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The role of the Human Resource department is evolving with the change in competitive market environment and the realization that Human Resource Management must play a strategic role in the success of an organization. Organizations that do not place emphasis on recruiting and retaining talents may find themselves in dire consequences, as their competitors may be outplaying them in the strategic employment of their human resources.
With the increase in competition "local and global "organizations must become more adaptable, resilient, agile, and customer-focused to succeed. In addition, within this change in environment, the human resource department has to evolve to become a strategy partner, an employee advocate and a change mentor within the organization. In order to succeed, the human resource department must be a business driven function with a thorough understanding of the organization's big picture and be able to influence key decisions and policies. The focus of today's human resource department is on strategic personnel retention and talents development. Motivation is an effective instrument in the hands of managers for inspiring the work force and creating confidence in it. By motivating the work force, management creates 'will to work' which is necessary for the achievement of organizational goals (Chhabra, 2010).
The issue of employee dissatisfaction and related attitude towards work is assuming alarming rate worldwide. The situation is even more serious in developing countries where working conditions are unattractive.
This research highlighted on how motivation can meet the challenges of workplace diversity, how to motivate employees through gain sharing and proper information system through proper planning, organizing, leading and controlling their human resources. This can be attained through proper dissemination of information to all employees in the organization.
Guest and Conway, (2005) established their suggestions on the basis of a chartered Institute of personnel and Development(CIPD) survey on employee welfare and emotional convention that managers who fail to motivate and improve the performance of people whom they manage arethe root causes of motivational problems in public organizations in Ghana. The familiar notion that people leave managers, not organizations, suggests that the organizations concerned, failed in holding managers responsible to understand their role in motivating people and to manage performance effectively. The biggest challenge for HR is to push line managers to manage and develop people.
In order to increase work effectiveness and performance, it is important to address a number of issues, including increasing motivation among employees, making them feel satisfied with their job, and increasing their job-related well-being in general.
In the view of Halepota (2005), motivation is crucial for organizations to function; without motivation employees will not put their best and the company's performance would be less efficient. This is evident in Ghana where in recent times the labour front has been plagued with a plethora of industrial unrest. For example,In 2010, POLYTECHNIC Teachers Association of Ghana (POTAG) and University Teachers Association of Ghana (UTAG) also embarked on a strike due to poor conditions of service and insufficient motivation. Recently, the junior doctors of OkomfoAnokye Teaching Hospital were on strike to demand for better conditions of service.
The Wa Regional Hospital, which was established in 1952 to provide health care delivery, has a challenge of getting medical doctors, pharmacists, nurses and other supporting staffs. According to the medical director of the hospital, various senior staff positions in the hospital are vacant and being occupied by unqualified staffs due to the acute shortage of professional medical staffs. The big question one can ask therefore is what accounts for this unfortunate situation in Wa Regional hospital? This however, is not the case of public hospitals in the southern sector of Ghana.
Various factors account for such situations; it has been argued in some circles that issues of motivation, incentives, political interferences and conflicts play a crucial role. Others also hold the view that transportation, obsolete equipments and lack of accommodation facilities for all categories of the institutions' staff may be responsible for this situation. Vehicles and other means of transport are inadequate. The situation is even appalling when it comes to some Senior and Junior Staffs who are not entitled to rent subsidy. These assertions are largely hypothetical, not supported by empirical evidence. It's for this reason the researcher intend to to find the causal.
The question that this research seeks to address is how employee performance can be enhanced against the backdrop of motivational challenges in the public sector especially in the Wa Regional Hospital as workers are always agitating for better conditions of services.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The study seeks to assess the role of motivation in the performance of Wa Regional Hospital staffs. In line with this, the study seeks to answer the following questions;
The specific objectives of the study include the following:
To examine ways of motivating employees to put up their best
To assess which motivational factors motivates the Wa regional hospital workers most
To evaluate the role that motivation plays on employee's performance.
To establish a relationship between motivation and performance.
The overall objective is to assess the roles that motivation plays on the employees' job performance and to assess why/how work is done without adequate motivational factors.
What forms of motivation are available to employees of the Wa Regional Hospital?
What factors motivate workers most in the Wa regional hospital?
What rolesdoes motivation play on workers' performance on the job in the Wa Regional Hospital?
What is the relationship between motivation and performance in the Wa Regional Hospital?
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study covers the Hospitals in the Upper West Region of Ghana, with many municipal and district hospitals with the Wa Hospital serving as a training ground for health personnel and as a referral Hospital. The Wa-Regional Hospital is selected because of large number of nurses and administrative staff. Motivational issues are relevant due to high concentration of the staff. The finding of the research will be applicable to the other hospitals in the Region. It is in view of this that the study seeks to assess the role that motivation plays in attracting and retaining competent staff. The study will focus on only Wa Regional Hospital.
1.6 JUSTIFICATION/RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY
The labour front in Ghana over the past decade has witnessed a number of industrial unrests particularly among public sector workers. For instance, in 2007, all health workers 'excluding medical doctors' went on an indefinite strike despite government threats to withhold their salaries (VOA, May 2nd 2007). In the same year, National Association of Graduate Teachers (NAGRAT) supported by some Ghana National Association of Teachers (GNAT) members went on an indefinite strike, which brought public schools to a close. Since then, the situation has remained volatile. action In 2010, POLYTECHNIC Teachers Association of Ghana (POTAG) and University Teachers Association of Ghana (UTAG) also embarked on a strike due to poor conditions of service and insufficient motivation. Recently the junior doctors of OkomfoAnokye Teaching Hospital in the Ashanti Region were on strike to demand for better salaries and conditions of service. All these are manifestations of a poorly motivated and disgruntled labor force. This research draws its relevance from these turbulent situations as solutions are sought to build a strong and highly motivated labor force that is willing and able to champion the development drive of the country.
