Influence Of Emotional Intelligence And Organizational Culture Commerce Essay

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The phenomenon of willfully managing impressions by people is referred to as "Impression Management". Impression Management is the process through which individuals attempt to influence the impressions others form of them. Skill in this process - both to manage one's impressions and identifying the impression management techniques of others has become more significant to employees in current organizational settings. Goffman (1959) was the first to propose the dramaturgical perspective of social encounters. Goffman (1959) stated that individuals are actors who perform various roles in various settings, in front of a particular target, to form a definition of the situation.

After extensive studies in the field of Sociology and Social Psychology, Impression Management is taken up by the researchers in the context of Organizational Behaviour. In the present-day organizations, impressions play a significant role. For Instance: Salespeople must make a reliable impression to sell their products, managers must appear like they are in charge, Public Relations Officers must make a confident appearance in case of crisis and consultants are strongly portray a sensible and professional image. The value of impressions for people and for organizations as a whole brings attention to the art of managing of these impressions. With what techniques and to what level are people able to create and control impressions other people form of them? Many researchers (Jones & Pittman, 1982) identified important techniques of Impression Management. Later it was demonstrated by researchers that the use of these techniques are beneficial in a wide variety of situations at work (Stevens & Kristof, 1995; Wayne & Ferris, 1990; Wayne & Liden, 1995).

When Impression Management is looked upon as behaviour, it is evident that it can be affected by the qualities or characteristics of the person concerned. These personal characteristics could be age, gender, personality traits, Emotional Intelligence etc. Behaviour of a person will also be influenced by the environmental factors and the situation in which he or she is in. When Impression Management is looked upon as an employee's behaviour in organizational settings, it is obvious that Organizational Culture has an influence on it. Accordingly a research has been undertaken which intends to investigate the effects of environmental factors viz, Organizational Culture and personality factors viz, Emotional Intelligence on Impression Management on organizational settings.

Impression Management

The review of related literature presents various measures and techniques of Impression Management. Most of them have projected the negative aspect of Impression Management. Rosenfield et al (2003) published a book "Impression Management: Building and Enhancing Reputations at Work" and discussed that Impression Management is a necessary and positive skill, related to work behaviour. Further the authors have identified few aspects as the measures of Impression Management. The same were adopted for the present study also. And the measures of Impression Management included in the study are Desirable Responding, Self Presentation, Ingratiation and Self Monitoring.

Emotional Intelligence

Emotional intelligence is the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use that information to guide one's thinking and action (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). It is also linked to positive outcomes like pro-social behaviors, parental warmth, and positive family and peer relations (Mayer et al, 1999). There is a paucity of research in understanding effects of Emotional Intelligence on positive aspects of Impression Management. Only few measures of Impression Management such as Desirable responding and Self Monitoring are studied with regard to Emotional Intelligence. Self Presentation and Ingratiation are also behaviours that employees engage on a daily basis. These behaviours can be explained on the basis of connection between stimuli and response. When looked from the point of view of a social learning approach the qualities of the organism (person) will affect his or her behaviour. Hence it can be argued that Emotional Intelligence may influence Ingratiation and Self Presentation.

Organizational Culture

Schein (2002) says that Organizational Culture is the shared beliefs, ideologies, rituals, myths, and norms that influence organizational behaviour. Jones et al (2006) looks at culture as a system of shared values that lead to organizational members' attitudes and behaviours. An individual's cultural identification may influence his choice and stratergy of impression and corresponding behavior of self-presentation.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

For achieving relevant work outcomes, employees are highly dependent on their colleagues and hence have a variety of social interactions with each other. In such occasions Impression Management techniques play a major role in organizations. An understanding of the Organization Culture of the setting and Emotional Intelligence of the person helps in developing the appropriate Impression Management Skills of employees. The literature has also depicted the linkages among Impression management and personality traits like Emotional intelligence and environmental factors like Organizational Culture. Hence, the problem statement is as follows:

" To study the relationship of Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Culture up on the Impression Management factors and the extent to which one influences the other ".

