Investigating Global Leadership Skills In Multinational Organisations Commerce Essay

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Last few years, the domestic market is completely changed severely in the sense of doing business. Competition in the market has been unpredictably changed; which makes investor to think the different consequences of successful global business. And when the investor invest in the world market, the factors and the variables get fully changed which needs to be consider during their decision making process.

In fact, we can say that global environment is changing in such a way that we cannot rely on a month old strategic planning. Because of tight pressure of the time, sometime company's executives made mistakes by not taking sufficient information about the global market. As in the chess game, we cannot expect the predicted turn of competitor similarly in the global market, it needs some extra managing capabilities that must be match with global context.

Introducing the products in some other country is completely changed as to offer in the domestic market because it's a totally different market. Therefore, quality & productivity sectors of the product needs extra care that formalised by the global industry (Strickland, 2004, p: 175). Its not easy for any leader or manager to lead the whole company internationally because managers not only have to see the structure and the standard of the business but also has to manage the different nationalities, culture and consequences of the running the business. In fact managers has to look all the infra structure of that particular country or countries where they are going to invest.

Overview

A Daft (2009, p: 547) state that leadership 'is one of the most observed and least understood phenomena on earth' it persuade on the people's behaviour & attitudes. The judgement of the truly leadership is depends on the company structure, the people of the company, authority provided to the leader and some other factors which makes a curriculum of the successful leader.

There is no doubt in that leaders brought the enthusiasms to achieve the vision and the goal of the company. The study suggested that people at work use only 16% of their intellectual capabilities which is danger figure, the reason provided by the researcher that it just because of bad leadership or leader don't have capabilities to take his employees to the vision of the company (Yuki, 1994,p: 322). A good leader always works hard to achieve the company goal and objectives through minimum utilization of company resources.

Therefore, it's important for the successful businesses that they must have a global competitive leaders or managers which lead them internationally. Companies must define the qualities and skills for its leader which helps them to get its predicted outcome and on the meantime; they must look at the issues on how these skills and qualities can be created. Unluckily, the both issues remain questionable because of incompetence assumptions made to achieve global competitiveness. Companies need to rethink or re structure on their employed global strategies for its leader (Forsyth, 2009,p: 255)

Aims & Objectives

The establishment of international assignment is only depending on the competitive global leader which acquired by any organization because this is a point from where any organisation can move across the border confidently. There should be someone who can lead everyone as a team and helps to bring the maximum output to the company that's the main aims and objective of this report to identity the main role of a competitive global leader.

Research methodology

Research is a methodology to identify the position of a phenomenon by using different means in a systematic manner.

Research is a process through which problems are identified and addressed. It is used to recognise various indicators which can solve these problems and helps collecting and arranging the data to show off various trends of the phenomenon (Smart, 2010,p: 11).

There are two methods of research one is Qualitative and other is Quantitative. Qualitative researching methodologies deal with identification of the global leadership skills. It is used to up raise those factors which insist upon the feeling of information rather than calculating it (Vaus, 2002,p: 5).

Qualitative research put emphasis on `why` and not the how through the analysis of the scattered information, which means things like interview , transcripts ,emails and things like this. It not only concerns the stats and numbers but goes of further than this (Corbin & Strauss, 2008, p: 255).

Qualitative research is used to read people's attitudes, traditions, values and aspects of motivation or desires culture. And this method is used to give the information or data to the businesses, decision & policy establishers. This method can also be use to get some unstructured information that includes short video clips, paper or report & feedback of the customers (Wimmer & Dominick, 2005, p: 233). The main contents of qualitative research method is, open ended questionnaires, interviews, data analysis, ethnography and emotions analysis.

The concept of keeping the leadership qualities constant or not getting much improvement is changed now because now businesses are operating through out a year, day & night without any gap. So the concept of old responsibilities of company leaders are changed now and it is impossible for any leader to operate the business solely. To seek more opportunities for the business, managers or leaders has to go globally, work smartly and explore opportunities for the business which helps to generate more profit. Now the world is like a small village where the movement of the business operation is not difficult, everything is available on one click (Cannon & Cannon, 2002, p: 116).

Globalization and International are a component of everyday language used by almost each and every individual. Now this world has changed and we are living in the world more made up of matter than we ever lived. So the success of the business in the future lies in capturing the global customers. One has a point that the organisation with little or no ability to see with a global eye can over step the significant chance to in line most of the revenues (Lynch, 2003, p: 403).

