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Let us take a look at the 18th and early 19th century, we see that industries of that time were mainly made up of clothing and textile and steel mill factories majorly. Though there was not much diversity in the industries at that time, one thing they all shared in common was how much production they can get out of their organizations. Productivity was the most important factor in every industry, more so on how to increase the productivity in an organization without increasing their input and maximizing their output.
Maximizing the productivity of an organization was accomplished by the diligent work of various people who today are considered as The Pioneers and Founders of Management who we will look at later on. These people worked in different areas but they all had the same thought in mind, how to increase production. They started to perform experiments with the workers at their different work places and used the results to come up with "Principles of management" which they had adapted in everyday work to increase production. The principals of management were made up of different aspects and views. Some based their research on the actual skill of an individual and how he carried out his task and how he can maximize on it. Others based their research on the mental aspect of an individual, what are his needs and wants that will encourage him to work harder to increase production. Others based their findings on communication and how information \ instructions were to be relayed to maintain proper workmanship (the personal\impersonal aspects) and in job specialization.
Today we live in a very dynamic world where technology is growing and getting more advanced as well as the industries that exist today. Technology has and will always be changing to keep up with today's demands in the field of construction. Along with the advances in technology (materials, machinery etc), the demand for skilled labour force (trade man, engineers and the various people that make up the driving force needed to complete the task) are becoming significantly greater in the numbers as the years go on. Even as the numbers increase in the work place the principles used for management in organizations today are still relevant to those that came about by the work of the pioneers of the 18th and 19 century. They have been modified and applied to fit the advances of the work industry of today but their basis remains the same of those long ago.
The pioneers of Construction Management and their theories
1) Robert Owen (1771-1858).
Robert Owen, he saw for there to be a need for extra emphasis for the well being of his workers at the factory especially the nearly five hundred children that were employed there. Also he was strongly against the fact the machinery at the factory were treated better than the employees. To deal with the child labour situation at the factory, Owen's plan was to lead an act to set a boundary of employment for underage workers mainly those over the age of ten and also reduce the hours of labour to only 10 1\2 hours for a work day.
In the year 1813, Owen had released a documentation entitled A new View of Society in which he shared in his own words what he thought of the society that we live. Owen strived for the betterment of his all employees at his factory in various ways because he believed that a person will have a better character in the work place due to situation that were giving to them if given the conditions. Some of what Owen fought for he saw as the critical and most important elements in building an individuals morality which include the improvement of living condition by making advances in improvements in housing, sanitation, public works and building of schools for children, school being the most important because he saw it as having the greatest impact on forming ones character. Owen was recognized for what he fought for and his work still shows today as the modern human relations schools of management.
2) Charles Babbage (1791-1871)
Charles Babbage, recognized mathematician, was know for the analytical engine (the modern computer that we have today), an important step in the history of computers. This was the first practical mechanical calculator for doing basic research. Babbage also came up with the idea of work specification in the construction industry where work should be divided into its individual parts to help better get the job done by breaking it down into more manageable tasks.
Additionally, he influences the development of the modern profit sharing plan which involves an employee's bonus for useful input as well as an share of the companies profits.
3)Max Weber (1865-1920)
Max Weber's work can be seen in the bureaucratic management principals. His interest was in organization which stemmed from his views of the standard setting and of work power and authority in the modern western world where he came up with a "rational-legal authority" model of an ideal type of bureaucracy. He believed that those higher in authority should have the legal authority to pass down\issue commands. Weber demanded that the rules and regulation of a bureaucracy be enforced to prevent the possibility of favoritism in the workplace.
Hs also thought that there should be certain characteristics in bureaucracies such as a well defined hierarchy where the higher the higher position should supervise and control lower positions so that there is no disorder in the organization. As well, the division and specialization of labour be spread out in accordance to a person's capability and knowledge to complete the task properly. Also reinforced rules and regulation be set for all operations to develop proper work coordination. He also saw if fit that managers should have an impersonal relationship with their employees so that right decisions be made not based on the fact of favoritism and unfavorable judgment and the organization's environment will show rational evaluation of employees where personal judgment is not the basis. Weber saw it important that records are necessary for a bureaucracy so that activities be documented so that they can be available. Weber's views are used in much organization though many disapprove of it.
4) Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915)
Frederick Winslow Taylor will always be known as the Father of Scientific Management. While working at the Midvale Steel Company as an Engineer, he conducted experiments on the production of workers and tested what he called the Task System later known as the Taylor System eventually reaching in the scientific management. It showed the best way of performing a task, the time required; materials needed, and work sequence where he wanted to show division of labour between management and employees. Out of this he four principals where derived. 1) A scientific management methodology be created, 2) Managers should assume the responsibility for selecting, training and developing the employee, 3) Managers should fully cooperate with employees to insure the proper application of the scientific management method, 4) Management should become involved with the work of their employees as much as possible.