The Wa Regional Hospital was established in 1952 to bridge the gap between the Upper West and the other regions in Ghana in terms of health delivery. Located in the deprived part of Ghana, the Wa Regional Hospital provides a good ground for the discussion of motivational issues.
The research work will serve as a policy shaping document for the institution and other public sector set-ups to improve their human resource related problems, since organizations are battling over appropriate ways of encouraging workers to improve work output.
This research will also bring to light factors or conditions that de-motivate workers from putting up their best in the fulfillment of the institution's objectives.
The study will also extend the literature on human resource management and thus, contribute to the growth of management as a discipline.
Finally, the study intends to investigate the important factors that motivate employees in the Wa Regional Hospital.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Logistical support was a challenge to the study since the research was funded solely by the researcher.
The researcher encountered some challenges from the respondents. Due to resource constraint, the researcher could notcover the entire staff of the hospital.
Time for the research was also a challenge since the researcher combined it with work.
ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
Chapter one contain the introduction of the study, problem statement, research questions, objectives of the study, the scope, and justification.
Chapter two examined relevant literature from works that has been done on the topic. The literature review will structure in the following form; a contemporary theorist of motivation, modern theories, forms of motivation, correlation between motivation and performance and importance of motivation.
Chapter three dealed with methodology and the limitations of the study. The methodology includes stratified sampling technique where the population was structured in the form of paramedics and nurses. Sampling techniques such as stratified random sampling, and accidental sampling was also used for the selection of the respondents. Interviews and questionnaires was be used for data collection.
Chapter four was on presentation, interpretation and analysis of data that was gathered from the field. In this chapter, statistical tools and techniques were used for the analysis of data with software such as SPSS.
Chapter five comprises the summary of findings, conclusions and recommendation
2.1 Literature review
This chapter examined relevant literature from works that has already been done on the topic. The literature review was structured in the following form; introduction, concepts and nature of motivation, the early theorists of motivation, contemporary theorists of motivation, importance of motivation and how motivation influence work in the organization
Most institutions and organizations strive to improve quality service and performance of their produce, service, internal or external operations. The reason for this can vary depending on the goals of the business or the organization. Important goals could be to ensure a firm and stable work environment to promote good work performance. The competition between institutions and organizations can be a difficult task, making it difficult to reach higher goals and development (Bolman, 1997)
One strategy for reaching higher goals and development is motivation. Employees are motivated to render quality service and effectiveness which means that motivation is a key factor for progress within an institution or organization. A profound knowledge of motivation and its meaning is therefore essential for success of the institution (Pare 2001). Motivating and employees is essential for the achievement of organizational goals.
It has been commonly assumed that public sector organizations are more likely to employ individuals whose values and needs are consistent with the public mission of the organization (Baldwin, 1984, Crew son, 1997). Charged with promoting general social welfare, as well as the protection of the society and every individual in it, public organizations often have missions with broader scope and more profound impact than organizations in the private sector (Baldwin 1984)
2.2 The concept of public employee
The composition of the public workforce has to reflect the nature of the work in the public sector by attracting employees who desire greater opportunities to fulfill higher-order needs andaltruistic motives by performing public service. It is these individual characteristics that are often touted as the key to motivating behavior because "understanding the values and reward preferences of public managers is essential in structuring organizational environment and incentive systems to satisfy those preferences"(Wittmer, 1991,p. 369). In fact, it is believed that the importance public employees place on the opportunities thought to be more readily available in the public sector, such as performing altruistic acts or receiving intrinsic rewards, compensates for the low levels of extrinsic rewards associated with the public sector and explains why no differences have been found between public and private employee work motivation (Baldwin, 1984, 1987; Emmert and Taher, 1992; Posner and Schmidt, 1982; Rainey, 1979, 1983).
2.3 THE CONCEPT OF MOTIVATION
According to Dubrin (2002), "Motivation is the complex of forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organization. Motivation is something that puts the person to action, and continues him in the course of action already initiated". Motivation refers to the way a person is enthused at work to intensify his desire and willingness to use his energy for the achievement of organization's objectives. It is something that moves a person into action and continues him in the course of action enthusiastically.
Motivation is a complex phenomenon, which is influenced by individual, cultural, ethnic and historical factors. Motivation can be defined as "a series of energizing forces that originate both within and beyond an individual's self'. These forces determine the person's behavior and therefore, influence his/her productivity (Jackson, 1995). According to De Cenzo et al, (1996), people who are motivated use a greater effort to perform a job than these who are not motivated. In other words this means that all thinkable factors of physical or psychological aspects that we interact with, leads to a reaction within our self or of the entire organization.
According to Latham and Ernest (2006) motivation was in the beginning of the 1900s thought only to be monetary. However, it was discovered during the 20th century that to motivate employees, there are more factors than just money. In their view, employees' satisfaction with their job is an important indicator for a good job performance and happy employees are productive. To them, motivation is a psychological factor and is affected by the workers' mental attitude and health. Therefore, in order to be motivated, a person's self-esteem and self-actualization cannot develop. This could result in lack of interest to progress and develop, both professionally and personally. There are several theories of human needs, which are the foundation of motivation.
CIPD's Reward Survey (2005a) reveals that human resource (HR) and line managers fail to develop reward strategies for their employees. Guest and Conway, (2005) established their suggestions on the basis of CIPD's survey on employee welfare and emotional convention that managers fail to motivate and improve their performance of people whom they manage.
The familiar notion that people leave managers, not organizations, suggests that the organizations concerned, were subjected to failure for holding managers responsible to understand their role in motivating people and to manage performance as effectively as they can. The biggest challenge for HR managers is to push line managers to manage and develop people.
