Inter Cultural Issues In India Commerce Essay

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This report is endorsed by Ms. Sienna Chen with the purpose of analytical on intercultural issues that she might encounter in India which includes business etiquettes guideline and recommendations. With this recommendation is to help her present a favourable first impression during first meeting and help her succeed in India with Mr. Singh.

This report had been discussed on the business etiquette on India such as meeting protocol, negotiation behaviour and attires. Meeting protocol is discuss about the before meeting preparation and the do's and don'ts to be take care of. While the negotiation behaviour is discuss on the process of meeting should be paid attention of and the decision making process to be bear in mind for avoidance the cross-culture issues. Lastly, the attire is take note on what to be wear when Ms. Sienna first visits to India for her important meetings.

In addition, The Hofstede cultural framework had been conferred in this report which had been show that India is a power distance country which high authority had the most power on decision making. India also are a collectivism and masculinity country where man are mostly to be tough than women and group works is encouraged than individuals. Furthermore, India also low in uncertainty avoidance and seeks for long term orientation with the trust rather than officially authorized given.

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Hall's cultural framework also has been conferred in this report which show that India is a high context country which vastly reliance on non-verbal communications. Behaviour and gesture had been discussed in part of the non-verbal communications. Behaviour discuss on the attitude of India which are not shown by verbal communications such as the rejection matter and the sensitivity. While gesture which be discuss are on hand and head gesture which means by the Indian and what would be offence them between gesture of Australian and Indians.

Furthermore, when doing business in India should avoided wear the flattering black or white dress on her meeting. Additionally, by using the truthful addressing and etiquettes when meeting in India with slow and steady negotiation will bring positive image to Indians. Rejection in India is in indirectly method via their non-verbal cues and rushing for food payment would be bringing negative impression to Indians. Besides, touching is prohibited in India due to their high context level.

Last but not least, Indians is the more heed on hierarchy status of the society and the addressed by the others. Before enter their country, the do's and don'ts of their country should be take in concern and avoided cross-culture issues to build good relationship with them.

Table of Contents

Executive Summary 2

Table of Contents 4

1.0 Introduction 5

2.0 Business Etiquette 6

2.1 Meeting Protocol 6

2.2 Negotiation Behaviour 6

2.3 Attires 7

3.0 Cultural Framework 8

3.1 Hofstede Cultural Framework 8

3.1.1 Power Distance 8

3.1.2 Individualism vs. collectivism 8

3.1.3 Masculinity vs. Femininity 8

3.1.4 Uncertainty Avoidance 8

3.1.5 Orientation Term 9

3.2 Hall's Cultural Framework 10

3.2.1 Behaviour 10

3.2.2 Gesture 10

4.0 Conclusion 11

5.0 Recommendations 12

5.1 Meeting Protocol 12

5.2 Negotiation Behaviour 12

5.3 Attires 12

5.4 Behaviour 12

5.5 Gesture 13

Reference List 14

Appendix 16

Checklist and Feedback Sheet 17

CIB 100 - Assessment 3: Final Report Pre-Submission Checklist and Feedback Sheet 17

1.0 Introduction

This report is endorsed by Ms. Sienna Chen with the purpose of analytical on intercultural issues that she might encounter in India. It includes business etiquettes guideline and recommendations which would present her a favourable first impression during her first meeting in India.

The scope of this report covers India basic cultures knowledge on meeting protocol, attires, negotiation behaviour, Hofstede and Hall's culture framework with the purpose to help Ms. Chen to achieve success in upcoming meeting with Mr. Singh.

2.0 Business Etiquette

Business etiquette engrosses delicacy on employer and co-workers with revere and courteousness.

2.1 Meeting Protocol

Avoid to having meeting during major religious holidays and downpour period such as Diwali, Deepavali and Independence Day because traffic can be jumbled whole day in Mumbai. The best time to having meeting is in late morning or early afternoon and reconfirms the meeting a week before and that morning (Gesteland and Seyk 2002), since it is common that meetings would be cancelled last minute.

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India first meeting usually start with general chat, if possible there is no business discussed. When addressing Indian, address their title which signifying their status followed by their surname but for those who do not have revere title, honorific title "Sir" or "Madam" should be use (Lewis and Brealey 2005). After greeting, exchanging business card with right hand which show respect to Indians and female should be start the greeting.

2.2 Negotiation Behaviour

Before negotiations, try to establish trust relationships with Indian counterparts. Indians only collaborate with people who able to control their temper and trustworthy which exposed that person are praiseworthy of respect and conviction (Deresky 2008).

Decision making in India will always do by person with most authority in the cooperation and delays are to be expected, especially when dealing with the government (Kumar 2005) Furthermore, Indians are non-confrontational and exercise silence communications, therefore rare for them disagree overtly but indirectly decision process also been retard (Deresky 2008). It is also avoided saying "NO" directly when the negotiation is in process (Lewis and Brealey 2005).

