Hotel industry are considered as one of the most important and critical Industries in Pakistan. In Pakistan, competition in tourism and hotel industries becomes more intense. Therefore, to maintain and increase tourist preferences towards Pakistan tourism and hotel industries, enhancement and improvement in the quality of services for are essential.
One of the indicators in enhancing and improving the services industry is job performance. Job performance refers to the behaviors that are expected in the line of the organizations goals and the purpose under control of individual employees. Job performance is of interest to the organizations because of the importance of high productivity in the workplace. Performance is focused behavior or purposeful work.
Given challenging economic conditions (such as global competition, slow
economic growth, and economic downturns), organizations are starting to look internally
for performance and productivity gains rather than wait for external improvements (e.g.,
market growth or technological advances) (Boxall & Purcell, 2003; Buchner, 2007).
organizations are shifting their focus toward employee engagement because engagement has received research attention as a key determinant of performance (Macey, Schneider, Barbera, & Young, 2009).
The main implication of the findings for managers is that motivated frontline hotel employees are more likely to achieve better job performance when they are committed, as a result of enforced HRM practices. ( Trivellas,p. 2011)
One of the key successful factors in the hotel and tourism industries in maintaining the relationship with tourists is the frontline employee. Hence, frontline employee is important
to determine the long term relationship among peers in the organization as well as
customer through human interaction. The important roles of the frontline employee in maintaining the long term relationship in the hospitality firms.
Keywords: Hotel Industry, Job Performance, Transformational Leadership, Affective Commitment, Service Quality, Organizational Citizen Behavior.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Job Performance
Performance is defined as accomplishment or output in a productivity of system in the form
of service or goods (Swanson, 1999). It provides the employee with specific expectations for
each major duty. The observable behaviours and actions of employee explain in a jobs
needed and results that are expected for satisfactory job performance.
Gibbs (2000) forecasted that the crucial issues of the job performance will be numerous in
the coming decades. A continuing emphasis on organizational effectiveness, productivity,
and increasing community pressures for quality of service, will focus attention on the link
between individual and corporate performance. These pressures will require a much more
coherent and strategic approach to performance management.
Performance management on the other hand, is defined as the use of performance
measurement information to effect positive change in organizational culture, systems and
processes, by helping to set agreed performance goals, informing managers to either
confirm or change current policy or program directions to meet these goals, and sharing
results of performance in pursuing goals (Procurement Executives' Association, 1999).
Job performance is defined as the outcomes and accomplishments valued by the organization or system that one works in. (Dr Arshad hussain, 2010 )
One should be careful to distinguish performance management from performance measurement which involves the development of metrics that quantify the "efficiency and effectiveness of action" (Neely et al., 1995).
2.2 Transformational Leadership
There are different kinds of business leadership styles but a few companies are starting to focus on having one kind of business leadership style. This leadership style is known as transformational leadership. These days, more and more companies are starting to believe that this leadership style is effective in breaking down innovation barriers in the workplace. (Jack holsen 2010)
Say the word "leader" and most of us envision a knight-like figure charging headlong, inspiring his troops and generally leading from the front. That's the dramatized version of a special type of leadership called "Transformational Leadership". Transformational leadership is probably the ideal interpretation of leadership, and the most romanticized. Leaders of this kind are visionaries, full of enthusiasm and boundless energy and seek to transform their subordinates in the process of achieving organizational goals.(Akhil shahani 2008)
Mastrangelo and Eddy (2004) define the professional leadership as providing direction,
process, and coordination to the members of an organization for the purpose of attaining
the organization's goals. It encompasses the "formal" part of leadership - setting the vision
and mission for the organization, creating a process for achieving organizational goals, and
aligning processes and procedures, people and infrastructure, to achieve organizational
goals. Personal leadership as the personal behaviour of leaders in performing the
responsibilities of professional leadership, including demonstrating expertise, building trust,
caring and sharing for people, and acting in a moral way.
There are several styles of leadership such as: autocratic, bureaucratic, laissez-faire,
charismatic, democratic, participative, situational, transactional, and transformational
leadership (Mosadeghrad, 2004).
Neither a particular style of leadership will result in the most effective form of organizational behavior. Different styles were needed for different situations and each leader needed to know when to exhibit a particular approach. No leadership style is ideal for every situation, since a leader may have knowledge and skills to act effectively in one situation but may not emerge as effectively in a different situation. The way leaders behave will affect the performance of employees in the organization.
2.3 Affective Commitment
It's easy to just say something, but following through is a lot tougher. Yet each broken commitment weakens the muscle which is your Word and hence weakens your ability to change your life. So only make commitments you really intend to keep.(Cris baker 2012 )
Organizational commitment is the employees' attitude and behavioural intention on the
willingness to exert considerable effort on the organization (Steers, 1977).
Porter et al. indicate that concept of organizational commitment is as follows:
International Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences Vol. 1, No.1; December 2011
(1) the belief in and acceptance of organizational goals and objectives;
(2) the willingness to work hard on behalf of the organization; and
(3) definite intentions to remain in the organization.
In addition, organizational commitment refers to identification with organizational goals,
willingness to exert effort on behalf of the organization, and interest in remaining with the
organization (Mowday et al., 1979). One of the factors in organization commitment is
affective commitment which can be defined as employee emotional attachment to
involvement in the organization and its goals. Meanwhile continuance commitment is
defined as willingness to remain in an organization because of personal investment in the
form of non-transferable investments such as close working relationships with co-workers,
retirement investments and career investments, acquired job skills which are unique to a
particular organization, years of employment in a particular organization, involvement in the
community in which the employer is located, and other benefits that make it too costly for
one to leave and seek employment elsewhere. Thus organization commitment is one of the
factors that will affect job performance.