2.4 THE NATURE OF MOTIVATION IN THE PUBLIC SERVICE
Public service motivation is popular among public management and public sector literature is increasing significantly (Perry and Hondeghem, 2008:22). Public sector management was defined in the early 1990s on the background of a strong reaches stream showing in particular that public employees behave differently from private ones (Massey et al. 1998; Lyons, Duxbury et al. 2006; Beelines and Van den Broeck 2007). These were founded in the desire to promote public pubic values in a disinterested way (party and porter 1982; party and wise 1990).
Public service management motives guided by an intention ``to do good for others and shape the well-being of society'' (Perry and Hondeghen 2008:3). As noted by Piviavin and Grube, these motives of society take root in diverse components that serve as guidelines for actions. In the eyes of sociologies, ``altruism'' is defined as the will to enact the fulfillment of the needs of others, or of a community instead of our own needs. For organizational behavior scholars, the concept of pro-social behavior or groups without expecting a reward. It is important to mention that this kind of disinterested motivation is also found in economic analysis (Fehr and Fischbacher 2003; Meier 2006; François and Vlassopoulos 2008).
The nature of motivation in the public sector can take in the following forms and which has significant influence on the employee tasked to perform a particular duty at a point in time. These indicate that in contrast to the Rational Choice perspective, individuals are not fully selfish, as they are able to put effort into an action without expecting to be directly and monetarily rewarded for it. In addition, these individuals seek jobs that benefit a larger entity than themselves.
Academics working on the disinterested and altruistic motivation of public employees used some national concepts to describe that particular commitment of civil servants to the public sphere. In particular, public service management construct applies to the American context, the phrase Ethique du biencommun (Chanlat 2003) is appropriate for French speaking countries; the Beamtenethos notion fits with traditional Rechsstaat in Germanic countries (Egger-Peitler, Hammershschmid et al. 2007) and the term "public service ethos "is analyzed in British context (Pritchett and Winfield 1996); Horton 2006; John and Johnson 2008).
The will to endorse public motives has been defined from several perspectives according to its historical development and purposes. Perry's definition of public service as "an institutions and organizations (Perry and Wise 1990; 368) responds to the authors will be to facilitate the identification and recruitment of people expected to perform in the American public service. On the contrary, this individualistic, focused definition is now challenged by a more institutional one. In an attempt to enlarge the scope of the definition and to bridge disciplinary gaps, Vandenabeele defined public service as "the belief, values and attitudes that go beyond self-interest and organizational interest, that concern the interest of a larger political entity and that motivate individuals to act accordingly whenever appropriate (Vandenabeele 2007; 547).
This definition of public service encompass other definitions of pro-social behavior held in the public sphere (Brewer and Selden; Rainey 1999) and, hence to deepen its links with the theory of motivation in terms of internal and/or external forces producing induction, the direction, the direction the intensity and persistence of behavior (Vallerand and Thrill 1993)
This view overlooks the individual and focuses on the values framed by institutions. In the institutional theory (March and Olsen 1989), the behavior of an individual is shaped either by a logic of appropriateness that refers to "beliefs, paradigms, codes culture and knowledge" (March and Olsen 1989; 22 cited by Vandenabeele 2007) or by a logic of consequence corresponding to the more rational anticipation of the results of an action. For the public service management theory, "one can consider public service motivated behavior to conform to a logic of appropriateness as it refers to the realization of certain institutional values rather than self-interest"(Vandenabeele 2007; 548).
Having identified several motivational factors occurring particularly in the public sector (Perry and Porter 1982), Perry and Wise first labeled the public service management concept and brought it to the academic community in their article "The Motivational Basses of public service" (Perry and Wise 1990). In this article, three universal and analytical categories of motives- rational, normative, and affective apply to the public service. Consequently, the author suggested that six dimensions (attraction to policy making, commitment to the public interest, civic duty, social justice, compassion, self-sacrifice) of the public service management system.
Despite growth of research in recent years, many ambiguities, gaps and uncertainties remain in our understanding of public service motivation (PSM). The two tracks of a research agenda on PSM can be identified (Perry and Hondeghem 2008). The first trackinvolves how the studies of other-regarding orientations in discipline outside public management and administration to close gaps in our knowledge about PSM and vice versa. Research on PSM raises general issues that are relevant for all disciplines dealing with motivation of employees in organizations. The important questions associated with this research track are; how do public motives interact with other motives, how can we account for individual differences, how stable or changeable is PSM and how is public motivation linked to related constructs?
2.5.0 THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
2.5.1 ABRAHAM MASLOW; HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
Maslow (1943) was the first to use people's needs in motivation theory. He worked with individuals having neurotic ailments and assessed their hierarchy of needs in 1943. Maslow's theory on motivation has attracted management theorists. The hierarchies of needs according to Maslow are the following; Physiological needs, safety needs, love needs, Esteem needs and self-actualization needs. These needs are arranged from the lower needs to the higher needs
Five needs rank in a hierarchical order from lowest to highest; physiological, safety, belonging, esteem, and self-actualization. An individual moves up the hierarchy, when a need is substantially realized (Shah and Shah, 2007).
Source; Adopted from shah and Shah, 2007
Physiological Needs; The basic physical needs for sustaining the human life. For example food, water, sleep, medicine, education etc.
Safety needs; to be free of physical danger and of the fear of losing a job, property, food or shelter and to protect against any emotional harm. To have a safe home, secure income, sufficient salary, benefits and medical insurance.
Social needs; because people are social beings, they need to belong and be accepted by others. They like to have family and friends. People try to satisfy their need for affection, acceptance and friendship. Interaction and cooperation with co-workers and leaders
Esteem needs; to be held in esteem both by themselves and by others. This kind of need produces such satisfaction as power, prestige status and self-respect, autonomy, achievements and external esteem factors such as status, recognition and attention.
