Job Analysis And Work Design Commerce Essay


Organization is an entity where people work together and have shared beliefs and norms, on the other hand effectiveness is the degree at which organization generate output and cope up with its targets in order to develop company profile with resource available. Georgopoulos & Tannenbaum (1957) organizational effectiveness also called organizational success or worth is usually referred to goal attainment where organization strives to get their desired goals effectively and efficiently. It is more of functional concept because it is mostly useful in comparative organization research. They believed that organization effective in industry area mainly lies in productivity. The variables that play vital role in criteria of effectiveness are moral commitment to organization, staff turnover, non-attendance, and member satisfaction. Malik et al., (2011) organization effectiveness is the belief of particular entity that how well they can achieve the desired outcome effectively and efficiently with allocated resources. Teratanavat (2006) examined organization effectiveness as speeding up tool of organization growth. Manzoor (2012) investigated organization effectiveness as process of getting together and make contributions in order to increase productivity. Millmore et al., (2007) defined Organization effectiveness as an amount organization is able to generate from its inputs without reducing its capital. Organizational performance includes employee performance, employee motivation, their recognition and organizational culture.

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Organizational effectiveness is mainly defined as the junction of human resources, operation management and business strategy. Organization effectiveness is a concept of how well organizations achieve their desired objectives which they anticipated to produce in order to develop their profile in this competitive era and meet up with global standards. Effectiveness is distinguished by ability to do what you set to do. At organization level it is by improving the way organization works and executes continuously, and managing white spaces between organizational boxes like (risk managing, developing positive team spirit, collaboration with right people at right time). From individual point of view it is about challenging thoughts and innovative ideas for organization, leadership style, and having right information to make good judgment calls and decisions. According to Beardwell, Holden and Claydon (2004), human resource management is development tool that has been increasingly contributing in greater extent to restructure employees association within organizations. Human resource management has many nick names and was stated as most important and a separate function in early times. First of all it was called as personnel relation then evolved to industrial relation, subsequently to employee's relation and finally to human resource; that include a prominent practice of analyzing and designing of work, human resource planning, recruiting selection, training and development, compensation, performance management, and employee relations. Motivation plays a big role in getting good output from the employees and has been main weapon for the organization to achieve their prime goals and objectives efficiently and effectively from their employees. According to Bedeian (1993), understanding of employee needs and motivation has been one the most important and prime focus for managers within their organization. Which includes pay, appreciation of good work done, job security and interesting as well as challenging tasks. So motivation is indeed the best way get best out of employee and retains them for longer period of time. As a result human resource management is indeed the most utmost and important process that has reshaped the organization psyche and help them to deal with employee issues and make them tough enough to compete with its competitors in this today's tough markets of world. Teratanavat & Kleiner (2006) stated that employee motivation is the emotional process which gives activities reason for strategic direction to attain goals and objectives successfully. Manzoor (2012) examined that employee motivation is instinct motivation of employee which drives him/her to satisfy unsatisfied needs and get along to achieve them effectively. Ishaq & Zaheer (2009) explained motivation as it is derived from the word "motivate" which means to progress in order to achieve objectives to fulfill personal wants and desires. This explanation identifies that if company wants to achieve its strategic goals and objective then they have drive their employees and motivate them to work for the success of company and reinforce them to attain those goals as a whole with effective output for future growth of organization and its development.

Schuler (1992) stated that strategic human resource management is concerned with combination of human resource management into business strategies and alteration of human resource management at all strength of organization. It is plan of all human resource activities which helps organization to accomplish all its major goals effectively. The activities practice by human resource includes; job analysis, recruitment, training, job design, selection and development. The management of performance is done, which helps organization to monitor and evaluate performance of employee directed towards particulars goals and objectives. Employees' are main assets and blood of any organization. If the employee is unsatisfied then organization may suffer huge loss in terms of not attaining its goals and objectives properly with efficient and effective manners. So human resource management play an important role in contributing to greater extent in making that relationship strong enough to meet all challenges and compete with its competitors. These days employee's morale, motivation and enthusiasm in organization has been major challenge so in order to meet its criteria organization should make favorable strategies as employee get satisfied and give their all to ignite company profile and show path of success to organization by meeting all obstacles easily and accurately. For this to happen organization need to make good and regular practice of human resource activities which includes;

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Planning: - Rudd (2007) stated human resource planning as the major factor in demolition as well as development of any organization, because the right planning would lead organization to make good output and would help these to meet all challenges required to achieve objectives or goals of organization. In contrary to that demolition of organization can be possible if the organization is failed to make good plans which will certainly ruin all operation of organization.

Job Analysis and work Design: - Schneider and Konz (1989) found out that it is necessary for organization to find the right job for the right person and should formulate strategies according to that in order to get more productivity out of work. This also includes making of decisions that what tasks should be grouped into a particular job. Dessler (2012) Defined job analysis as process which helps organization to establish different tasks related to exact job. Mathis and Jackson (2006) stated that work design classify how tasks are performed associated with the job.

Recruitment and Selection: - Recruitment is process where organization seek to get applications and Selection is final step where identification of skills and talent is done in order to make final decision; whether the candidate is hired or not. During the economic improbability organizations are bound to get in stress that either they should cut off the prices or not. As a result this effects on employee downsizing as well. Organizations tends to make decision either they can operate with huge span of employee or not. Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, & Wright (2011) defined recruitment and selection as the process which enables organization select right candidate which is able to work and help organization to achieve its goals and objectives effectively and efficiently.