2.3 Attires

In India, women should showing as little skins as possible with those lightweight conservative outfits such as suits, pants and dresses. While men are advised to dress in dark coloured formal business suits which show respect but avoided wearing black and white in full (Davies 2004).

3.0 Cultural Framework

Cultural framework is guidance concept to measure national culture and behavior.

3.1 Hofstede Cultural Framework

Hofstede (1984, 30) stated cultural dimensions is a concept of measuring national culture and how these 'measures' might work differently in five dimensions.

3.1.1 Power Distance

Power distance is the level of acceptance by the society of the unequal power distribution.

India is a high power distance (Appendix 1) country due to their management highly accepted hierarchy as apt and positions of power came with decision making authority and privileges given for them (Hofstede 1983)

3.1.2 Individualism vs. collectivism

India is slightly collectivism (Appendix 1) country where they emphasis more on "we" culture than "I" culture (Kumar 2005). They are cohesive in groups' tasks and goals rather than individual achievement.

3.1.3 Masculinity vs. Femininity

India is similar masculinity country with Australia (Appendix 1), they harshly accept gender role that men expected to be tough and assertive motivated for material success to some degree as compared to women (Singh 1990)

3.1.4 Uncertainty Avoidance

Uncertainty avoidance extended to which people in a society feel endangered by indistinct situations. India is a low uncertainty avoidance (Appendix 1) country when compare with Australia (Hofstede 1983). They do not have strict laws and procedures, less nationalism and protests which lead to their company are less structured and formal but with high job mobility.

3.1.5 Orientation Term

India is long term orientation (Appendix 1) country that they are future oriented, stride towards future goals, value investment in future and prepares to scarify the short-term profit which might earn currently (Hofstede 1983)

3.2 Hall's Cultural Framework

According to Hall's model, India is generally a high context country (Cardon 2008) which is highly reliance on non-verbal communiqué (Eunson 2008) such as gesture and behaviour.

3.2.1 Behaviour

India is a high power distance country (Kumar and Sankharan 2007) where they are unable to recognize the answer of "No" from outsiders' due to partly courteousness and lose face problems (Davies 2008). They will not reject directly but in others polite ways which are not considered rude attitude in their culture (Morrison and Conaway 2007). Indians mostly will give a confirmatory answer but be knowingly vague about any specific details via non-verbal cues.

Furthermore, Indians are highly sensitive (Davies 2008). When having meals with Indians, the host should be making for the payment (Morrison and Conaway 2007); if the foreigners wish to pay for the payment, it would be considering as insult in India. Moreover, Indians are extraordinarily sanguine and unaffected by familiarity or by education (Davies 2008).

3.2.2 Gesture

In India, it is considered rude and offensive to touch a person's head and pat the hair of a child as head is deem as the seat of the soul (Morrison and Conaway 2007). When having conversation, beckoning Indians with the palm up and pointing with a finger are construed as rudeness and hand should not be put on hips which interpreted as aggressive and angry carriage (Davies 2008).

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Additionally, whistling is ill-mannered and winking possibly construing as a slight or a sexual proposition in India (Morrison and Conaway 2007). Besides head gesture, in India feet are considered unclean body part, hence never point the feet at a person (Butler 2008). If the shoes or feet had touch others, apologize should be done immediately before considered as unrespected. Gesture had become most important communication channel in India.

4.0 Conclusion

In short, the business etiquette, Hofstede's and Hall's cultural framework had showing the cultural and non-verbal communication hold by Indian and the way of their business doing. The highlighted issues are important for Mr. Sienna to considerations when preparing for first meeting with Mr. Singh and also improve in near future while expanding her business to India market.

5.0 Recommendations

The below are the do's and don'ts recommendations for Ms. Sienna when attending her first meetings.

5.1 Meeting Protocol

Try having meeting on late morning or early afternoon but avoid during major religious holidays

Keep schedule flexible for last minute meeting rearrangement

Start with general chat on the first meeting

Use titles wherever possible when addressing

Exchanging business cards in right hand and female usually the one who initial greeting

5.2 Negotiation Behaviour

Build good relationship before negotiation

Remain honest and respectful in order to show sincere

Don't be aggressive when negotiation - it is unrespected

Avoided saying "NO" directly when the negotiation in process

Decisions always make by high authority

5.3 Attires

Wear lightweight conservative outfits such as suits, pants and dresses

Avoided wearing fully black or white colour

5.4 Behaviour

Rejections in India are without word of "No" and indirectly via non-verbal cues

Payment should be making by the host as respectful to them

Do not share information which is pessimistic

5.5 Gesture

Touching others head and pat hair is consider vulgar

Do not beckoning Indians with palm up and pointing finger are veto

Whistling and winking are inappropriate to Indians

Pointing feet or touching Indians with shoes should be avoid because it bring disrespectful

Reference List

Butler. 2008. Indian Business Etiquette, Vital Manners, Cross Cultural Communication

and Geerft Hofstede Analysis. http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/india.htm/ (accessed 15 October, 2009)

Cardon, P. W., 2008. A Critique of Hall's Contexting Model: A Meta-Analysis of

literature on intercultural business and technical communication. Journal of Business and Technical Communication 22(4): 399 - 428. Sagepublications. http://www.sagepublications.com/ (accessed 15 October, 2009)

Davies, P. 2004. What's This India Business? Offshoring, Outsourcing and the Global

Services Revolution. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

Davies, P. 2008. New Business in India: The 21st Century Opportunity. Singapore: World

Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.