Self-actualization; this is the highest need in Maslow's hierarchy. This need is to fulfill one's potential and self-fulfillment and maximize one's potential and to accomplish something. Employees in this rank try to maximize their knowledge, skills and performance to do a good job.
In principle the human being's desire is to satisfy his basic needs first and as he or she is always encouraged, seeking for higher needs. Maslow's message is simply this; people always have needs, and when one need is relatively fulfilled, others emerge in the predictable sequence to take its place. According to Maslow's theory, most individuals are not consciously aware of these needs yet we all supposedly processed up the hierarchy of needs, one level at a time (Kreitner, 1995)
Although, Maslow's theory is still useful in certain areas, the main strength of this theory is the recognition and identification of individual needs for the purpose of motivating behavior (Bowditch et al, 1997). Although Maslow's theory has not stood up well under actual testing, it teaches managers one important lesson; a fulfilled need does not motivate an individual. For example, the promise of unemployment benefits may partially fulfill an employee's need for economic security (the safety need).
In competing view, physiological and safety needs are arranged in hierarchical fashion, as Maslow contends. The contrary view is that, any one of the needs may emerge as the single most important need, depending on an individual. Edward Lawler, a leading motivation researcher, observed, "Which higher-order needs come into play after the lower ones are satisfied and in which order they come into play cannot be predicted. If anything, it seems that most people are simultaneously motivated by several of the same-level need" Lawler (1966; p 64)
The "motivation to work" published by Maslow (Maslow 1943; 370) probably provided the field of organizational behavior and management with a new way of looking at employees job attitudes or behaviors in understanding how humans are motivated. Probably the best known conceptualization of human needs in organizations has been proposed y this theory. Abraham Maslow was a clinical psychologist who introduced his theory based on personal judgment, which was generally known as the need hierarchy theory. According to him if people grew in an environment in which their needs are not met, they will be unlikely to function as healthy individuals or well-adjusted individuals. This idea was later applied to organizations to emphasize the idea that unless employees get their needs met on the job, they will not function as effectively as possible.
Specifically Maslow theorized that people have five types of needs and that these are activated in a hierarchical manner. This means that these needs are aroused in a specific order from lower to highest, such that the lowest-order need must e fulfilled before the next order need is triggered and the process continues.
If you look at this from a motivational point of view, Maslow's theory says that a need can never be fully met, but a need that is almost fulfilled does not longer motivate. According to Maslow, you need to know where a person is on the hierarchical pyramid in order to motivate him/her. Then you need to focus on meeting that person`s needs at that level (Robbism2001.)
The fundamental flaws of Maslow's Needs Theory, stems from his claim that, human needs are patterned systematically from one stage to another. In reality, human needs, though revolve around the stage indentified by him, but in some situations do not necessarily move progressively from one stage to another as he would have us believe. For instance, a person in some circumstances might compromise his physiological or safety needs theory as a strategy for motivation by managers.
Bassett-Jones and Lloyd (2005) suggests that the content theorists led by Herzberg, assumed a more complex interaction between both internal and external factors, and explored the circumstances in which individuals respond to different internal and stimuli. On the other hand, process theory, where Victor Vroom was the first exponent considers how factors internal to the person result in different behavior. From the focus point of these two groups, one could observe that process theories attempt or try to understand the thinking processes an individual might go through in determining how to behave in a workplace. The primary focus was on how and why questions of motivation, how certain behavior starts, developed and sustained over time. It is true that human behavior in general is dynamic and could affect the individual's personal altitude as well as factors surrounding that individual. These exogenous factors emanate from the environment in which the individual operates generate stimuli to employees.
It is believed that employees in general are goal seeking and look for challenges and expect positive re-enforcement at all times. Hence, it could only be of benefit if organizations could provide these rewards and factors. As noted earlier, albeit employees are financial motivated, motivation could be seen as a moving target. What motivates differs among different people and may even change for the same person over a given period of time; development within the modern organization has probably made motivating employees even more difficult due to the nature of every individual, behavior increasing the complexity of what can really motivate employees.
According to Bassette-Jones and Lloyd (2005) expectancy, equity, goal setting and reinforcement theories have resulted in the development of a simple model of motivational alignment. The models suggest that once needs of employees are identified and organizational objectives also matched employee needs. If poorly aligned, then low motivation will be the outcome
2.5.2 DOUGLAS MCGREGOR; THEORY X/THEORY Y
McGregor's theory, which is built on Maslow's theory, adds a central idea; those managers' assumptions about their employees can affect their motivation. This theory proposes two alternative and extreme views to see the human being; Theory X and Theory Y. According to Theory X the employee is viewed as mainly negative, lazy, resist change and unable to motivate. This produces a controlled environment with strict rules, threats and punishments. Employees in an organization like this tends to perform less effectively, give low productivity, produces aggressions and conflicts (Bolman et al, 1997). Theory Y on the other hand strives to maximize the employee's individual goals and efforts by giving workers greater job involvement and autonomy.
This means that employees are given the possibility to grow and achieve their own goals within the organization. Employees are viewed as positive and open to development.
Management's goal is to make the employee happy and satisfied with their work and performance (Bolman et al, 1997; Matteson 1999).
Taken not too literally the theory can provide a useful tool for motivation and management research (Shah and Shah, 2007). In addition, these theories remain as a guiding principle of positive approaches for management, to organizational development and to improve organizational culture.
McGregor suggested that there exist two sets of employees (lazy and ambitious employees) with lazy employees representing theory X, hard working and ambitious workers representing Y. According to him, the lazy employee should be motivated to increase performance in an organization Geogopalaus Goal theory of motivation states that, if a worker sees high productivity as a path leading to the attainment of one or more of his personal goals, he will turn to be a high producer. But if he sees low productivity as the path leading to the attainment t of his goal he will turn to be a low producer and hence needs to be motivated.
