International Supplier Of The Innovative Flavour And Fragrances Commerce Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Symrise is a leading international supplier of the innovative flavour and fragrances. Symrise is one of the world's leading companies in the flavour and fragrance industry since 1874. Its range includes products that are essential features of everyday life today. They are used by food manufacturers or perfumes.

Symrise is one of the four biggest suppliers on the global market for fragrances and flavors and currently holds a market share of 10 per cent. The company develops and produces more than 30,000 products from around 10,000 raw materials; it sells these products in some 160 countries. Symrise generates roughly 40% of sales in rapidly growing emerging markets.

In the food flavours and nutrition, Symrise products range is as below,

Flavour for food, beverages, and health care products,

Alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages

Soups, sauces , convenience food and snacks

Confectionery, bakery products, dairy products, ice-cream

Food supplements, health care and specialty products

Symrise in Corby manufactures snack flavours and culinary products. Today's consumers demand and expectations are more than just old, traditional style of some salty snacks. In the recent concepts such as dipping, finger foods etc., snacks are convenience food and form part of the daily diet. Snack foods are becoming a routine trend with natural, fresh and irresistible ingredients. Symrise's creative excellence in flavour, seasoning composition, outstanding application, technology expertise and sensory-consumer science make Symrise capable in snack food flavours.

Symrise has grasped the culinary art of cooking, roasting and frying on industrial scale, in the culinary segment. Symrise's short and gentle preparation approaches preserve both their typical, fresh taste and their authentic, natural character. Symrise offers meat flavourings in every conceivable variety and ethnic combinations with the advantage of molecular excellence and outstanding creative flavour work.

1.2 Spices and Seasonings

The term 'spices' means any aromatic vegetable substance in a whole, broken or ground form, except for those substances that have been traditionally regarded as foods, such as onions, garlic and celery; whose significant function in food is seasoning rather than nutritional.(Underriner and Hume, 1994)

Seasonings are combinations containing one or more spices, or spice extractives, which when added to a food before it served to boost the natural flavour of the food and thereby increase its acceptance by the consumer.(Underriner and Hume, 1994) Symrise is manufacturing various flavours in seasoning form to enhance or to impart the flavour in crisps, chips, biscuits.

Successful blending requires an understanding of the physics and chemistry of powders and liquids and the impact of several complex processing methods. (Graham and Annesley, 1999). In the production of seasoning blends include: mixing, liquid dispersion, extraction, agglomeration, size reduction and various physical influences of conveying, filling and packaging. All of these processes, the ingredients and atmospheric conditions (e.g. temperature, humidity, handling times) interact with one another.

Moreover, the successful compounder will have a strong knowledge of governmental regulations applicable both to the regions in which the goods are produced, as well as the regions to which the seasonings are shipped ad consumed.(Underriner and Haume, 1994). Symrise is in 35 countries including UK, so it is very essential to know the government regulations about ingredients, restrictions and labeling of each and every country. Labeling is always of critical concern, not just regarding ingredients list, but the positioning on labels of various required data, in legally acceptable format.

Ingredients used in seasonings are not necessarily compatible with one another. Chemical composition, moisture (water activity), storage temperature and influences of light and oxygen are all important considerations in achieving a successful seasoning blend (Underriner and Haume, 1994). Final test of its acceptability is the ultimate application to which the seasoning will be put.

Spices are used in seasonings in several forms. Mostly whole ground spices are used in preparation of seasonings. Alternatively, an extractive of the spice may be preferred for several reasons. Extra strength may be desirable for a given weight of spice component; hence a concentrated oleoresin or essential oil might be preferred (Underriner and Hume, 1994). The application may be of very pale, uniform colour, hence a soluble extractive might be desirable to avoid introduction of spice particulates. Rapid flavour impact and low cost may justify a plated spice (e.g. oleoresin or essential oil coated on the surface of a salt or dextrose filler). Alternatively, flavour retention and slow release may be desired, thus justifying the use of a higher cost, more stable encapsulate (Underriner and Hume, 1994).

Several critical points must be considered in the formulation of food seasonings. First of course an appropriate combination of spices, herbs and related ingredients must be selected in order to characterize the food. It must then be considered how the ultimate consumer might modify the food through use of fresh ingredients to ensure ultimate compatibility. Flavour composition is only one factor in seasoning delivery; particle size also has a significant impact, as does processing method, the use of acids, salt and presence of trace ingredients.

Routinely samples of seasoning blends are monitored for several characteristics, all of which must be controlled to ensure batch to batch uniformity and satisfaction of customer and producer specifications. Particles of dry blend are critical, since non-uniformity may result in stratification and separation of component ingredients. Salt content, measured quickly and accurately on appropriate aliquot samples of a production batch, can provide a ready indication of the uniformity of mixing step. In low salt, or salt free systems, another indicator may be appropriate such as calcium ions, measured by titration when tri calcium phosphate is used as flow agent (Underriner and Hume, 1994).