2.4 Service Quality
Mola and Jusoh (2011) highlight the success or failure of the service industries will depend
on customer satisfaction. It requires both the tangible and intangible aspects especially the
expectation of the customer. The expectation usually refers to the prediction of what
happen during the transaction or exchange made by the customer (Armstrong, 1997).
"SERVQUAL" model or gap with five dimension that is tangible, reliability, responsiveness,
assurance and empathy is widely accepted by the researcher and was developed by
Parasuraman et al
There are five dimension of service quality suggested by Zeithaml et al., (2009), as follows:
i. Tangible-The physically appearance such as communication material and
ii. Reliability-Dependably and accurately ability in service to perform.
iii. Responsiveness-The willingness to help and provide the prompt service to
iv. Assurance-Knowledge, Courtesy, Trust and Confident of the employee.
v. Empathy-Caring and understanding the needed of customer.
The customer satisfaction will determine the service quality whether its success or failure
has an impact on the job performance of the employee. Therefore the service quality is a
very important variable in determining job performance.
3. Research Questions and Objectives
3.1 Research Questions
i. Are there a relationship between Transformational Leadership, Affective Commitment, Service Quality and Job Performance?
ii. Are there a relationship between Transformational Leadership, Affective Commitment, Service Quality and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)?
iii. What are the moderating effects of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) on
the relationship between Transformational Leadership, Affective Commitment, Service Quality and Job Performance?
3.2 Research Objectives
The purpose of this study is to examine the determinants of individual job performance among frontline employees in the hotel industries in Pakistan.
The specific objectives are as follows:
i. To examine the relationship between Transformational Leadership, Affective Commitment, Service Quality and Job Performance.
ii. To examine the relationship between Transformational Leadership, Affective Commitment, Service Quality and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB).
iii. To examine the moderating effects of Organizational Citizenship Behavior
(OCB) on the relationship between Transformational Leadership, Affective Commitment, Service Quality and Job Performance.
4.Proposed Conceptual Framework
In this research the dependent variable is job performance and we employed one moderating variable that is organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). We also employed 3 Independent variables. These are Transformational Leadership, Affective Commitment and Service Quality.
H1: Transformational Leadership (TL) has positive influence on Job Performance
H2: Affective Commitment (AC) has positive influence on Job Performance
H3: Service Quality (SQ) has positive influence on Job Performance
H3a: Tangibility has positive influence on Job Performance
H3b: Reliability has positive influence on Job Performance
H3c: Responsiveness has positive influence on Job Performance
H3d: Assurance has positive influence on Job Performance
H3e: Empathy has positive influence on Job Performance
H4: Transformational Leadership has positive influence on Organizational Citizenship Behavior.
H5: Affective Commitment has positive influence on Organizational Citizenship Behavior.
H6: Service Quality (SQ) has positive influence on Organizational Citizenship Behavior.
H6a: Tangibility has positive influence on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)
H6b: Reliability has positive influence on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)
H6c: Responsiveness has positive influence on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)
H6d: Assurance has positive influence on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)
H6e: Empathy has positive influence on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)
H7: Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) has mediating effect on the relationship between Transformational Leadership (TL) and Job Performance
H8: Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) has mediating effect on the relationship between Affective Commitment and Job Performance
H9: Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) has mediating effect on the relationship between Service Quality and Job Performance
H9a: Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) has mediating effect on the relationship between Tangibility and Job Performance
H9b: Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) has mediating effect on the relationship between Reliability and Job Performance
H9c: Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) has mediating effect on the relationship between Responsiveness and Job Performance
H9d: Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) has mediating effect on the relationship between Assurance and Job Performance
The Proposed Conceptual Framework
INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DEPENDENT VARIABLE
5.1 Research Design
This research focuses on the Lahore Region Hotel industry in Pakistan.
Survey questionnaires based on the previous work will be used.
5.2 Sample, procedure and method of analysis
In term of sample size, the proposed sample size is 150. Probability sampling is use as a
sampling technique in which simple random sampling is chosen to get information and it has
the least bias and offer the most generalize method. . The hotel industry with ranking 1 to 5
stars will be chosen. All together there are 10 hotels. Avari hotel, Flatties hotel, Hospitality inn, National Hotel, Park side mirage hotel, Hotel One, Smart hotel etc.15 frontlines employees will be chosen from each hotel.
The model employed will be Structural Equation Model (SEM). For SEM model, a sample
size of 100 will usually be sufficient for convergence for 3 or more indicators per factor, but
to be sufficient for a convergent and proper solution, the suitable sample size is 150
(Anderson and Gerbing, 1984).
Sample size below 100 is not suitable for SEM method (Kline, 1998).
Structural Equation Model (SEM) via Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) in Analysis
of Moment Structures (AMOS) will be used to analyze the data set to test the hypothesized relationship among dependent, independent and moderating variable.
Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) will be used to verify a set of factor structure of observed variables which is to assess the validity and reliability to construct of measurement scale.
5.3 Research Instrument
Likert Scale is a measure of attitude designed to allow respondent to indicate how strongly
they agree or disagree with carefully constructed statements that range from very positive
to very negative towards an attitudinal object. A 7-point Likert Scales format (ranging from
1=strongly disagree to 7= strongly agree) will be implemented to measure.
The study attempts to examine the determinant of Individual Job Performance among
Frontline Employees in Pakistan. The use of Structural Equation Model (SEM) enables to test the hypothesized relationship among dependent, independent and moderating variables.
A conceptual framework is proposed with nine hypotheses to be tested. Structural Equation
Model will be employed since the relationships between some of the variables are indirect.
There is certain limitation that could be a challenge to this kind of research. One of the challenge is the cooperation among hotels