This discussion on the above motivational theories explains the fact that the concept of employee's motivation has been a critical factor addressed by previous authors as what determines the core competence of every organization in achieving a competitive position.
Skinner who propounded that any behavior that is rewarded tends to be repeated supported this view. The term motivation has been used in numerous and often contradictory ways. Presently there appears to be some agreements that the crucial thread that distinguishes employee's motivated behaviors from other behavior is that it is goal directed behavior (Bindra; 2000)
2.5.3 FREDERICK HERZBERG; MOTIVATION-HYGIENE
In 1959 Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman processed a research concerning motivation to work. They chose similar companies situated in Pittsburgh industry area. They interviewed approximately 200 engineers and accountants working for those companies. The theory developed from this research concerns hygiene factors, which are necessary for the employee to experience but do not motivate them to work. The explanation for hygiene factors could be a person's relationship with the environment in which one operates.
Herzberg argues that intrinsic job factors are motivating, whereas extrinsic factors only placate employees. In this theory, there are two group factors. The first one is motivating factors or satisfaction and the second one is hygiene factors or dissatisfaction. According to Herzberg, the workers get motivated when they are responsible for their work. He also proposed that managers can give their employees more authority to their job and offer them direct and individual
feedback in order to motivate and help employees to connect to their work (Wirralmet, 2007). Furthermore, Herzberg also recommended that the job should have sufficient challenges to utilize the full ability of the employee. If the job is not sufficiently challenging enough and not used for an employee's full abilities, the company should replace the employee with the one who has a lower level of skill to do the job (Shah and Shah, 2007).
Most empirical studies have refuted predictions based on Herzberg's theory. According to Herzberg's theory hygiene factors are related to dissatisfaction rather than satisfaction Another problem with Herzberg's theory is that some employees show no particular interest in such motivators as opportunity for growth and advancement (Dubrin, 2002).
In spite of criticisms, Herzberg's theory provided a new way of thinking about worker motivation and his theory remains as an influential factor in an attempt to make the motivation theory in an organizational way (Dubrin, 2002).
Herzberg's theory implication in real work life for a manager and management in the company who want to motivate their employees would include these activities: providing the employees with good compensation, flexible company policies and being connected to their own employees. In addition, the manager also recognizes the good work from their employees and gives their employees the opportunities to grow and develop their skills, knowledge and experience.
A significant development in motivation was distinction between motivational and maintenance factors in job situation. This led to draw a distinction between what are called as motivators' and hygiene factor's. Thus, hygiene factors provide no motivation to the employees, but the absence of these factors serves as dissatisfaction. Some job conditions operate primarily to dissatisfy employees when they are absent, but their presence does not motivate employees in a strong way. Many of these factors are traditionally perceived by management as motivators, but the factors are really potent as dissatisfied. They are termed as satisfaction among the employees. The maintenance factors include, company policy and administration, technical supervision, interpersonal relations with supervision, interpersonal relations with peers, salary, job security, working conditions and others Herzberg also identifies the motivational factors to include achievement, recognition, advancement, recognition, advancement, work itself and possibility of growth.
There appears to be a great similarity between Herzberg's and Maslow's models. A careful examination of Herzberg's model indicates that what he actually says is that some employees may have achieved a level of social and economic progress in the society and for them higher level needs of Maslow (esteem and self-actualization) are the primary motivators. However, they still must satisfy the lower level needs for maintenance of their current state. Thus, we can say that money might still be a motivator for operative employees and for some managerial employees (Chhabra 2010; p 11.7-11.8)
In this vein, hygiene factors are not sufficient condition in motivating employees but rather a precondition in enticing employees in promoting the organizational mission and objectives.
This further suggests that, the issue of motivation is still a challenge in modern context despite the efforts of government policy of promoting workers well-being.
2.5.4 RENSIS LIKER
The contribution of Rensis Liker theory on motivation cannot be undermined in literature review and therefore seeks to address some of the issues of work place diversity especially motivation which is a serious challenge in the 21st century. Theory was developed y liker in 1961, as a Director of the institute of social research at the University of Michigan, USA. The theory was mainly about high producing and low-producing managers. The former, according to his research, were those who achieved not only the highest productivity, are also the lowest costs and the highest level of employee motivation. The latter, by comparison, produced higher costs and lower employee motivation. His work indicated that the high producing managers tended to build their success on interlocking and tightly knit, groups of employees, whose cooperation had been obtained by thorough attention to a range of motivational forces. These included not only economic and security motives, but also ego and creativity motives (self-actualization, in Maslow's terminology). Management can achieve high performance when employees see their membership of a work group to be 'supportive'. That is to say when they experience a sense of personal worth and belongingness.
Even though Rensis Linker insists on effective work group that will promote high production and efficient tools that will serve as motivation to employees. There must be good working relationships between manager and workers and by that managers can be in better position to motivate their workers to do more. Most barriers of motivation may include unaware or absent managers, inadequate gildings, out-dated equipment and entrenched attitudes. When these issues are tackled by management it will aid high employee performance of any job given to a particular worker.
2.6.0 CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
2.6.1 EQUITY THEORY
The basis of Equity Theory, in a work context, is that people make comparisons between themselves and others in terms of what they invest in their work (inputs) and what outcomes they receive from it (Adams,1965). As in the case of expectancy theory, this theory is also founded on people's perceptions, in this case of the inputs and outcomes involved. Thus, their sense of equity (i.e. fairness) is applied to their subjective view of conditions and not necessarily to the objective situation. The theory states that when people perceive an unequal situation, they experience 'equity tension', which they attempt to reduce by appropriate behavior .This behavior may be to act positively to improve their performance and /or to seek improved rewards, or may be to act negatively.