1.3 There are two prospects of seasonings,

Buyers (Consumer) outlook

Industrial expectation

Buyer outlooks

Two related consumer categories need to be clearly identified in order to properly discuss their expectations. The ultimate consumer -the one who eats the food dedicates his expectations through the food delivery and production channels.

Recent health, nutritional and ecological considerations have resulted in an increasing consumer demand for 'Natural' things. The consumer infers some innate goodness from natural, as opposed to 'artificial' from which is often inferred a lack. (Underriner and Hume, 1994). To address this subject sensibly, the European Commission has offered definitions with regard to flavours as shown in Table

Type

Description

Natural flavours

Flavours obtained from animal or plant raw materials by microbiological, physical or enzymatic processes. It should not contain any natural identical or artificial substances. It can be used in either natural state or processed for human consumption.

Nature-identical flavours

Flavours are obtained by synthesis or secluded through chemical processes that are chemically identical to flavouring substances naturally present in products envisioned for human consumptions. They must not contain any artificial flavours.

Artificial flavours

Flavoring elements not recognized in a natural product envisioned for human consumption, whether or not the product is processed. These are typically produced by fractional distillation and additional chemical manipulation naturally sourced chemicals or from crude oil or coal tar.

Traditionally natural flavours have been relatively expensive. Frequently they do not hold up well under the rigours of processing technologies. (E.g. high heat, microvave). In some cases, it may be necessary to incorporate unique process to ensure desired performance. Flavour ingredients may require encapsulation, for example in a heat labile material so that flavour is not prematurely released, and perhaps dissipated before its impact is desired. Careful attention to formulation and required labeling will enable this problem and its remedy to be legally, as well as consumer responsively, handled.

All seasoning manufacturers including Symrise are challenged to ensure that formulations adhere strictly to the laws and definitions, since the consumer expects 'Natural'.

1.3.1.1Consistency

Achieving sensory (flavour, aroma, texture, visual) consistency in seasoning is bit difficult. In the seasonings various raw materials are used such as agricultural products, essential oils, herbs, spices, natural flavours, colours etc. agricultural products vary dramatically due to varietal differences, seasonality, climatic variations, sources and quantities of nutrients during each growing phase, harvesting conditions and storage before use . The more ingredients used in seasoning , the greater the chances for errors and inconsistencies. So to reduce all these errors several actions must be carried out such as inspections of raw ingredients according to its specifications, storage of raw ingredients, sensory tastes of several ingredients etc.

1.3.2 Food Processor (Industrial) expectation

In attempting to satisfy customers, Industry requires similar attention from suppliers- in other words ingredients purchased must meet specifications on a consistent basis. Symrise has got raw material section in which it maintains more than 800 ingredients. There are more than 800 ingredients which are used in making of seasoning. Some of them are natural, some of them are natural identical and some of them are artificial flavour.

So it is very important to have specifications for each and every ingredient to maintain quality. Variations, some indeed being unavoidable as noted previously, cause at the least the need for adjustment or standardization, and at the worst, delays in production or loss of product. Thus, suppliers should be expected to support their customers just as support for the retail consumer has been outlined above, but with an added sense of urgency to avoid economic loss resulting from the customer having to shut down a production operation for non-performance or inadequate performance by the supplier.

However, additional requirements must be considered, in programmes:

To reduce the quantity and types of ingredients required (and thus the inventory carrying costs).

Ingredients reduction:

In any seasoning industry, reduction of ingredients is given much important because it would save cost and complexity as well. The ingredient control function is performed by blending the critical ingredients according to the customer's proprietary formulation, and then typically packaging the blend in 'unit' quantities, that is, the amount needed for one production batch of the food for which it has been prepared. Thus the responsibility for uniformity of formulation, at least for the multiple and critical seasoning components, is taken on by the supplier, coincidently minimizing the support activities necessary at the plant and reducing the risk of quantity variations and un warranted ingredient substitutions.

Ingredients reduction may take another, rather different form. In efforts to create new, exciting and different foods, the product development technologist often seeks new and varied ingredients, frequently resulting in a proliferation of ingredients all used in rather small quantities. An alternative reduction programme reviews similar ingredients used for similar purposes to identify those functional requirements that could be met by a single ingredient in several applications. How many different beef flavours are required to produce the various meat entrees and sauces? How many different salt granulations are required? And so on. Sometimes substitution cannot be made without sacrificing quality or product differentiation; in many cases, however, substitution can be made without noticeable differences in the finished product.

To accommodate changes in legislation such as salt or sodium content, usage of artificial flavours, allergens like celery, soy sauce powder, fish powder, mustard flavour etc. Beside these there are several barriers which need to be eliminated. The barriers to be eliminated are

Physical barriers (e.g. customs stoppages between member nations)

Technical berries (which obstruct the standardization of compay's products for business in all member states without the need for differing specifications).

