Job description may be used for several purposes and is very important for the organization's capability to manage employees and their roles. The expectations of employer for employee and the standard of measuring the job performance are described through exact job description. Job evaluation, recruitment, grading, training and development needs are identified based on job description.
1.1 Principles of Writing Job Description
Four basic principles (job, analysis, facts and timing) need to follow when writing the job description. The brief description of these principles is as follow
This principle emphasizes the job requirements and doesn't consider the persons in it. Another aspect of this principle is to describe the qualification and skills necessary to perform this job very well, not the current job holders.
Instead of describing the long list of tasks, main responsibility areas are specified in job description and not the tasks carried out by current job holders.
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The job description describes the facts regarding the job requirements that is, what job holder needs to do exactly. In this principle main emphasis is on the clear and factual record of job requirement. Over-state and under-state must be avoided in job descriptions.
The current job requirements, possible developments and future aspects are discussed under this principle.
The following diagram shows the brief summary of these principles
Job-------- Not Persons
Q2: Design a job description reflecting strategies of recruitment team?
Job Description Template
The template provides the general model for majority of the job descriptions except some specific details which are particular to different jobs. The template contains the following sections of job descriptions
Job details (job title and identifications)
Job purpose (requirement)
Main duties and responsibilities
Qualification, skills and experience
Planning and organizing
Job Context and Other Relevant Information
First of all, brief detail of each section will be considered and after that template apply to one particular example to explain job description documentation.
2.1 Job Details
This section contains "job title" and name of the organization/department. The location of job place in organization and the defined unit is also mentioned. The position reports to (e.g. Head of School, Housekeeping Supervisor, Chief Technician, Director Finance) is also specified rater than the name of individual. If job is accountable to more than one authorities belonging to different responsibility areas, there is a need to indicate this division of reporting line. Also specify the location of line manger if different to the job holder.
2.2 Job Purpose
The accurate and concise statement regarding job requirements is given in this section. The length of this statement should not be more than 2 to 3 sentences. Detailed list of how job is done, tasks, activities and problems are not included in this section. Only the answer of two questions is important in this section. What target need to be achieved regarding this job? If job didn't exist, what would not get done?
2.3 Main Duties and Responsibilities
In this section describes the main areas in which results must be achieved to justify the overall purpose of job. The main duties and responsibilities are the key outputs of job. Logical sequence is more important in writing responsibilities statement rather than order of importance. There should be two halves in each responsibility statement. The first of the statement should contain job holder's responsibility in terms of at least one action verb and second half describe end result of job. For example, maintain accounting records and analyze in accordance with established reporting system in order to ------- (first half) ----- ensure that University's reporting requirements are satisfied ------ (second half).
2.4 Qualification, Skills and Experience
In majority of the good jobs, there is an essential condition regarding knowledge, skills and experience to perform the job at required level. So, essential knowledge, good skills and sufficient relevant experience is the vital part of job description. These attributes help to fill the vacancy with a fully trained competent person.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
This section describes the actual orientation of job based on facts and quantitative information that indicate management/supervisory responsibilities. The exact scope of the job according to current situation is also specified in this section. For example, important factors to include are the number of employees directly answerable to job holder, number of indirect reports approximately, number of persons who affect the job directly or indirectly. There are other factors as well that may be included according to situation.
2.6 Decision Making
Decision making and accountability play a significant role in making the company financially strong and set the direction of business in future as well. The job holder may contribute to the decision making process in several ways. Independent decisions made by job holder, involved in or greatly influence on decisions by advising or making recommendations. To give an advice to decision making body is the responsibility of job holder in some situations. To support decision making what type of guidance available and what decisions would be referred to the manager are other important factors to consider.
2.7 Problem Solving
This section gives an idea of challenges faced by the job holder and expected solution to overcome these challenges. The problems/challenges occur regularly during the job are described in a realistic way. Different types of problems, the job holder deals with and the role of job holder in solving these problems and the nature of guidance to support problem solving.
2.8 Planning and Organizing
Some times planning and organizing the workload, utilization of resources and manpower becomes the key factors to consider that must be included in the job description. What planning is required to complete the work within given timescale by utilizing the resources in an efficient manner? Another orientation of planning and organizing is to achieve the targets in a minimum time period.
External and internal relationships that are really very important in the completion of job accurately discussed in this section, considering the fact not to repeat the information. What type of communication is required in these relationships and the overall purpose is also mentioned. In majority cases these relationships play important role in getting the job done.
