The Internationalization process model has been suggested by Jan Johanson and Jan-Erik Vahlne in 1977. In their view, internationalization is a process of the learning process and study of the various market segments. In the market expansions, reducing the risk is one of the objectives. In their views, their model will enhance the business by expansion with the minimum risk level. The internationalization has been come up with the 4 case studies of the Swedish companies. But they are focused in the international market by growing the market step by step gradually. But Jan Johanson and Jan-Erik Vahlne (2006), has been proposed the way to build market with the huge foreign products investment with minimum risk level and maximizing business expansion. There are two ways they followed in their theory; they are (Proven Models, 2010)
1. Commitment level in the host country
2. The knowledge level to enhance the business and expand the business geographically.
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In the market commitment, they have described several implications which are related to the business enhancements and growth internationally. Export activities must no be regular, only make exports with the independent sales representatives, foreign manufacturing and overseas sales subsidiaries needs to be accomplished. The market expansions will follow the certain standards to enhance the business. The resources committed for the particular market segments and level of commitment is necessary. Level of commitment is purely distinguished by the work process and market pre conditions (Johanson & vahlne, 2006). In the Market Knowledge, the process of information and distribution from firm to market has been evaluated. Process knowledge has been established and described with various optimal inputs like legal, culture, education, political and language. Market experience and the knowledge have been carried out some of the learning expertise and it would be useful within the successful business life cycle. Learning outcomes will carry out form the business expertise and experience. (Johanson & Vahlne, 2006)
Contribution towards the business expansion will lead to maximizing the potential of business and more business value. Internationalization has been depends on the industry structure, it is not possible with all the areas in business. Related to the trends and establishments in the global markets, internationalization has been focused on the level of growth and expansion. Internationalization has been promising the learning process observation and it includes the over all anticipation to increase the level and expansion of business in various stages. (Vlatka Hlupic, 2003) The knowledge which has been expertise with the personal observation in the foreign market helps for the new process improvements. If the changes in the market industry as per the technology then the learning based internationalization theory remains still and market conditions will be stable. The decision making influences need to be taken under the observation to evaluate and test under new market conditions. (Hamid Etemad, 2005) The knowledge which has been implemented with market research is more important than the objective knowledge. Experimental knowledge remains same in all the areas and it should be examined and enhanced with various business conditions. The degrees of internationalization has been concluded with two various ways.
Process Model of Internationalization
In the process model of the internationalization, the expertise knowledge is more valuable. In what ways the experimental and objective knowledge will influence the internationalization has been explained in this process model. It is depends on the various issues related to the customer, culture and market relations. The experimental knowledge knows the facts about the path of business expansion and liability. It will consider the overall influences to one end and examine the market pre conditions. It intends the reducing characterization of the risk level in the market expansion. Finally it will impact on the international market commitments. (Johanson & Vahlne, 2006) Maximum utilization of the resources as per the market conditions will contribute the maximum efforts in managing the business. The commitment and respective resources need to be pre planned according to the market expansions. Internationalization leads the business with high expertise, economy, relations and enhancements. (Johanson & vahlne, 2006)
Network Model of Internationalization
This network model influences the multilateral factors. Itââ‚¬â„¢s all about the firm and the market pre conditions which has been influenced by the external factors. The individual knowledge on the market pre conditions is added advantage to the network model. Expertise relationships with current market circumstances lead the business in growth. The target level of market needs to be accomplished by someone in the past experiences; they can lead the business with new ways of expansions in internationalization. Business expansions need commitment and knowledge on the global market situations and market pre conditions. The product development has been involved in the basic business standards and it has been increased to the foreign markets. The approach to the new markets is depends on the basic areas of the implementation and product availability (Johanson & Vahlne, 2006). The product enhancement has to done in the international market with good credibility and by understanding the needs of the customers. Various expertise implementations, planning, experience, skills and knowledge are the major issues in the internationalization to explain and evaluate. Owning knowledge is the greatest thing in the international market, the development and establishment is not at all in comparison with knowledge. This leads the market segmentation with high end profits and it creates the extensive learning process opportunities. (Richard)
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Internationalization of the Danish firms, which they have been, developed their business with the geographical structures. They expanded the business by setting up the small close markets with in the mean time. With the rapid growth they have been established distinct markets with all markups. The development of the own business and various company network structures has to be done. If the relationships in the business got motivated and increased their liability then it would be the greatest success of the business in foreign market. The market capabilities, establishments, opportunities, growth and development needs have to be organized by the companies. Companies need to learn possible outcomes and various business skills in the home country and try to experiment in the host countries with whole implementations and aspirations. The resource utilization of the companies might give good results in the internationalization. The global growth of the company will increase the brand name, business and integrity of the company. The firms products have been delivered in the host countries locally, then it may ask for the partnership with local firms then it would be helpful for the firmââ‚¬â„¢s international business.