The scientific management was basically made up of for monitoring employees, betterment of skills and for incentives through their rate of payment. Taylor believed that the study of an organization through his view of approach would provide a way to alleviate problems of production which is important to the current management.
5) Frank (1868-1924) and Lillian (1878-1972) Gilbreth
Both Frank and Lillian were both supporters of the scientific management. Franks had his first experiment using the skill of brick laying and after much testing was able to reduce the motions involved in bricklaying from 18 and a 1\2 to 4 which was an almost 170% increase in production and no increase in effort. He was primarily interested in coming up with the best way of getting the job done and his system later became known as "speed work" which involved leaving out unnecessary motions. Along with his wife they both became deeply involved in time and motion studies coming up with 17 basic work motions that they called therbligs (which is gilbreth spelt backwards) which included the use of a cyclograph, a kind of stereoscope movie camera, where by time and motion of workers could have been looked at.
6) Henri Fayol (1841-1925)
Henri Fayol came up with fourteen management principals during his carrier, they are: - 1) The division of work and specialization will yield more production with the same input of work while maximizing an employees effort and is suitable to all work even technical application. 2) Authority and responsibility, which go hand in hand, Fayol shoed that one leads to another due to an individual's personality, intelligence and experience. 3) Discipline, where obedience and respect between an organization and its employees has to be greatly enforced for good functioning. 4) Unity of Command is needed to because employees may react negatively to an arrow of commands rather than from one superior. 5) Unity of direction, the day to day operations should have one course of action with one person of authority. 6) Subordination of individual interest to general interest, the inertest of a person\persons are vital to the organization be are not to over power it. 7) Payment of personnel, the salaries owed to the employees that should be justifiable to the employee and employer and in dependant on the value of services provided by the employee. 8) Centralization which is the best method of deployment of personnel according to the variations in each organization. 9) Scalar chain, the chain of authority that is present between the highest to lowest ranks. 10) Order, the way which both materials and personnel are utilized for a purpose. 11) Equality which I made up of kindness and justice is to be noted when dealing with employees. 12) Stability of tenure of Personnel which is the drive needed to maintain a strong work force, insecurity causes undesirable actions. 13) Initiative, includes thinking of strategies to which gives great motivation. 14) Esprit de Corps, the importance of teamwork in an organization.
7) Mary Parker Follett (1868-1933)
Mary Parker Follett based her finding along the behavioral movement which was that problems should be solved using group methods and activities as well as division of power within an organization. She showed by using basic examples three ways in which problems can be solved either by dominance, compromise or voluntary submission on one party to another. This was shown by using simple everyday situations. She concluded that the best way to handle a simple situation was by creative conflict resolution where the new party can change their situation to better suit them leaving both parties satisfied. It was concluded that using creative conflict resolution involved willingly working out situation taking all iseas into account to yield strong interpersonal results.
8) The Hawthorne Experiments
The two experiments were conducted at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electrical Company in Chicago from 1924-1932. The results showed that as workers productivity increase as the lighting levels decrease until the employees are unable to see what they are doing after work performance returns stable for the first experiment. In the second study it showed that people who aren't given much less restrictions, lunch hours and flexible salaries had a clear rise in production levels. This experiment states that supervision and how it is conducted will have different effect on production.
9) Abraham H. Maslow (1905-1970)
Maslow's theory was based on three assumptions. First, the needs of an individual are met. Secondly, an individual's character is made useful and in turn he\she by wanting to feel satisfaction will be motivated. Thirdly, the needs can be grouped into in a structure of importance from the less demanding to the most demanding. 1) Physiological needs:- which are the basic necessaries needed such as food, water and shelter and after the basics are obtained they are no longer a motivator. 2) Safety needs:- are the needs such as (job) security, protection and living free from fear which generally satisfied an individual other wise they become primary motivators. 3) The Social aspect, the sense of love and belonging after having obtained physical needs. 4) Esteem needs, where an individual feel a sense of self respect by achieving a status, reputation, fame or glory. 5) Self Actualization, the stage after achieving item 1-4 where an individual realizes there is no more too accomplish. This theory was used helps managers to see the needs of his employees and know how to motivate them.
10) Douglas McGregor (1906-1964)
Mc Gregor came up with the X and Y theory.
X theory:- Employees who are not willing to work will not work, they need extra and firm motivation and most of them need direction and the principal desires of security
Y theory:- For those who enjoy working it will come easy, take on obstacles, justifiable rewards will with in achieving goals, good agreements will encourage responsibility, creates better thinking and flexibility in the works place for situations and organization realize that they will be only using a small percent of their employees abilities.