Having products and/or services with a global appeal is only half the equation for developing an international strategy. The second half lies in the people that will be needed to seize the opportunity for growth. Simply moving individuals to international assignments presents a significant challenge that many are likely to struggle with. The complexities of working in a different culture can present international managers with the greatest challenge of their career (Kumar & Steinmann, 1998, p: 232).

Giving products a global look is only one side of the world, on the other side there are people. If we only transform people from their current work to the international challenges, most of them will find it difficult and hard to comply with as the hurdles of working in new and different environments (Sparrow, 2009, p: 327).

A recent campaign dealing with number of senior executive presented that half of the executives argued the formation of a global organisation is one of their greater intentions and amongst few of them came with a view point that their organisation has the members and individuals which are able to transform their abilities if they are switched to international working environments. Openly the officials responsible for making the global strategies believe that they are not laid up properly to meet the requirements of the globalization (Tallman, 2007, p: 291).

One could fall out that most high ranking aspect of the going into successful global market operators is connected to the usefulness of the leaders performing the global strategies. This piece of paper also discovers that the research on the challenge of becoming a successful global leader and also explains the development of the leaders leading the global strategies (Obsfeld & Taylor, 2005, p: 12). How can organisation make sure the delivery of the future demand of the global leading requirements? What skills and knowledge and other capabilities the successful leaders have.

Globalization

There is no accurate definition of the globalisation. Globalisation is defined as a removal of hurdles to trade and barter through out the world. It recommends that the globalisation is consideration of the world as a single organisation and merging of the interests between business and society (Pieterse, 2000, p: 73)

Internationalisation simply means an increase in number of transaction and independence of the countries. Liberalisation explains the removal of government imposed restrictions and on trade such as trade barriers between countries around the world. Universalisation is uniformity of the cultures and societies. Westernisation is same like Universalisation but with enforcement on being more like western societies (Albert et al., 2000, p: 25).

Many things have played into the world becoming an international market. With these changes several challenges for managers have evolved (George, 2003, p: 76). One of the most important challenges is the change of the culture when dealing with international challenges.

Culture

Culture as a judgment of the part of the environment made by people, thinks this explanation as a categorization of interests and trusts (Tichy & Bennis, 2007,p: 63). GLOBE research describes the culture as a collection of shared beliefs and values. It then defines beliefs as people think of how things are done in the society and values as the people thinks of things should be done (Chhokar et al., 2007, p: 6).

With the better understanding of globalisation and culture, the difficulties in each , one can begin to know why the script of the international managers is so much challenging and attention seeking (Melkman & Trotman, 2005, p: 5).

Global Management

The management process originally is planning , controlling and communicating. It includes the observation of the activities which can be challenging and do not occur in row so makes it difficult and almost impossible for a manager to think that which pattern of activities he should go for (Kritner, 2006, p: 14).

Hales (2004, p: 195) discovered that the work a manager performs is substantial and highly complex, a greater amount of time is consumed in figuring out the solutions and making others think about the things you do. Such considerations are wide in the work of a manager. Hales research also founded that managers exercise a greater amount of independence in choice of what and how to do and how much or little time is spent in doing something.

In summary , the primary and important roles of the manager concern controlling the information and getting suitable meaning out of it so that it can be used to solve problems and help decision making phenomena (Luftman & Bullen, 2004, p: 7-9). This can also be put as having a motivational effect for the employees working under the manager. Each task has a greater complexity in it and demands the personal interaction which is the depth of the managerial work. The role a global leader performs is same like of the domestic manager. Both perform same type of the work but the culture each type of leader work in effects the requirements of the role directly and indirectly.

Characteristics of Global Leaders

Global Leaders have defined abilities and set of characteristics to be successful in their respective fields. Research says that one third of the global leaders' innovation and success are linked with knowledge and skill (Mendenhall, 2008, p: 39). This includes understanding the organisation culture specific knowledge of the industry working in and adaptation of the management practices for the country in which they work.

Global leaders should possess the ability to deal with global uncertainty. The research says that the domestic managers have the ability to do so and they do it frequent. The most common origin of the uncertainty is the movement of global leaders from their native country where they are executing with ease to a foreign country where there are highly complex and different operations and thus uncertainty (Adekola & Sergi, 2007, p: 58).