There are four important technical berries which Symrise has to take in under considerations such as,

Restrictions on the use of certain ingredients.

Content and description regulations

Packaging and labeling regulations

Specific import restrictions

1.4 Seasoning ingredients

Seasoning, which is added to any species of food to give it a higher relish; usually something pungent or aromatic, as salt, spices or other aromatic herbs, acids, sugar, or a mixture of several things. Basically seasonings are used to impart flavour in any food. Symrise has got more than 800 types of ingredients; different ingredients are used for different applications.

From comparisons of total volumes of spices and herbs in commerce compared with that which is consumed from retail outlets, it is reasonable to assume that most of these ingredients are used by industrial food processors - either seasoning blenders supplying the food processing industry, or processors doing their own blending, or both. The compounding of seasonings is both an art and a science. Successful compounding requires knowledge of many ingredients. The ingredients and flavours are used in either spray dried form or liquid form.

Those most typically used in seasonings may be found in the following ingredient categories:

Spices and herbs:

Natural, whole or ground

Dried, frozen, freeze-dried, fresh

Plated (coated/adsorbed on inert fillers)

Encapsulates, concentrated and/or adjusted to natural equivalency

Oleoresins, water miscible

Extracts and essential oils

Hydrolysates/autolysates:

Animal proteins

Vegetable proteins

Yeasts

Flavour enhancers

Monosodium glutamates

Maltitol

Ribonucleic acid

Salt (In various flake types and particle sizes)

Flavours:

Compounded

Processed

Dairy components:

Acids and neutral whey fractions

Cheese powders

Caseinate

Oils (used in small percentages to minimize dusting)

Fillers:

Sugars

Starches

Gums

Grains

Preservatives and antioxidants

Anticaking or flow improvement agents (usage varies by legal jurisdiction)

Silicon dioxide

Tri- calcium phosphates

Some of the ingredients which are being used in Syrise are listed below,

Vegetable powders such as onion powders, tomato powder, garlic powder, carrot powder etc.

Herbs and spices such as mace, sage, basil, paprika with different size, chilli powder, turmeric, cayenne, ginger etc.

Dairy powders such as cheese powder, lactose powder, cheddar cheese, yogurt powder, cream powder, whole milk powder, skim milk powder, sour cream powder etc.

Food colours such as paprika 60000 c.u and 100000 c.u (C.U defines the strength of the colour), annatto colour etc.

Liquid flavours such as cheese concentrate, ham flavour, chicken flavour, freid onion flavour, smoke flavour, tomato flavour, onion flavour, natural acetic acid, natural meat flavour, chilli flavour, bacon flavour, mace flavour etc.

Some fillers are used which are mixed with natural or natural identical flavours to bind the flavours, those ingredients are lactose powder, dextrose powder, rice flour, wheat flour roasted etc.

Some allergens are also used such as celery powder and flavour, prawn flavour, shrimps flavour, soy sauce powder, mustard flavour and powder etc.

Among these ingredients or flavour some of them are natural, some of them are natural identical.

So the flavours are developed on the basis of customers' requirements. Some of the customers allow, using artificial flavours or natural identical flavours. But it seems that most of the customers prefer to use natural flavours because of restrictions in legislations and most important is market. Consumer wants food products made from natural ingredients. Symrise avoids using artificial flavours. Natural ingredients cost much as compare to natural identical or artificial flavours.

1.5 Aim of project

As it is mentioned earlier, that Symrise is manufacturing seasonings for snacks and culinary products, the work has been done in seasonings segment. Symrise is making several types of seasonings by using more than 800 ingredients. So, in a broad spectrum, Aim of the project was "To gain thorough understanding of flavours, development of flavours and carrying several sensory tastes".

The projects were given, are listed below,

Project 1: To understand each and every ingredient that includes spray dried powders, dried flavours, liquid flavours, natural flavours, natural identical flavours, allergens.

Project 2: Developments of Late night snacks flavour.

Project 3: Chequer foods ltd. one of the company's customer, which faces the problem of powder filling in sachets. A project was given to improve the process and flowability of powder so that it gets desired property.

Project 4: Development of flavours for Pom Bear shaped snacks for children.

Project 5: Triangle tastes of various samples help in approval of the flavour, those has been prepared in R & D lab.

Project 6: Development of flavours called Java and Bali for prawn based pallets.

Project 7: One of the customers wants a match of some seasoning mix and pastes; the products were,

Beef flavour mix

Vegetable flavour mix

Chicken flavour mix

Vegetable paste

Chicken paste

Lamb paste

Beef paste

The task has been given, to develop these six seasoning mix and pastes similar as customer requirements.