Thus, part of the attractiveness (valence) of reward in a work context is the extent to which they are seen to e comparable to those available to the peer-group. Such thinking, however, is best applied to extrinsic rewards, such as pay, promotion, pension arrangement, company car and similar benefits, since they (a) depend on others for their provision, and (b) have an objective truth about them. Equity theory cannot apply in the same way to intrinsic rewards, such as intrinsic job interest, personal achievement and exercise of responsibility, which y their very nature are personal to the individual, entirely subjective, and therefore less capable of comparison in any credible sense.
In today's turbulent, often chaotic environment, commercial success depends on employees using their full talents. Yet, in spite of the myriad of available theories and practices, managers often view motivation as something of a mystery. In part, this is because individuals are motivated y different things and in different ways.
2.6.2 ATTRIBUTION THEORY
Attribution theory suggests that we judge other people's behavior by attributing meaning to their behavior in the light of perceived internal or external forces. Internally caused behavior is perceived to e under the control of the individual, i.e. they have made a choice in selecting the behavior. Externally caused behavior results from environmental forces that are perceived to influence people's behavior (e.g. organizational rules, machinery breakdown etc.), and over which the individual has little or no control. Kelley (1972) suggests that when people make attributions, they do so with three major criteria in mind; Distinctiveness, consensus and consistency. In case of the internally caused behavior, we would e likely to draw the conclusion that this person was unmotivated individual who dislike his job, and therefore 'chose, to e late. Where the behavior was seen as essentially caused y external factors, we would likely to conclude that this was a one -off event caused y circumstances outside his control, such as a major traffic hold-up en route to work. This attribution may e true reflection of particular person behavior or not because human behavior is said to e unpredictable from the on sett of creation and therefore cal for appropriation ways of motivating the work force to increase productivity. That aside, the taste and preferences of the employees are not uniform and therefore differ from worker to worker.
2.6.3 REINFORCEMENT THEORY
Whereas attribution theory has strong links with ideas about human perception, reinforcement theory, as applied to motivation, has major connections with learning theory, and especially the work of the behaviorist, skinner (1974). The reinforcement theory of motivation suggests that a given behavior is a function of the consequences of earlier behavior. Thus, it is argued, all behavior is determined to some extent by the rewards or punishments obtained from previous behavior, which has the effect of reinforcing current actions. In this sense, all behavior is caused by external sources, since we can have little control over the consequences of our actions. So, if an individual's efforts to contribute new ideas to a team are consistently met with an indulgent but apathetic approach by management (i.e. negative reinforcement), then the individual is likely to be discouraged from making father suggestions, and may even seek to change his or her job. Where, by comparison, the individual is encouraged to share new ideas and help to develop them (i.e. positive reinforcement), then the person is likely to generate even more ideas.
Strict Reinforcement theory would argue that an individual's own understandings, emotions, needs and expectations do not enter into enters motivation, which is purely about the consequences of behavior. However, modifications of the theory (e.g. social Learning theory) do allow for the effect of individual perceptions of the rewards/punishments obtained by others as a contributor to motivation. Thus, an employee is not just affected by the consequences of his own actions at work, but is able to infer 'appropriate' behavior from what he sees as the consequences for others of their behavior. Reinforcement theory is not basically concerned with what motivates behavior, or how, and is not strictly a theory of motivation. It is more concerned with control of behavior (i.e. power over others). Supporters of reinforcement theory (Jablonsky and De Vries, 1972) offer some important guidelines to those intending to use it as a motivating tool in the workplace.
The underlying assumption behind this approach is that people are there to be controlled, and that management's task is to provide the 'right' condition to encourage high performance. This is not quite such a negative view of people as is suggested by McGregor's concept of human motivation (McGregor 1960).
Workers expect of returns or rewards for efforts put on a job has become part and parcel of the motivation of employees in every organizational establishment and it will therefore be inappropriate to discuss motivation of the public sector motivation without taken a cursory look at the expectancy theory. This theory was developed by an American, V.H Vroom in 1960s. A key point of his theory is that an individual's behavior is formed not on objective reality but his or her subjective perception of that reality. Vroom proposes that motivation is a function of value of effort-performance and performance rewarded relationships. Expectancy theory emphasizes the role of individual perceptions and feelings (expectations of particular results) in determining motivation and behavior. Also the expectancy theory does not specify which outcomes are relevant to individuals in any situation (Enoch, 2005). The core of this theory relates to how a person perceives the relationships between three things that is effort, performance and rewards. Vroom (1964) proposes that people are motivated by how much they want something and how likely they think they are to get it. He suggests that motivation leads to efforts and the efforts combined with employees' ability together with environmental factors interplay to determine performance. This performance in turn leads to various outcomes, such of which has an associated value called valence. The three key factors are biased on the individual's perception of the situation. These are:
Expectancy; which is the extent of the individual' perception, or belief, that a particular act will produce a particular outcome.
The instrumentality is the extent to which the individual perceives that effective performance will lead to desired rewards and
Valence which is the strength of the belief that attractive rewards are potentially available (Gole, 2004; p43
It is important to note that vroom distinguishes 'value'. He does so by defining the former in terms of the anticipated satisfaction the individual hopes to obtain from the outcome or reward, and by defining 'value' in terms of the actual satisfaction obtained by the individual. According to vroom the three factors that is, expectancy, instrumentality and valence combine together to create a driving force, which motivates an individual to put in an effort, achieve a level of performance, and obtain rewards at the end. Despite the criticism, expectancy theory is still one of the useful for predicting employee behavior (Aamodt et al 2007)
It is prudent to note that, effort alone may not necessarily lead to effective performance. Other factors are involved, such as the individual's own characteristics (personality, knowledge and skills) and the way in which he perceives his role. For example, the prospect of promotion could be seen by a newly appointed employee as an attractive prospect (valence), but his expectancy of gaining promotion could be low, if he perceives that promotion is attained primarily on length of service. In such a situation, performance does not lead to rewards, so effort in that direction is not seen as worthwhile. These analyses clearly show that individual worker's expectancy of returns for a job performed vary and which has become a problem of management as to which is the satisfactory way of motivating worker for a good job done.
