knowledge ,the organization reduces the level of required know-how for the managers while improving the effectiveness and efficiency of its operations .Knowledge sharing should be encouraged to reduce knowledge hoarding . Technology could be applied to support knowledge sharing .Knowledge should be should effectively for organisational competitiveness . Organizations has realized that knowledge is a crucial resource for organizations and it should be managed effectively .
Organizational knowledge , knowledge management
Knowledge management is about exploiting and realizing knowledge of the employees and building a culture where knowledge sharing can thrive .It has been argued that it is no longer the traditional industrial technologies or craft skills that drive competitive performance but instead knowledge that has became the key assert to drive organizational survival and success. To enable for organization to survive company must hire someone who value knowledge management.
Organisations are facing lot of challenges about knowledge management . The are many Organisations in world who want to expand the market but they fail to be competitive due to lack of effective knowledge management .Organisations have now realized that knowledge is an important aspect which should be managed effectively .
Organisational knowledge is the result of integration of collective thinking materialised in best practices, staff mental models and business process management and as much as tacit knowledge.The effective learning processes with exploration, exploitation and sharing of human knowledge (tacit and explicit) that use appropriate technology and cultural environments to enhance an organization's intellectual capital and performance.
Include tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge. Explicit knowledge is knowledge that can be documented and are available when you need to access it . Tacit knowledge is the knowledge is difficult to share(personal) which is create in individuals brain ./mind . knowledge can also be the outcome of learning ,change of behaviour in an individual after internalized information.Knowledge is an integration of values, experiences and information as part of a mental model .
Knowledge management(KM) is a process of organizing and communicating both tacit and explicit knowledge for employees in order that other employees can use it for effectiveness and productiveness in an organisation(Grant,1996;Davenport,1997). Knowledge management refers to identifying and leveraging the collective knowledge in an organization to help the organization compete (von Krogh 1998).
Background and motivation
The need to research this topic is to serve customers well, to shorten product development time, to improve customer service, to empower employees, to deliver high quality products, to be able to capture information , capture the learned and shared knowledge .Effective use of knowledge management gives employees quality information for better decision making were necessary .Organisations are facing knowledge loss and it need to be addressed .
In more commercial and competitive environment
individuals are reluctant to share their knowledge and are engaged in knowledge hoarding.
Lack of understanding by managers of what specific kinds of knowledge does individuals in their organization know.
Information overload , lack of time for sharing knowledge and inability to use knowledge effectively .
The main causes of failure in KM initiatives revolve mostly around human resource issues .This included the lack of user uptake due to insufficient communication and inability to integrate KM practices with normal working practice
Identify the gaps and obstacles that hinder proper dissemination of knowledge management in an organization .
Analysing how the knowledge can add value to the organisation
What are opportunities of using knowledge in an organisation?
What would be the effect of its use ?
Organisational review of knowledge to ensure it add value
Did KM add desired value to the organisation ?
To understand obstacles and gaps in order t o apply knowledge management effectively for the success and survival of the organization .To overcome the challenges of deploying knowledge management as an asset to an organisation .
To understand concepts of knowledge in an organisation and identify knowledge which is important which need to be retained .Knowledge loss might have an impact on implementation of strategy in an organisation .Overcome the barriers of knowledge sharing .
How can we encourage better Knowledge management and knowledge sharing ?
How do we counteract peoples resistance to knowledge sharing ?
What can be done to reduce loss of organizational knowledge and rising costs ?
Why are organizational culture impact on knowledge management?
De Long and Fahey (2000) see the creation of a culture that encourages positive attitudes to knowledge sharing as being one of the key factors behind successful Knowledge management initiatives. According to Schreiber et al from an engineering perspective, he defined knowledge as all data and information that people bring to bear to practical use in action, in order to carry out tasks and create new information. According to Richard McDermott and Carla O'Dell overcoming ''cultural barriers'' to sharing knowledge has more to do with how you design and implement your knowledge management effort than with changing your culture.
 Sunasee and Sewery have presented a Knowledge Management framework based on the findings of a literature survey and a survey involving the major motor vehicle manufacturing companies in South Africa.The framework addresses the lack of alignment of knowledge management with the overall business strategy, and focuses more on people than technology . Cultural aspects of the organisation are acknowledged and the framework recommends that the knowledge management practices of the organisation must be compatible with its culture.
Lehner & Haas have present that it is widely accepted that knowledge management is a critical success factor for enterprises.Knowledge management success is seen on an individual level, which means that successful KM leads to a satisfying knowledge supply of the organisation member. Holsapplea & Joshib did present that the modern organizations are increasingly seen as knowledge-based enterprises in which proactive knowledge management is important for competitiveness. Descriptive framework have been presented for understanding factors that influence the success of knowledge management (KM) initiatives in an organization.
Richard McDermott and Carla O'Dell have presented that overcoming cultural barriers to sharing knowledge has more to do with how you design and implement your knowledge management effort than with changing your culture.5. Choi a & Jong have presented that their outcome empirically supported their argument that the emphasis on either tacit or explicit knowledge results in a better market value of the firm.  Ndlela & du Toit establish the KM programme for competitive advantage in an enterprise .This bring us to the Key Success Factors of implementing Knowledge Management in organizations which are culture,KM Organization ,Strategy, Systems & infrastructure ,Effective and Systematic Processes and Measures .
We find that strategic change of organisation result in knowledge loss .Knowledge should be managed due to employee trends to retire early and lead to knowledge loss .Competitive pressure are reducing the size of workforce which holds this knowledge.
Knowledge management according to Bounfour (2003) is a set of procedures, technical aspects ,knowledge sharing and communicated knowledge across organizations.
Quantitative makes observations more explicit and easier to aggregate compare and summaries data .It is used to answer questions about relationships among measured variables with the purpose of explaining, predicting, and controlling phenomena. This approach is sometimes called the traditional, experimental, or positivist approach. For the purpose of this research, the qualitative research has been the best because it allows the researcher to describe and explain on the subject more deeply using data collection methods which is textual and to explore and interpret data.
In the data collection phase of research, researchers compile information needed to answer the research study questions that have been identified in the earlier design phase. In the design effort, researchers reviewed the problem questions, noting what data would need to be collected from whom in order to answer the questions. There are many ways to collect data, such as: surveys, document analysis, observation, interviews, focus groups, etc. Researchers must choose the best approach or combination of approaches that best answer the research questions. The choice of data collection technique depends on the type of research and the methodology chosen for a particular project.