Project 8: A project was given for development of Umami flavour

Chapter 2

Materials and Methods

2.1 Project 1: Understanding of Ingredients

Symrise (Corby) has got more than 800 ingredients. There must be deep understanding of all flavours; it requires lot of practice and proficiency. Factors like the top notes and their concentration and how they affect in flavour perception are important. The compounding of seasonings is a very specialized skill. The proper blending of dissimilar constituents such as spices extracts, salt, sugar, dairy products, emulsifiers, preservatives and many other components that enter into complex seasoning mixtures, requires a high level of technical expertise and practical experience.

Spray dried powders were taken in small amounts and spread it on a tongue to have a proper taste and aroma. Liquid flavours have been sensed and sniffed. Some of the liquid flavours were quiet strong or very concentrate, so they have been sniffed bit away from the nose.

Few ingredients and flavours that were tasted and sniffed are listed below,

Nos.

Ingredients/flavours

Herbs and spices

Chili powder

Sage ground

Mace ground

Basil ground

Basil leaves

Black pepper

Allspice

Aniseed

Rosemary ground

Cardamom

Celery

Chives

Cinnamon

Cloves ground

Ginger

Fenugreek seed ground

Fennel seed ground

Mustard seed ground

Spearmint ground

Oregano

Nutmeg

Cumin ground

parsley

thyme

Turmeric

Vegetables powders

Different types of Onion powder

Tomato powder

Carrot powder

Garlic powder

Natural and natural identical liquid and spray dried flavours

Tomato flavour

Bacon flavour

Ham flavour

Concentrate onion flavour

Sage flavour in oil

Celery seed oil

Vanilla flavour

Meat flavour

Concentrate garlic flavour

Lemongrass flavour

Chicken flavour

Black pepper flavour

Smoke dextrose

Smoke salt

Shrimps flavour

Prawn flavour

Fish flavour

Molasses flavour

Lemon flavour

Apricot flavour

Sweet flavour

Flavour enhancer

Table salt

Finer salt

Sea salt

Monosodium glutamate

ribonucleotide

Additives

Tri calcium phosphate

Silicon dioxide

Food colours

Paprika oleoresin 600000 CU

Paprika oleoresin 100000 CU

Annatto colour

Flavours made by processing

10 to 14 types of yeast extracts

Hydrolyzed vegetable protein

2.2 Project 2: Development of late night snacks flavours

A customer wanted late night snack flavours. Process of making flavour and quality aspects were considered for making a flavour. The process flow chart of making a flavour is shown in figure

C:\Users\kunal\Desktop\Untitled.jpg

In rest of the projects, all the flavours were developed by using same process flow chart as shown above.

2.3 Somakon

In the R & D lab several flavours were developed in different amount. Some of the flavours were supposed to make in large quantity. So to make flavour in big quantity, an equipment called Somakon was used. There were different bowls of different sizes. The bowls were fixed and all the ingredients were mixed on different rpm levels. The picture of somakon is shown below,

http://www.somakon.de/resources/MP-$C3$9Cbersicht.pdf

2.4 Flowability test

Purposes and scope:

By means of this method the flowability of powders were measured. Some of the Symrise's customer asked for flowability because of in some process it is essential such as packing flavour/seasonings in sachets, spraying flavours on the crisps by small orifice. So flowability of seasoning/flavours does matter in some processing.

Principle

Determination of the product quantity which flows through a standardized, round sieve machine. This machine has an automate sieve drive, which turns 15*2 times within and for 15 seconds.

Apparatus

Balance, ± 1g

Drying chamber for sieve drying

Reagents

Water and solvent for sieve cleaning

Procedure

500g substances (±2 g) temperate to room temperature (approx. +20°C) are weighed in exactly into the examiner. Product which is falling through the sieve has to be refilled in sieve. If a product has visual components, it has to be removed by sieving over a 1 mm sieve before using the sieve.

The product is sieved into a tarred receiver. This process is supported by a star shaped insert whose wings perform a circular back and forth motion. To guarantee a repeatable sieving, the movement is set to 15 repetitions. The sieves of the examiner is cleaned after use with water or solvent and dried. It has to be sure that sieves are properly cleaned and dried before taking another sample.

So this is how the flowability of the seasoning or flavours were to be measured and recorded in the product specifications.

Methods

2.5.1 Idea funnel

Almost all the given projects were based on NPD (New product development). To develop new flavour or idea is require several steps. Below in figure , it's shown that in the starting lots of ideas are being undertaken to develop new flavour. Definition of the project should be clear for an e.g. if a customer wants a flavour for pallets, crisps, biscuits or chips. Some specific requirements have been taken in consideration such as salt content, dosage level (level to which seasoning is applied on the base); base frying (pallets), allergens and NOFNOC (non- artificial flavours and non- artificial colours). So these requirements must be taken carefully to move ahead. There must be a stock of all raw materials because in seasoning industry many ingredients are needed to make flavour. C:\Users\kunal\Desktop\Funnel.gif

Now once the concept is clear several relevant flavours were made by using process as shown above in figure .