2.7 MOTIVATION AND JOB PERFORMANCE
According to Butkus and Green (1999), motivation is derived from the word "motivate", means to move, push or persuade to act for satisfying a need. Baron (1983) defined motivation in his own right. He says that "motivation is a set of processes concerned with a kind of force that energizes behavior and directs it towards achieving some specific goals. Many writers have expressed motivation as goal directed behaviors. This objective nature of motivation is also suggested by Kreiner and Kinicki (2001) put forward that motivation represents "those psychological processes that cause the stimulation, persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed"
A motivated person have the awareness of specific goals must be achieved in specific ways; therefore he/she directs its effort to achieve such goals (Nel et al, 2001). It means that motivated person is best fit for the goals that he/she wants to achieve, as he/she is fully aware employees towards the organizational agenda of achieving its objectives, then it is very important for them to educate and understand those psychological processes and undertakings that root cause the stimulation, direction of destination, determination and persistence of voluntary actions (Roberts, 2005).
Mo (1992) differentiates between the terms 'movement' and motivation'. Movement carries out the task for compensation, remuneration in humans mind to act, while the term motivation is stapled with total involvement of a person in its tasks to carry out with excitements and happiness. In simple words, movement compels a person to carry out tasks, while motivation is self-realized jubilant and pleasing act of carrying out specific tasks. The researcher emphasizes on motivation which is assist for the success because the person involved in it is very happy and voluntarily excited not for compensation. Motivation is reason for individuals' accomplishments to carry out the project (La Motta 1995). There are many aspects of motivation in an organization; a person motivated by those aspects may not necessarily motivate another person, because there are many different factors that affect motivation for different level employees.
On reaching the understanding and believing that people (employees) are naturally motivated, an organization simply provide the environment for their motivation to e enhanced and improved (Baron, 1983). It means that an organization is a better environment and working atmosphere prouder, it only needs to believe that the people have the motivational behavior. Lawler (2003) noted that different theories questioning why people prefer certain careers, why they seek particular rewards and why they feel satisfied or dissatisfied with their work and rewards. These are some of the resonating questions that create so many assumptions and hypotheses to be researched.
It is widely recognized in management circles, that motivation plays a role in keeping an employee performing his or her best in any task assigned. Assessing La Motta and Baron, views on the concept of motivation makes one wonder why incentives provided to workers did not yield intended purpose. This is as a result of dynamics of individual needs and to another need and this then becomes a challenge hence the call for further research on the issue of motivation.
2.8 LEVELS OF EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION
According to research conducted y Mosley, Megginson, and Poetry (2001) the direction of an employee's behavior is related to those behaviors, which the individual chooses to perform. It refers to how hard the individual is willing to work on the behavior. (The level of persistence, it refers to the individual's willingness to behave despite obstacles. Daschler and Ninemeier (1989) conducted research and investigated what employees may seek from the work environment. Their discussion reviews some of employee-related concerns that can be found in the venue of strategies to employee's motivation. Employees are individuals that come from different backgrounds, they have different education with different experiences and their different family classes are all the factors in which their needs can e located.
2.9 THE ROLE OF MOTIVATION
Many contemporary authors have also defined the concept of motivation. Motivation has been defined as; the psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction (kreitner, 1995); a predisposition to behave in a purposive manner to achieve specific, unmet needs (Afford, Bedeian, and Lindner, 1995); an internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need (Higgins, 1994); and the will to achieve (Bedeian, 1993).
According Smith, the reason why employers motivate employees is purposely for survival (Smith, 1994). Despite the fact workers always agitating for compensation for work done to keep them alive seems to have problem because, when workers are satisfy with their survival needs, they tend to fights for recognition and others. For example, some feel that, they should be sponsored to travel outside the country. They felt that they should be part of decision making body in the organizational setup. Motivated employees are needed in our rapidly changing workplaces. Motivated employees help organizations survive. Motivated employees are more productive. To be effective, managers need to understand what motivates employees within the context of the roles they perform. Of all the functions a manager performs, motivating employees is arguably the most complex. This is due, in part, to the fact that what motivates employees changes constantly (Bowen and Radhakrishna, 1991). For example, research by Kovach suggests that as employees' income increases, money becomes less of a motivator (kovach, 1987).
In addition, as employees get older, interesting work becomes more of a motivator.
The achievers of individuals and organizational goals are independent process linked y employee work motivation. Individuals motivates themselves to satisfy their personal goals, therefore they invest and direct their efforts for the achievements of organizational objectives to meet with their personal goals also. It means that organization goals are directly proportional to the personal goals of individuals.
Robert (2005) reported that the manager's job is to ensure the work done through employees is possible, if the employees are self-motivated towards work rather directed. The manager's involvement is not so much important in the motivation of employees. The employees should motivate themselves to work hard.
The major issue in all services organizations is the motivation of employees whether they are skilled or unskilled or professionals. It is a today's challenge for the management in this competitive world to motivate employees to offer efficient and good services that customers expect. The employees' motivation, their enthusiastic and energetic behaviors towards task fulfillment plays a key role in the success of an organization (Cheng, 1995).