2.10 Job Context and Other Relevant Information This section particularly deals any aspect of job that is not covered sufficiently in the previous sections which is important in understanding the requirements of job. The important factors relevant to the internal and external environment are described here. Wide operating range, technical, rapidly changing field and special environmental factors that influence the job are included in internal context. Issues relevant to public relations, politics, nature and extent of commercial pressure are discussed in external context.
Job Description of Sales and Marketing Executives
Sales and Marketing Executive
Johnson New Products Limited, Technology House, Bristol
Sales and Marketing Director, Bristol
To maintain and develop sales of JNP's heavy machinery range to UK main accounts by signifying appropriate plan and carry out direct promotion and sales activities in accordance with agreed business plan.
Main Responsibilities and Accountabilities
1.To develop and maintain the customer and prospect database using computerized system
2.Carry out direct marketing activities based on strong planning to achieve the targets such as sales volume, principles, budgets, timescale and product mix
3. To introduce JNP's heavy machinery products in the main market sector using direct mail and marketing strategy by developing ideas and create offers
4. By adopting postal services, personal visits and telephone, immediately respond to and follow up sales enquires.
5. Based on planned individual relation support and co-operation with internal order-processing staff, develop and maintain existing and new customers
6. To provide the relevant management information by monitoring and reporting on activities
7. To keep an eye on customer trends, competitor's activities and market conditions
8, maintenance of software suitability and reporting on equipment for direct marketing and sales purposes
9. To assist business and organizational development, coordinate and attend meetings held by other companies to perform duties very well
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10. Improve the relevant knowledge and skills by attending training programs
Q3:Explain linkage between marketing and operations in manufacturing.
Linkage between Marketing and Operations in Manufacturing
In actual practice it is complicated but in theory, it is a simple proposition: Make customers wait longer, and fewer of them will come back. Marketing develops a new product, service, similarity plan, etc. This new marketing scheme causes changes in working processes that increase customer service times. Consequently, the marketing plan has costs, as well as benefits.
In the marketing area, there is a wider dissimilarity among firms with respect to the most important factors, and no particular strategies appeared to be strongly favorite. Improvement in product quality and reduction in product cost are the two strategy factors which are most often selected as the major contributors to improved firm performance.
Operations administration is a little broader, and usually includes Production, Warehousing, Shipping, Purchasing, Maintenance,Â Manufacturing Engineering, and Planning.
Human Resources and Quality Management are unconnected to maintain auditing functions. Sales and Marketing are usually lumped together into a group that focuses on maintaining and attracting customers to the company's products and services.
Finance ties all departments together with monetary measurements that tell whether the company is making money. They also regulate the acquisition of funds to keep the business on an even keel, and investing money received wisely.
Marketing's approach to
1) Retain as big as possible of a pool of accessible customers as is cost efficient,
2) Recognize customer problems and complaints and defuse them (control negative word-of-mouth) while at the same time learning from them (the new insight into product design, staff training, and the establishment of policies and procedures), and
3) "Managing evidence," managing satisfaction, and providing value-added benefits to help turn the best customers into advocates for your brand.
Marketing depends upon:
Analysis of the marketing environment. It involves the study company market value, customer's idea and the largely economic, political, cultural and technical surroundings; casing developing trends, and the current situation.
Analysis of the detailed marketing activity. Company's marketing mix is studied.
Analysis of the marketing system. The marketing institute, research systems and the existing marketing objectives and strategies are reviewed.
The most significant basics of marketing presentation, which are normally tracked, are:
Market share analysis
Q4. Importance of qualification, sustainability for an organization in job description?
Knowledge/Qualification, Skills and Experience
Good second level degree in business studies like MBA especially in marketing
Knowledge of how to develop and maintain database
Good working knowledge of office 2007
Practical knowledge of stock market and business activities relevant to sales and marketing
Excellent communication skills for motivation through print and electronic media
Good project management skills
Capability to advertise the company's products effectively based on marketing principles
Excellent presentation skills to introduce the company and products in markets
Business and selling skills
Ability to achieve the genuine sales development
Minimum four years experience sales and marketing
Business management experience including major accounts customers and large contacts
Management of resources to complete the projects in time
Planning and Organizing
To plan and organize the workload by utilizing the resources and to achieve the targets in minimum time
Capable of making independent decisions, give suggestions to the decision making body, decision referred to decision making group
Based on internal and external relations, making plan to strengthen the business, maintain and develop existing and new customers
By utilizing available resources, solve the problems in different situations
Job description is the art to select the most suitable candidate exactly according to the requirements. It saves lot of time and other resources as well on part of company and candidate. Good job description focuses on the role that is exactly needed in job. Similar pool of professional candidates available for all competitors with same standard, this factor indicates the importance of writing the perfect job description to select the best candidate.