After developing a number of flavours, sensory tests were carried out with employees of Symrise to ensure that flavour meets customer requirements. After sensory some of the flavours were rejected and some of them were accepted. Accepted flavours were modified according to feedback of sensory tests.

Once they were made, again sensory tests were carried out and after that flavours have been finalized. Once the flavour was finalized, specifications were made such as salt or sodium content, application rate, allergens, ingredients and suitable according to EU regulations.

Ref: nosc.noaa.gov

Chapter 3

Results

3.1 Project 1 Understanding of ingredients their taste and flavour

After tasting of all ingredients the results were recorded and some of them are as shown in table

Ingredient

Sensation

Responsible chemical

Spray dried mustard and flavour

-

Allyl isothiocyanate

chilli

Burning, numbing, tingling, stinging, biting

Capsaicin

Cinnamon

Stinging/pricking; numbing; burning

Cinnamaldehyde

Vinegar or fruit flavour

-

Citric/aceitic acid

Cumin

Burning; tingling; numbing

Cuminaldehyde

cloves

numbing

Eugenol

Ginger

Burning, numbing, tingling

gingerol

Horseradish

-

2-propenyl/ 2-phynyleehtyle isothiocyanate

Mint

Menthol

Cooling, numbing, burning, tingling, stinging

salt

Numb, stinging/pricking

Sodium chloride

Ref: taste and aroma

3.2 Project 2 Development of late night snacks flavour

One of the company's customers asked to develop late night snack flavour. From the name of the flavour, it is clear that customer wanted a flavour which can be suitable in night. There were several flavours developed such as cheese and Worcester, kebab, pepperoni, pepperoni pizza, chips and cheese, chips and gravy. The ingredients which were used to make these flavours are shown in table

Nos

Pepperoni pizza

Kebab

Cheese and Worcester

1

Wheat flour toasted

Onion powder

Cheddar cheese powder lactosan

2

Whey powder

Salt

Salt

3

Salt

Wheat flour toasted

Sugar

4

Yeast extract

Fat powder

Sweet Whey powder lactosan

5

Cheese powder

Garlic powder

Wheat flour toasted

6

Finer salt

Yeast extract

Yeast extract

7

Finer sugar

Sugar

Onion powder

8

Onion powder

Sour cream powder

Aroma type cheddar spray dried flavouring

9

Garlic powder

Whole milk powder

Vinegar powder from malt extract

10

Pepper black ground of 60 mesh

Cumin ground

Citric acid

11

Pepper black extract on salt

Spearmint ground

Tri calcium phosphate

12

Chili powder

Chili powder

Spice flavour for Worcester sauce

13

Origanum ground

Silicon dioxide

Cayenne -pepper extract on salt

14

Cumin ground

Paprika oleoresin 60000 CU

Pepper black extract on salt

15

Tri calcium phosphate

Coriander seed ground

Silicon dioxide

16

Ginger ground

Pepper black ground of 60 mesh

Paprika oleoresin 60,000 CU

17

Aroma type bacon SD

Vegetable oil

Vegetable oil

18

Mace ground

Spray dried raw onion flavouring

19

Paprika oleoresin 60.000 CU

Liquid concentrate meat flavour

20

Cayenne pepper extract on salt

Liquid concentrate onion flavour

21

Silicon dioxide

Natural aroma type sour cream spray dried flavour

22

Beef type flavour concentrate SD

23

Lactic acid

24

Vegetable oil

Project 3 Improve flowability

A company named chequer foods is a leading industry of filling sachets with flavours, ketchup, salt, sugar. Symrise is supplying flavours to them. They were facing problem of filling of sachets with two flavours.

Mexican chili

Green thai

So the project was to investigate the problem. The filling machine was investigated while working. It was noted that how the flavours are filled in sachets and what causes the problem of filling. After vising company, it has been occurred that, the flowability of flavours were poor. Another complaint from the company was, one of the flavours was quiet dusty.

So in both of flavours silicon dioxide has been added and taken several trials. The flowability of both the flavours was measured after adding flowing agent. But still in the Mexican chili the results were quiet miserable. Several times the flowing agent has been added and measured the flowability. In the final, both the flavours have got good flowability and chequer food has taken trial in a small scale with good outcomes.

Project 4 Development of flavours for Pom Bear snacks

The project was to develop flavour for Pom Bears which already exists in the UK market. There were some requirements such as sodium content shouldn't exceed 20%. The flavours must suits for children so there must be less usage of allergens, natural identical flavour and some chemicals. The flavours were made using idea funnel as shown in figure . All the flavours were tried on the base of pom bears. The dosage rate was 5%. The pallets were fried in sunflower oil for 15 seconds at 190°C.

Some of the flavours were finalized and they are,

Hot dog & onion

Hot dog & ketchup

Cheese and ham

Pizza

Roast chicken

Roast beef

Bacon

Sweet fruity curry

The ingredients/flavours which were used to make these flavours are as shown in table as in descending order by weight.