Different ways in which management can de defined.
Maslow's definition of management is that motivation can be instigated psychologically if the basic needs of an individual are present. When and individual realizes there is a chance for him to better his living standards he motivates himself to reach to that new level in many different ways such as setting news goals for himself to achieve, educating himself or placing himself on the job market for employment with an better income\benefits. Depending on the individual, he will reach a point where he is most comfortable (be it at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd level etc according to Maslow's structure). A person's character will determine how he intends to advance himself and that will determine the how much he motivates himself.
The Hawthorne Experiences defines management as: - if the conditions and environment in which individuals work in are conducive too them outcome of the level of productivity would be great. The initial experiment showed that people who work in unfavorable conditions (strict rules, no leisure time or freedom of movement) tend to have a low work morality and this would be projected in a negative outcome of production. The second experiment showed that people who work in favorable work conditions (lunch breaks, mediocre supervision generally free from restriction) tend to have a higher work morality and willingness to work and it would be projected in a positive outcome of production.
McGregor's theory defines management as: - a person's character and how much work ethics he \she has will determine the amount of and level of work he\she produces. This theory depicts that there are two groups of people in the work area, those who do not want to work (X group) and those who do (Y group). Those who do not want to want always show a sense of unwillingness, lazy confusion, take no initiative or responsibilities. To rectify this problem , they will have to firmly supervised \ monitored, their action and way of thinking controlled and made to suffer to for the consequences of their actions as a way of teaching values. Those who want to work show that work is a recreation to them, can operate on their own, to them achieving goals is a personal reward to them, seek responsibility, willing to make input in situation to overcome problems and show that their fill potential has not been administered.
In management there are various principles and processes which include:-
Forecasting; the expectation of any problems or situation that may arise in a certain timeframe and how to overcome them. This process involves researching previous data of similar basis in case a predicted situation is met, can be rectified quickly without causing much or ant time delay that may negative production.
Planning; putting everything in place before hand for the operations to ensure all requirements implemented. This process involves planning ahead so that relevant documents are obtained and approved, consultations of the different people required for the job are sought after and the different ideas are agreed on to avoid confusion.
Organizing; grouping (specialization) of individuals by the skills that they possess. By grouping\specialization of people and work into different groups, the task can be broken down in to smaller more manageable challenges to get the job done in an orderly, timely and neat fashion and the overall flow of the job is not disturbed that may cause complications.
Motivation; this entails encouraging someone to want to work harder willingly because the need and concerns of that individual have been negotiated. In motivating someone you may seek he needs and concerns and try to come up with an agreed negotiation most likely in his favour. As his demands are met his willingness to want to work harder will seem not to be a problem to him and his output will be greater. On the other hand, motivation is also self inflicted and a person may motivate themselves to meet their own new need and concern causing him to work harder having a greater output.
Controlling; the supervision of a group of people ensuring that instruction are being followed and carried out correctly and take action to rectify it. Controlling\supervision is an essential aspect in any organization. By using this principle, work can be carried out professionally without any problems because given instruction and information can begin to vary if not checked up on. It is mostly done by someone of superior knowledge who is appointed in that position to give instruction and information and to follow up on them making certain they are done as intended.
Co-ordination; the useful distribution and use of available resources. This task within itself is carried out by someone who organizes the resources given to him. The task is carried by selecting the appropriate labour, materials and machinery needed to accomplish it. If not for this action problems may occur for example, at the job site\organization they may be a lack of or even too much workforce or materials needed at the given time. The result of this is that time and money will be lost which would undoubtedly project a negative outcome.
Communication; the process of relaying information. This is having specified information being relayed from one party to another along a chain or repaints. This must be carried out in the most clear, understanding and concise manner to avoid being distorted.
All of these principles when used correctly together be it with an individual or in group, the person who uses them is known as the Leader. Not only should he know the motivation needs of the individuals which are what they look for and sees as something that will encourage them to become more work ethical towards accomplishing their goals. These needs are either self motivated or gestures made by a leader to trigger someone motivation to get the required production out of them when necessary. A leader should also have other behaviors that make him a leader. He should be able in to motivate others to want to work with him initially by sharing his thoughts, ideas and how he plans to accomplish them. After doing this he must be a excellent director\organizer and can persuade others to work under his supervision. He must have the power to over his staff to better able to control them using the different levels of power, autocratic, democratic, bureaucratic or charismatic.
In conclusion, we have seen that in the 18th and 19th century where the founding's of many management principles took place by various experiment and theories and by those who conducted them has and will always be adapted in the world of the 21st century we live in. Technology advances each and everyday as well as the challenges involved to accomplish them but the basic management theories has been the foundation of what we have adapted today and can only evolve for the better with time.