It also suggests that in addition to uncertainty global managers must also deal with certain tensions of balancing local needs with those of global integration. The research suggests that those managers who are able to balance the two by not focusing entirely on localizing or globalizing all activities are more likely to succeed. The challenge lies in the ability of determining which activities should stay local and which should become global (Storey, 2008, p: 423).

A final characteristic identified by Daniel & Krug (2007) is savvy. The authors divide savvy into two categories that include business and organizational. Business savvy includes understanding the global market for the products and/or services the organization provides, whereas organizational savvy revolves around knowing the capabilities of the organization and how they can be best utilized to be successful in the execution of the business strategy.

Some other research done by GLOBE project, researchers studying the attributes of successful global leaders found several similar characteristics considered to be desirable by managers including integrity, honesty, trustworthiness, being able to communicate effectively, coordinate activities, and build teams (Goethals et al., 2004, page 575-577).

The global mind-set is important is understanding new cultures and all the nuances that come with working in a foreign land such as the difference in political, legal and economic systems in addition to the management paradigms of the culture. Also important is the ability to deal effectively with uncertainty (Hitt et al., 2008, p: 71). Each culture represents a potential to create the need to learn how to manage differently, which can pose a significant challenge to leaders working in a unfamiliar culture. A final attribute found in the research linked to the successful global leaders, is the ability to quickly adapt to a new environment, and change behaviour patterns to those that are acceptable to the local culture (Cohen & Rath, 2007, p: 112).

Reviewing the literature and secondary resources on what makes an international leader successful, a number of common themes begin to surface (Gerzon, 2006, p: 255). The following is a summation of the most prevalent similarities; Business knowledge related to global markets, Ability to adapt to changing environments, Adventurous attitude and little fear of the unknown, Willingness to learn about other cultures, Ability to see things from different perspectives, and respect others for what they believe even though you may not agree.

Knowing what leads to becoming a successful global leader is only a starting point for organizations in their quest to develop individuals not only willing to take on international assignments, but also in the process of understanding how to help them become effective in these challenging roles (Harris et al., 2004, p: 25).

Developing the Global Leader

The researchers compare the process of creating effective global leaders to one similar to developing great musicians and athletes. To become the best, takes talent, opportunity, training, and education (Mendenhall, 2008, p: 165). The authors suggest that organizations that take a formalized approach to training perform better financially than those who do not. Despite the finding done by some researchers, shows that more than 40percent of organizations take an ad hoc approach to developing global leaders.

Development process should take a global approach in understanding not just one country, but the entire world. Four strategies suggested by the most of the researchers include travel, teams, training, and transfers (Bennett & Estall, 1991,p: 170). Two unique travel suggestions by the authors are to take detours off the main roadways when travelling to get better sense of the country, and spending time exploring markets, schools shops and homes to gain a better understanding of what living in the country is really like.

Teams also provide a development opportunity to work with people from different cultures. Training is also an obvious strategy for learning about a different culture. A final strategy is transferring to a new assignment and immersing oneself in a foreing land. Study suggests that working and living in a foreign country is the single most effective method of becoming a better leader (Stronge et al., 2008, p: 52).

Building social capital is related to improving ones ability to widen your relationships with people outside or your normal circle of social interaction (Groostaert, 2004, p: 14). The study also suggests the challenge is to widen your perspective by interacting with people who have interests and viewpoints that differ from yours.

Taking on assignments with international teams, travelling to foreign countries, and joining social networking groups such as those that include both face to face and online interaction are ways in which to increase social capital.

Developing global leaders is a challenge facing organizational leaders tasked with executing global strategies. The research suggests the most effective method of developing leaders is to immerse them in the foreign culture, but this is not always a viable option, nor the most economical (AMA, 2001, p: 86). Perhaps taking a hybrid approach is the most logical starting point for those responsible for creating development programs.

Conclusion

We no longer live in a world where the focus of organizations and individuals within them can be only on what we see around us. We have to close our eyes and begin to visualize a global perspective that will quickly become the norm for the future of business.

The data suggests we have significant work to do in developing the global leaders needed to make this vision become a reality, but the tools and techniques are available to begin the process. Those organizations that seize the opportunity to begin the process of developing future leaders are most likely to be the ones who succeed at taking on the challenge that comes with living in a world that is becoming matter.

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