Employee Performance Appraisal: - Every employee differs in skills and talents they possess. Some possess extra qualities that differentiate them from others and some possess average skills and abilities which need to be polished in order to meet up the standards of set organization. So in order to know them organization take favorable steps by taking appraisal system into consideration which allow them to understand performance of employees and understand each employee ability, competencies, skills and talents. Boice & Kleiner (1997) stated that performance appraisal system is the recognized procedure of examining and assessing employee performance. Pathania (2011) defined performance appraisal is an evaluation process which is taken into consideration in order to find out the exact performance of employee as an individual and helps controller to make objective workforce judgments. Beer (1981) stated that performance appraisal system can be defined as a controlling process where identification, evaluation and developing of work performance of staff members in the organization is practiced in order to achieve organization long and short term goals with precious output. Longenecker & Fink (1999) stated performance appraisal system is medium of inspiration and constant benefit for any firm.

Employee recognition: - Pathania (2011) stated that employee recognition is very much important factor that contributes up to great extent in term of performance and degree of achieving company goals and objectives effectively and efficiently. This is motivating factor which creates interest and self belongingness amongst employees to be united and work together to meet up organization's expectations. Migiro & Taderera (2010) examined that there is always positive and direct relationship between employee recognition and work motivation. When so ever any employee get award or recognition from upper level of management, it increases level of affection of that employee to work hard and smart to enhance company profile and become dedicated and loyal to company and with its operations.

Empowerment: - Guinn and Corona (1991) proposed that empowerment is the tool that helps and give authority to individuals to make decisions. Empowering mainly relates to the power that allows employee to make favorable decisions for organizations that can benefit organization to create good output and success in longer run. This helps organization to the potential of employees which include their decision making abilities and skills to cope up with handy situations in mean time. Poon (2004) investigated that empowerment is dynamic power that shows how well the job are carried and done in order to produce good output for company and make its operations successful and worth to earn more profit.

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Organizational environment: - Rukmani (2009) stated Organization environment deals with the power which can make a collision of strength and weakness. In this company is likely to know their strength and weakness and make favorable changes to deal with threats that can harm their firm and obsolete their business operations and bring unnecessary losses. Experts divide organizational environment into two categories that include internal and external further they are divided into specific and general environment. Organizational environment mainly include the structure of firm, the controlling process, the way tasks are divided and assigned to individuals and how well they are monitored to achieve that desired output, and how the information and channel of communication between levels of management flows in order to make right decisions that can bring success to company and their reputation in longer run.

Employee performance: - Malik, Ghafoor, and Naseer (2011) examined that employee performance is the basic need which determines success of organization in longer run and helps them to achieve strategic goals and attain objectives within defined period of time. So in order to create belongingness amongst individuals in organization, there should be perfect appraisal of employees, benefits should be provided to every employee as they get motivated and work together for the productivity of organization. There are basic two factors that increase effectiveness of employee performance. This includes employee motivation and organizational composition.

Pay for Performance: - This step states that many performance appraisal systems try to pay for performance. But in real this addition to the objective is not valid and nothing to do with satisfaction of employee. Guinn & Corona (1991) investigated on people's natural gas company and found out that in order to be successful and cutthroat organization must satisfy both needs. When employees are given salaries or if there is little increase in that this motivates them a bit and pushes them to work more in order to become loyal and respected to company objectives. But if there is no nay increase in salaries then may be employees will ask for discount appraisal process. So both things are to be maintained in order to produce good out for organization.

Leadership and its styles: - Rukmani, Ramesh, & Jayakrishnan (2009) Leadership is one the basic and important feature of organization development and long run success. This includes how well the organization's operations are carried out and monitoring is taken into account to meet up with company objectives and goals. Bass (1997) examines it is indeed crucial that leader should posses commitment to goal, inspiring and motivating skills in order to take company to the right direction and make valuable contribution in motivating employee to attain goals and objectives efficiently and effectively. There are mainly two styles of leadership from which first one is transformational style and other one is charismatic style. Leadership style is also known as individual choice. In this leader must know the self perception of him that includes behaviors, skills, and characteristics which are very much important for success of organization. It is mostly understood that charismatic leaders rely on standards, attitude and good judgment of tasks. They are very much powerful and have good posture if their ideas and ethical believes which differentiate them from others. They do entertain follower's suggestions and make decisions on the basis of rational opinions and let followers know that the mission or selected target is achievable and accessible. Organizational effectives mainly rely on the leaders and their style of working. Because leaders are the one who motivate their employees and give them direction in order to attain organizational goals and objectives effectively and efficiently. If leader is not up to the standard then organization may lose its direction and will suffer huge loss in term of spoiling its reputation in market. So leaders must be well qualified, intuitive, and energetic because healthy leader will result healthy organization.

Training: - This is main reason for designing an effective appraisal system because this will help organization to cope up with weaknesses of employee those are stated as raters and needs training to reach desired level and make valuable efforts for organization in future. Goff and Longenecker (1990) found that the training should start with manager in order to provide a systematic approach to the effectiveness of people management. So for this it is necessary to evaluate the needed individuals from top and middle management and give them training on the criterion of these objectives like, supervisions skills, coaching and analysis, conflict declaration, setting performance values, concerning system to pay, and providing employee response.


Conclusion can be drawn from above information that Human resource management is indeed the best weapon and effective tool which can make or break the organization. If used effectively organization can compete too much greater extent, but if used ineffectively would bring disaster for organization resulting into loss of organization and bankruptcy. So for this organization need have good and skilled managers as they can carry on operations of organization properly which includes good behavior with employee and giving them importance and taking care of their strengths and weakness which includes motivating them to work as unit, because employees are main assets of organization and without their contribution organization will never make it and will fall in long run.