Nos

Hot dog and onion

Hot dog and ketchup

Pizza

Sweet fruity curry

Bacon

Roast chicken

1

Onion powder

Sugar

Icing sugar

Lactose

Lactose

Maltodextrin

2

Sugar

Salt

Salt

Salt

Salt

Salt

3

Salt

Tomato powder

Sugar

Sugar

Onion powder

Whey powder

4

Yeast extract

Onion powder

Lactose

Whole milk powder

Smoke dextrose

Lactose

5

Lactose powder

Yeast extract

Onion powder

Yeast extract

Yeast extract

Yeast extract

6

Potassium chloride

Lactose powder

Yeast extract

Onion powder

Dextrose monohydrate

Onion powder

7

Citric acid

Potassium chloride

Cheese powder

Coconut milk powder

Sugar

Sugar

8

Sage leaves ground

Citric acid

Tomato powder

Turmeric ground

Ham type flavouring

Garlic powder

9

White pepper ground

Sage leaves ground

Vinegar powder from malt extract

Garlic powder

Spray died bacon flavour

Furfuryle mercaptan

10

Black pepper ground

White pepper ground

Oregano ground

Ginger ground

Vegetable oil

Vegetable oil

11

Garlic powder

Black pepper ground

Citric acid

Coriander seeds

Paprika oleoresin 60000 cu

Lactic acid

12

Vegetable oil

Garlic powder

Sage leaves ground

Fenugreek seeds

Thyme leaves ground

13

Concentrate onion flavour

Vegetable oil

Cheddar aroma flavour

Fried curry type flavouring

Citric acid

14

Silicon dioxide

Concentrate tomato flavour

Basil leaves ground

Citric acid

Tricalciaum phosphate

15

Natural mustard flavour (SD)

Silicon dioxide

Vegetable oil

Tri calcium phosphate

Chicken flavour SD

16

Concentrate meat flavour

Natural mustard flavour (SD)

Paprika oleoresin 60000 cu

Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide

17

Malic acid

Tomato flavour sundried

Concentrate cheese flavour

Chilli powder

Paprika oleoresin 60000 cu

18

Cayenne

Concentrate meat flavour

Concentrate tomato flavour

Tomato flavouring sun dried

Mace extract

19

Mace oil flavour

Malic acid

Tricalciaum phosphate

Turmeric extract

20

Paprika oleoresin 60000 cu.

Cayenne

Sour cream flavour

21

Mace oil flavour

22

Paprika oleoresin 60000 cu.

The salt content of all these flavours were calculated and they are as shown in table

Hot dog and onion

Hot dog and ketchup

Pizza

Sweet fruity curry

Bacon

Roast chicken

Salt content

17.6%

17.6%

15%

15%

18.2%

19.5%

Project 5 Triangle tests

Triangle test is a discriminative form of sensory analysis. The results of the triangle tests indicate whether or not detectable differences between two samples. In the triangle test always three samples are prepared, out of two samples are standard and one is add.

Triangle test was done for several samples such as Bali flavour as mention in project , beef, vegetable, chicken mixes and pastes as mention in project . Along with this participated in the triangle test of which the flavours were prepared by staff.

There could not be statistic evaluation because there were less than 20 panels.

project 6 Development of Bali and Java flavour

A customer wanted a match for Bali and Java flavour. These flavours are applied on prawn based pallets. These flavours have market in other European countries. The dosage rate should be 5 % and cost should be much than customer expectations.

Prawn based pallets were fried in sunflower oil for 25 seconds at 188°C. Several flavours were made and carried our sensory tests with staff. But still the flavour is not finalized yet. The flavours which were very close to the standard samples, their ingredients are shown in table . But still work needs to be done on these flavours.

Nos

Bali

Java

1

Sugar

Salt

2

Malto dextrin

Fructose ground

3

Salt

Glucose syrup powder

4

Yeast extract

Onion powder

5

Parsley leaves 0.3-0.5 mm size

Garlic powder

6

Indian curry powder

Monosodium glutamate

7

Chicken flavour SD

Sugar

8

Coriander seeds

Yeast extract

9

Raw onion extracte

Parsley leaves, 0.3-0.5 mm

10

Chilli powder

Roast meat dry flavour

11

Cumin ground

Coriander seed

12

Disodium 5-guanylate

Indian curry powder

13

Parsley leaves oil

Vegetable stock type flavouring

14

Rosemary ground

Caramel sugar syrup powder

15

Furfuryl mercaptan sd

Citric acid

16

Celery flavouring sd

Lemon flavour SD

17

Curry extract

Ribotide

18

Chilli extract

Vegetable oil

19

Lemongrass oil

Nutmeg ground

20

Paprika oleoresin 100000 cu

Silicon dioxide

21

Citric acid

Fenugreek extract

22

Chilli extract SD

23

Lemongrass oil

24

Turmeric extract

25

Paprika oleoresin 100000 CU

Project 7: Matching of flavours with standard samples

There was a requirement to match a flavour profile of,

Beef flavour mix

Chicken flavour mix

Vegetable flavour mix

Beef flavour paste

Chicken flavour paste

Vegetable flavour paste

Lamb flavour paste

Standards of these samples have been given and work was to be done on flavour, taste, aroma, colour and cost as well. The customer's expectations about cost were quiet high. Cost was a significant factor because all the ingredients were supposed to be cheap and easily available from suppliers. Several flavours were made and carried out triangle tests as mention in project 5, to ensure the flavours were matched with standard samples.