Deresky, H. 2008. International Management: Managing Across Borders and Cultures

(6th Edition). America: Pearson Education International.

Eunson, B. 2008. Communicating in the 21st Century. China: Printplus Limited.

Gesteland, R. R., and G. F. Seyk. 2002. Marketing across cultures in Asia. Denmark:

Copenhagen Business School Press.

Hofstede, G. 1983. The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories.

Journal of International Business Studies (pre-1986) 14(000002): 75-

90. ABI/INFORM Global. http://proquest.umi.com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/ (accessed 30 August, 2009)

Hofstede, G. 1984. Culture's consequences. London: Sage.

Kumar, R. 2005. Negotiating with the complex, imaginative Indian. Ivey Business

Journal Online. ABI/INFORM Global. ABI/INFORM Global.

http://proquest.umi.com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/ (accessed 30 August, 2009)

Kumar, R. M., and S. Sankaran. 2007 Indian culture and the culture for TQM: a

comparison. The TQM Magazine 19(2): 176 - 188. Emeraldinsight.

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/ (accessed 10 October, 2009)

Lewis, R. D., and N. Brealey. 2005. When cultures collide: leading across cultures (3rd

ed.). London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

Morrison, T., and W. A. Conaway. 2007. Kiss, bow or shake hands: Asia: how to do

business in 12 Asian countries. Avon, Mass: A Business.

Singh, J. P. 1990. Managerial culture and work-related values in India. Organisation

Studies 11(1): 75-101. Emerald. http:// www.emeraldinsight.com/ (accessed 30

August, 2009)

Appendix

Appendix 1 : Hofstede's Index Scores for Australia and India

Country

PD

I/C

M/F

UA

OT

Australia

36

90

61

51

31

India

77

48

56

40

61

(Hofstede 1984, 500)

Remark:

PD : Power Distance

I/C : Individualism vs. collectivism

M/F : Masculinity vs. Femininity

UA : Uncertainty Avoidance

OT : Orientation Term

Checklist and Feedback Sheet

CIB 100 - Assessment 3: Final Report Pre-Submission Checklist and Feedback Sheet

Study each criterion on the checklist so that you are aware of the requirements of the report.

On completion of your report, download this checklist and carefully (and truthfully!) self-evaluate your performance on each criterion on the checklist by highlighting the relevant descriptor electronically.

Copy the checklist and paste it at the end of your report before uploading the document to Turnitin.

Your tutor will use the checklist to give you feedback on your work, and use it as a basis for grading your assignment. Grades will be allocated according to the descriptors in the Interim report rubric.

MARKING KEY LEGEND: N=Not done, P=Poor, U=Unsatisfactory, S=Satisfactory, G=Good, E=Excellent

Specific criteria

Evaluation

Comments

REPORT STRUCTURE

Executive summary

Includes a paragraph each for the:

Aim of the report

Main points of report

Recommendations

Conclusions

N P U S G E

Table of contents

Numbered using decimal notations

Every item relates to a page number in the text of the report

N P U S G E

Introduction

Answers the questions:

Who authorised the report & why

Aim of the report

Scope of report & some background information

N P U S G E

Table of contents

Numbered using decimal notations

Every item relates to a page number in the text of the report

N P U S G E

Conclusion

Restates main issue(s)

No new information

Answers question 'What do these findings mean?'

N P U S G E

Recommendation

includes your interpretation of the conclusions

is tied to the discussion in the report body

in bullet points that suggest actions to take

N P U S G E

Did you keep to the word limit (1200 words)? Include everything in the word count except for the executive summary, table of contents, reference list & appendix.

Yes

No

Strictly 5% will be deducted from your total mark for every 50 words over the word limit.

REPORT BODY

Body divided into two relevant sections , that address the requirements of the report

N P U S G E

Logical development of argument within each sub section

N P U S G E

Arguments supported by concrete evidence from scholarly research (no sweeping generalisations)

N P U S G E

Information collected is relevant

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Demonstration of critical evaluation of others' ideas

N P U S G E

Logical development of argument within each sub section.

N P U S G E

Relevant communication and cross cultural frameworks used to inform argument.

N P U S G E

IN-TEXT REFERENCING

Appropriate balance of quotes and paraphrasing

N P U S G E

Correct Chicago referencing style

N P U S G E

Your own 'voice' is apparent in your writing

N P U S G E

References used to support arguments and ideas

N P U S G E

In-text citations and reference list entries match

N P U S G E