The objective of this study is to bring out the relationship among Emotional Intelligence, Organizational Culture and Impression Management. The present model is labelled as 'Impression Management - Emotional Intelligence - Organizational Culture' Model. (Figure 1)

NEED FOR THE STUDY

Impression Management is a natural behaviour of people. Emotional Intelligence of the person and Organizational Culture of the setting he or she is in has a bearing on the Impression Management behaviour by the person. The extent to which these two parameters have a relationship with Impression Management needs to be examined to understand this subject better. Hence a study is undertaken in this area.

Hardly any research has been done in India on the relationship of Emotional Intelligence or Organizational Culture on Impression Management. Most of the world wide studies have concentrated only on few measures of Impression Management such as Self Promotion, Socially Desirable Responding etc and they were largely focused on as a corruptive factor. This has left a gap in the understanding of Impression Management as a whole and also as an everyday behavior at work.

As the significance of Impression Management is already evident in health care services the same industry is chosen for the present study.

The following research questions remain unanswered:-

Do Healthcare professionals engage in Impression Management?

How does Impression Management matter to the healthcare sector?

Is the Emotional Intelligence- Organizational Culture- Impression Management Model relevant to healthcare Industry?

Are more emotionally intelligent healthcare professionals capable of having better Impression Management behavior?

Does the Organizational Culture in Healthcare Industry affect the Impression Management behaviour of various healthcare professionals?

The present investigation aims to answer all the above research questions and to validate the Model of "Impression Management - Emotional Intelligence- Organizational Culture" for Healthcare Industry in Tamil Nadu.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the specific objectives of the research:-

a. To study the extent of relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Impression Management among Healthcare professionals.

b. To study the extent of relationship between Organizational Culture and Impression Management among professionals in Healthcare sector.

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Based on the objectives, the following hypotheses are formulated to arrive at meaningful results and findings:-

H1: There is no significant relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Impression Management

H2: There is no significant relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Desirable Responding

H3: There is no significant relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Self Presentation.

H4: There is no significant relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Ingratiation

H5 There is no significant relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Self Monitoring

H6: There is no significant relationship between Organizational Culture and Impression Management

H7 There is no significant relationship between Organizational Culture and Desirable Responding

H8: There is no significant relationship between Organizational Culture and Self Presentation.

H9: There is no significant relationship between Organizational Culture and Ingratiation

H10 There is no significant relationship between Organizational Culture and Self Monitoring

H11: The respondents belonging to different Genders would remain homogenous on their scores on Impression Management

H12 : The respondents belonging to different Genders would remain homogenous on their scores on Desirable Responding

H13 : The respondents belonging to different Genders would remain homogenous on their scores on Self Presentation

H14 : The respondents belonging to different Genders would remain homogenous on their scores on Ingratiation

H15: The respondents belonging to different Genders would remain homogenous on their scores on Self Monitoring

H16 : The respondents belonging to different Types of Services would remain homogenous on their scores on Impression Management

H17 : The respondents belonging to different Types of Services would remain homogenous on their scores on Desirable Responding

H18 : The respondents belonging to different Types of Services would remain homogenous on their scores on Self Presentation

H19 : The respondents belonging to different Types of Services would remain homogenous on their scores on Ingratiation

H20: The respondents belonging to different Types of Services would remain homogenous on their scores on Self Monitoring

METHODOLOGY: DESIGN OF THE STUDY

The descriptive sample survey design was used for obtaining the primary data for the present study.

RESEARCH SETTING, STUDY POPULATION AND SAMPLING FRAME

The study was undertaken in the healthcare industry of the state of Tamil Nadu, India because of the following reasons. Tamil Nadu ranks number three in terms of the total number of hospitals. It also ranks number one in terms of the assets held by hospitals in India. Three categories of healthcare professionals viz, Doctors, Nurses and Paramedical staff participated in the study.

Criteria for inclusion in the sampling frame were as follows:

a. A to B2 cities in Tamil Nadu (Government of India Classification for CCA /HRA)

b. Private Multi specialty hospitals

c. Large hospitals with a bed strength of more than 400 licensed beds

d. Hospitals which are listed in the Indian Medical Association - Tamil Nadu chapter

This sampling frame included 9 hospitals in Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai and Thiruchirapally as below:-

City

Hospitals

Chennai

Coimbatore

Madurai

Thiruchirapally

Apollo Hospitals (Greams Road),

MIOT Hospitals,

Sri Ramachandra Hospitals.