In results, vegetable, chicken flavour mix and pastes as well, were finalized. But beef, lamb flavour mix and pastes were yet to be finalized.

Chapter 4

Discussion

5.1 Project 1

When we taste something, we can identify the difference between the salty, sweet, sour and bitter flavour. The project was to taste and sniff all the flavours and trying to memorize all the flavour. The science behind the taste of flavour is; tongue and top of the mouth are covered with thousands of minute taste buds. The saliva helps to break down of the flavour/food. There are several receptors that are located in the taste buds, they sense the taste and give signals to a brain. The brain immediately tells that what flavour we are consuming.

Taste buds can recognize four basic tastes such as sweet, salty, bitter and sour. As in the figure, different portions of a tongue taste different. So while having dried flavour or powder, responses were memorized and it helped to develop further flavours.C:\Users\kunal\Desktop\tastebud.gif

There were several ingredients such as herbs & spices, salt, MSG, dried flavours, extracts, oleoresins, hydrolyzed vegetable protein, yeast extracts and food colours.

Herbs and spices

A general distinction between herbs and spices is that herbs are mild and used for delicate flavouring and are considered better when they are fresh, while spices are pungent and give a piquant flavour of their own to the seasoning. There are some liquid flavours such as Basil, lemongrass oil, chili flavour, celery in veg oil, concentrate garlic etc. These liquid flavours are too concentrated that it has to be added in seasoning between 0.1 to 0.6% otherwise these flavour will dominate the taste and aroma.

Natural flavours

It is important to understand the complexity of flavour selection because flavours can be very specific to certain applications. The natural flavours are available as below,

Essential oils: Essential oils are derived from spices or other odorous plants by distillation. They are highly concentrated, uniform in flavour and stable under proper storage conditions. Essential oils are mostly soluble in alcohol and vegetable oils.

Oleoresins: Oleoresins are natural plant exudates or concentrated botanical extracts prepared by solvent extraction and subsequent evaporation of the solvent, resulting in a mixture of volatile essential oils, non-volatile oils, colour, fats and other extractable substances. These represent the total flavouring constituents of spices in very concentrated form. Oleoresins are usually diluted to make them easier to disperse.

Extracts: Extracts are aromatic compounds produced by treating a natural raw material with a solvent, which is sometimes concentrated by removing some or all of the solvent.

Encapsulated flavours: Essential oils and oleoresins can be mixed with solution of gums following which coacervation is induced to cause the coating material to precipitate around the flavour droplets, thus 'encapsulating' them. These flavours are expensive but they are highly concentrated and more stable than the original raw material.

Spray dried flavour: Its quiet well known method of converting oil or water based liquid flavours into dry form. A solution is mixed with a carrier, forced through a nozzle or centrifugal device to produce a mist, which is then heated to evaporation to produce small dried particles of flavour material.

Natural with other natural flavour: this refers to a class of natural flavours that contains characterizing flavours and natural flavouring material from other sources, which simulate, look like or enhance the describing flavour.

Flavours made by processing

Hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP): They are the most common used in place of meat flavourings. They are available in wide range of colours and flavours characteristics those are dependent on the source of protein, such as wheat gluten, maize gluten or soy bean protein etc. HVP tastes like savoury flavour so they are used in seasonings to have a savoury flavour.

Yeast extract: There are various yeast extracts are used to make flavour. They induce savoury flavour in it. Mostly baker's yeast is preferred to give savoury flavour. The flavour of the end product is usually determined by the type of yeast and the nature of the substrate.

Flavour enhancers

A flavour enhancer is sometimes called as 'flavour potentiator'. It is a substance that is added in seasonings to supplement or intensify its original flavour. Salt plays an important role in flavour enhancing. In the almost all seasoning salt is the major content. Symrise has got three types of salt.

Normal table salt

Sea salt

Finer salt

Sea salt is obtained by the evaporation of sea water. Because of its mineral content it gives the different taste from the table salt. Finer salt is used where the instant taste of salt is required. It gives instant salty taste while eating. Fine, powdery salts are used to coat snack foods such as potato chips, pallets etc.