According to Petchearak (2002), one of the functions of human resource manger is related to ensure employees' workplace motivation. The human resource managers' function should e to assist the general manager in keeping the employees satisfied with their jobs. Another goal in organization is the goal of the selective works. The employee work morale, such as supervisors, peers, organization and work environment can e defined in a sense that the employee has the feeling and e conscious about all aspects of the job. The performance is poor if the employee is not satisfied and happy. There are a number of ways in which organizations can affect the employee's perceptions of goal importance. First, as mentioned above, managers can persuade employees that their jobs are important y providing a convincing rationale for their work tasks (Locke, and Erez, 1988). One way managers may attempt to do this is y linking the job performance directly to organizational performance. Similar to the concept of task significance, if employees can see how their work contributes to achieving important organizational goals, then they are more likely their work as particular salient because the link between individual and organization goals may extend beyond the boundaries of the organization (Perry and Porter, 1982; Perry and Wise, 1990)
Motivation is an effective instrument in the hands of manager for inspiring the work force and creating a confidence in it. Y motivation the work force, management creates 'will to work' which is necessary for the achievement of the organizational goals. Motivation involves getting the members of the group, to carry out properly the purpose of the organization. The following results may e expected if the employee's are properly motivated;
The workforce wills e better satisfied if management provides them with opportunities to fulfill their physiological and psychological needs. The workers will cooperate voluntarily with management and will contribute their maximum towards the goals of the enterprise
Workers will tend to e as efficient as possible y improving upon their skills and knowledge so that they are able to contribute to the progress of the organization. This will also result in increased productivity as well as the rate of labor turn over and absenteeism among the workforce will e reduced to the arrest minimum (Chhara 2010;p11.311.4)
It is true to some extent that when workers are motivated, their ability to increase productivity will be high. There are certain situations some workers attitude are not reversible and management must put pressure in order to influence them work hard. Despite the deviates in every society, motivation still remains a powerful or recommended tool in influencing labor force 'will to work'.
This section outlines the research methods to be employed in carrying out the study.
Research is a systematic method of finding solutions to problems. It is essentially an investigation, a recording and an analysis of evidence for the purpose of gaining knowledge. According to Clifford Woody, research comprises of defining and redefining problem, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating data, reaching conclusions, testing conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulated hypothesis.
This section outlines the research methods that were employed in carrying out the research. These include the research approach, study setting, population and sample, Data collection, Data processing and analysis, Ethical consideration, Validity and reliability, and the limitation and delimitations.
The overall objective is to assess the roles that motivation plays on the employees' job performance and to assess why/how work is done without adequate motivational factors.
What forms of motivation are available to employees of the Wa Regional Hospital?
What factors motivate workers most in the Wa regional hospital?
What roles does motivation play on workers' performance on the job in the Wa Regional Hospital?
4. What is the relationship between motivation and performance in the Wa Regional Hospital?
3.2 Research Approach
Social phenomena have to do with extremely varying human conditions in different environments that make it difficult for social science researchers to choose appropriate research approach and methods to investigate the specific problem concerned. However, this study will adopt the case study approach for investigating the phenomenon. That is, the role of motivation on employees' performance in the case of the Wa Regional Hospital.
In this research, the deductive approach would be used. Since it will utilize a wide range of existing theories and to find answers from existing research and findings about motivation and employees enhancement, which will form the assist to compare, analyze and investigate the findings of the research. The investigation will begin with a sample questionnaire and the researcher will analyze the results of the questionnaire by arranging the motivational factors perceived by employees towards their performance.
3.3 Study setting
According to Berg (2004), site selection forms an important component of the research process. Selecting a location could "weaken or ruin findings. The researcher must be careful to identify an appropriate population,and not merely an easily accessible one to obtain relevant data (Berg, 2004)
The study will be carried out in the Wa municipality of the Upper west Region, the youngest of the ten Regions of Ghana carved out of the former upper Region in 1983 with the view to accelerating development of the said area since it is quite remote from Bolgatanga, the regional capital of the former upper region.
The region is located in the north -western corner of Ghana. To the south, the region shares borders with the northern Region. To the east it shares borders with the upper East region and to the north and west, it is bordered by Burkina Faso.
The Upper West Region has a projected population figure of 689,661 people (Ghana Statistical Service, 2010) .The Upper West Region was chosen for the study site due to a number of reasons. Besides being familiar to and convenient reach of the researcher,Wa is the main hub of administrative and commercial activities.
The Wa Regional hospital was established in 1952 as the only hospital in Wa and it serves all the people. The Regional Hospital strategically located in the heart of the Regional capital, and performs a dual function as regional and district hospital for over the years now. It provides services to the population of the region and its environs.
3.4 Sampling Techniques and procedures
The Wa Regional Hospital is one of the seven (7) hospitals in the upper west Region of Ghana; for the purposes of this study, the Wa Regional Hospital will be considered. Wa Regional Hospital was chosen because of its location in one of the underprivileged areas in the North. Stratified sampling technique will be used to select respondents for the study as follows;
Stratified random sampling technique was used to identify the categories of staff forconsideration. In order to avoid bias and prejudice in the selection process, the sample size was chosen with recourse to Krejcie and Morgan sample size determination table.
The table indicated;
N=Population size and S= is represented to be the corresponding sample size
Table 1 Sampling of Respondents
CATEGORY OF STAFF SAMPLE SIZE
A total population size of Two Hundred and Fifty (250) made up the study area and based on Krejcie and Morgan sample size determination table, the researcher selected One Hundred and fifty two respondents to administer Questionnaire. This selected sample size gave true reflection of the research findings and fair representative of the respondent views.
From here, accidental sampling technique was used to allocate the individual units of analysis for the interviews. This is because the method is flexible and facilitated easy and quick collection of data.
3.5.0 Data Collection Methods
3.5.1 Primary Data
There are two main procedures to collect relevant data, theoretical and empirical. Theoretical refers to secondary data, which will be collected by earlier research where the purpose of that data was relevant to the study. On the other hand, empirical data is primary, which the writer of the thesis was be able to directly investigate the specific problems. This type of information will be sourced from the field. To find suitable information, the researcher will use relevant resources in the hospital and its literature concerning motivation and existing theories within