Networking inside the business expertise leads to the success of the business. Danish firms started the business expansion with their knowledge resources and experience. They have lot of opportunities while moving forward in the international business with high potential market trends. (Torben Peterson)Advance implementations in the business process learning will accumulate overall efforts of the resources and build business growth in every stage of the continuity. Danish firms need to improve their establishment and business networks with relationships of foreign countries for market exposures. The main factor in the internationalization theory is to motivate the business process by learning and expertise. (Johanson) With the ongoing business opportunities, the learning process and knowledge gaining will be possible related to market specifications. (Snuif & Henoch, 2000) Regular exporting is not to be done in the business continuity. For this, the exporting scheduling needs to be completed in the minimum time scales. The representatives need to be independent. The exports will be ongoing with independent representatives as well. As per the sales perspective, the subsidiary of sales would be non compliance and enhanced before the estimated time limitations. The production has to be done with resource utilization, knowledge repository and effort estimation. The effort estimation needs to be done in all aspects.
The utilization of resources and building knowledge by experience as a learning process will lead the business in successful path. The learning process and outcomes needs to be recognized within the work process environment. (Pieter Pauwels, 2004) Overall efforts for the foreign market segments, well estimated and have to gain knowledge would be asset to the company. Gaining knowledge to perform in international markets would give more business. The business continuity depends on the establishment part of the nominal results of the business. Networking, relationships, suppliers, customers have to be measured in the learning process. Overall expertise and processing knowledge will enhance the business levels. The degrees of estimations in business encasements will lead the business with overall learning process. (Johanson,)Learning opportunities has to be developing with the various business platforms and foreign market pre conditions. Business relations will be established with overall framework to gain experience in foreign markets. Before establishments in foreign markets, we have to study some aspects like language, culture, rules, laws etc of the host countries. It is the ways to implement, expertise, enhance the needs of the business through transparency, trust and commitment. This process of the internationalization have been evaluated and concluded with below three areas. (Proven Models, 2010) (Rugman, 2007) (Johanson & Vahlne, 2006)
Knowledge and Learning
The knowledge base is required for the firmââ‚¬â„¢s business, which is developed by the learning process. The experience and experiment in the work process leads to the understanding the needs of knowledge in business expansion. Learning expertise will produces the overall information and evaluation about the outcome activities which are going in the present markets. The market specific knowledge is necessary for the business platforms to grow internationally. For example, how the firms entering in the international market, what are the critical factors involved, what are the complex patterns involved need to be evaluated. (Johanson & Wiedersheim, 1975) The business knowledge and institutional knowledge is necessary, in case if these are less then it will impact on the business pre defined cost. Lack of the knowing facts like laws, rules in foreign markets will decrease the power of learning process in established market networks. Based on the research, the knowledge, learning outcomes, schedule outputs impacts the potential and assets in the rendezvous of international business. (Johanson)
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Trust and Commitment
Commitment and trust has been critical factors in the business development and networks. If there is lack of knowledge in the firm, then we can go with the third parties to handle in the foreign countries because of only trust and commitment. (Johanson & Wiedersheim, 1975)
The positive energy and willingness in the competitive business standards impact their overall trust and commitment. Utilization of the resources and building transparency and trust will increase the liability, integrity and reliability of the business. The joint ventures and business expansions in foreign markets will possible only with trust and transparency. This is like moving forward with the nearest learning objectives and implications. The business commitment required more knowledge, material and resource support to establish new heights. Mainly building trust is the more time consuming process in the business development. Outcomes of the present business standards need to enhance the next phase expectations. If the nearest objectives achieved 100 percent then trust and transparency will build automatically in the markets. Market pre conditions, risk factors, market segmentation, evaluation need to be done with prior assessments. (Johanson & Vahlne, 2006)
The Knowledge, Commitment, Trust and Transparencies will increase the opportunities in the foreign markets and influences the business activities. The formation and experimenting opportunities will enhance the business needs and growth factors. Market conditions are not constant in foreign markets due to economic slowdown and price fluctuations. Resources, knowledge, empowerment, establishments need is there in the market base locations. Experimental knowledge and business expertise will provide the analysis and framework to formulate the business opportunities. Getting opportunities are depends on the ongoing activities in the business continuity. The own knowledge and resources will help to learn and create opportunities. The external opportunities and network relationships in the foreign markets tends to business growth as well as increase the learning opportunities. Various establishment frameworks in the business relationships will depend on the continuity of learning outcomes. Major knowledge repositories need to establish their own platform to enhance their skills and expertise. Opportunities are there in the market, why because market pre conditions and values would change often. The more expertise company will gain more knowledge based on the implications in new areas of business lines and solution management. (Vlatka Hlupic, 2003)