The other flavour enhancers are monosodium glutamate and nucleotides. Monosodium L-glutamate is the most commonly used substance to enhance flavour. The physiological phenomenon that results from tasting these ingredients is called 'Umami'. Umami is a taste common to meat, fish, certain vegetables, mushrooms and cheese; it is a taste quality represented by glutamates and 5-nucleotides. The hedonic properties are different from those of primary tastes such as salt, sweet, sour and bitter. So it has been considered as another primary taste. Glutamates (salts of glutamic acid) are good to impart flavour in seasoning.

Food colours

Colour is the first characteristics perceived by a consumer and is vital as a means of identification and eventually, acceptance of seasonings. Both the quality and the flavour of seasonings are closely associated with colour. Symrise is using various colours such as paprika, annatto, turmeric etc. All these colours are in natural form. These colours are used in different strength. For example there are two types of paprika. One is paprika 60,000 c.u and second is paprika 100,000 c.u. C.U terms as strength of a colour. If more C.U then the colour would be more concentrate or strong.

Savoury flavour

5.2 project 2

To develop any flavour, flavourist should have deep understanding of recent trends in flavours, products and their ingredients. For example in this projects pepperoni pizza, cheese and Worcesternd, kebab flavours were developed. So flavourist should have understanding of all these products and ingredients. From those ingredients, flavours and spray dried powders are selected from the flavour library.

From those ingredients, the flavour is developed by adding several flavour enhancers or concentrate flavours. Generally in the night, flavours would be preferred which could be creamy, buttery, relishing etc. In the end it depends on the individual perception that what flavour consumer would prefer.

According to these ideas several flavours have been identified. Such as Cheese and Worcester, kebab, pepperoni, pepperoni pizza, chips and cheese, chips and gravy. These new flavours have been developed. To develop these flavour, each recipe required more than 20 ingredients. So there should not be any stock out situation in the factory. If there is a shortage of any of these ingredients then the flavour profile might affect. However, if there is a stock out situation of any of the ingredients then it has to be replaced with another ingredient that gives the same taste and aroma.

The reason behind choosing cheese and Worcester was to make the flavour cheesy, creamy with onion flavour, black pepper and little bit flavour of Worcester sauce. The Worcester sauce and different yeast were added to give the savoury flavours. Usually consumer prefer the flavour which is quiet savoury.

For e.g. Symrise has got three different types of onion powders, those powders have different tastes. But while making flavour cost must be taken in consideration because it is very difficult to reach customer's expectation in seasoning industry. There should be minimal cost. So if an ingredient or flavour costs much then it has to be replaced with a flavour or ingredient that has less cost but quality shouldn't be sacrificed.

While making seasoning there are several additives which need to be added. In the seasonings liquids and spray dried powders are used. Each powder has different particle size. But it is essential that flavour should flow properly otherwise it creates problem to season the crisp, chips or pallets. It would be difficult to spray the powder on crisps or to fill the sachets. So for flowability silicon dioxide, as an anti-caking agent is used. It is used in 0.5 to 1% as per the size of particles. As a preservative tri calcium phosphate is used in 0.4 to 0.8% in seasoning/flavour. It gives shelf life of 6 months.

Project 3:

The reason behind using silicon dioxide is, some of the powders are very hygroscopic that means they absorb the moisture or water from the atmosphere very quickly. Water absorbance is a big problem in all spray dried powders. So they form lumps in powder. It creates problem in flowing or in processing. To avoid such situation silicon dioxide is added in all flavours.

Project 6:

In the development of the flavours Bali and Java

- http://www.knovel.com/web/portal/knovel_content?p_p_id=EXT_KNOVEL_CONTENT&p_p_action=1&p_p_state=normal&p_p_mode=view&p_p_col_id=column-1&p_p_col_count=1&_EXT_KNOVEL_CONTENT_struts_action=/ext/knovel_content/view&_EXT_KNOVEL_CONTENT_contentType=2&_EXT_KNOVEL_CONTENT_SpaceID=0&_EXT_KNOVEL_CONTENT_VerticalID=0&_EXT_KNOVEL_CONTENT_SetID=9129685&_EXT_KNOVEL_CONTENT_BookID=2141&_EXT_KNOVEL_CONTENT_NodeID=370552&_EXT_KNOVEL_CONTENT_Associated=true&_EXT_KNOVEL_CONTENT_SearchMode=false&sistring=&ststring=

http://investor.symrise.com/english/equity-story/profile.html

http://www.symrise.com/en/our-world/flavor-nutrition/savory.html

http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=hrWuqmtwJiEC&pg=PA273&lpg=PA273&dq=savoury+seasoning+process+flow+chart&source=bl&ots=IspsYiFoAU&sig=ePbrPLjDWR3pik-QN8vz5v_6ftM&hl=en&ei=2F9pTKS4DsuTjAfapP3UBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CB0Q6AEwADgK#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://library.thinkquest.org/3750/taste/taste.html

http://www.shvoong.com/exact-sciences/5671-food-science-triangle-test/

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.