GKNM Hospital,

KG Hospital,

Ramakrishna Hospital,

PSG Hospitals.

Meenakshi Mission Hospital.

Kavery Medical Center

Out of this sampling frame a simple random selection was done and 6 out of the 9 hospitals from the original sampling frame participated in the study. As an undertaking of confidentiality was signed with 3 of the participated hospitals the details of the participated hospitals are not revealed further.

SAMPLE DESIGN

The present study has adopted stratified proportionate simple random sampling method and 10% of the healthcare professionals were selected for the study. The respondents were chosen by the respective Human Resource departments of the hospitals from the employee list.

SAMPLING CRITERIA

Subjects included in the sample were selected to meet specific criteria. The healthcare professionals had to meet the following criteria to be included in the study.

Doctors

Had to be full time employees of the hospital

Should not have any part time or visiting practice or consulting practice else where

Should have completed MBBS and internship

Be willing to participate

Be of either gender or any age

Nurses

Should have completed a minimum of Diploma (GNM) or graduation (B Sc) in nursing

Had to be full time employees of the hospital

Be willing to participate

Be of either gender or any age

Paramedical Staff

Had to be full time employees of the hospital

Should not have any part time or visiting practice or consulting practice else where

Should have completed a minimum of Diploma or graduation in any paramedical discipline

Be willing to participate

Be of either gender or any age

CLASSIFICATION OF VARIABLES

Paradigm showing crucial variables

Variable

Operational Level Factors

Independent variables

Gender, Type of services, Emotional Intelligence & Organizational Culture

B. Dependent Variables

Impression Management, Desirable Responding, Self Presentation, Ingratiation & Self Monitoring

OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF THE CONCEPTS AND TERMS USED IN THE STUDY

Considering the conceptual framework, review of the studies and relevant literature, the objectives, the hypothesis and the variables of the present study, certain concepts and terms used in the study need to be defined delimiting their shades of operational meaning which will in turn improve the reliability and measurability of crucial variables of the present study. The operational definitions of these concepts and terms of the present study are presented as follows.

The following are the terms predominantly used in this study. They are detailed here.

Impression Management (IM): Impression Management (IM) is defined as a tactic individuals use in order to manipulate the opinion or affective evaluation others have of them (Leary & Kowalski, 1990; Rosenfeld, Giacalone, & Riordan, 1995). Based on the work of Rosenfeld, Giacalone, & Riordan, 1995, in the present study the measures of Impression Management are called as Desirable Responding (DR), Self Presentation(SP), Ingratiation(IN) and Self Monitoring(SM).

Desirable Responding (DR): Desirable responding refers to a need for social approval and acceptance and the belief that this can be attained by means of culturally acceptable and appropriate behaviours (Marlowe & Crowne, 1961).

Self Presentation (SP): Self Presentation can be defined as the tactic of presenting a favourable image where once can either deny the presence of negative characteristics or attribute the existence of positive characteristics of the self (Roth, Snyder & Pace, 1986).

Ingratiation (IN): Ingratiation refers to a set of assertive tactics that are used by organizational members to gain the approbation of superiors who control significant rewards for them ( Tedeschi & Melburg, 1984, Kumar & Beyerlien, 1991).

Self Monitoring (SM): Self Monitoring is defined as an individual's ability to adjust his or her behaviour to external, situational factors (Snyder, 1974).

Emotional Intelligence (EI): Emotional intelligence is the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use that information to guide one's thinking and actions. (Salovey & Mayer, 1990, Schutte et al, 1998 ).

Organizational Culture (OC): Organizational Culture can be defined as a set of cumulative and shared values, attitudes, rituals and sanctions in a group (Pareek, 2004).

TOOLS USED FOR THE STUDY

Considering the objectives, operational definitions, variables, the following tools were adopted, developed, validated and prepared to generate the data for the present study.

S.No

Name of the Tool

Remarks

1

Desirable responding: Marlowe & Crowne's Social Desirability Scale

Adopted

2

Self Presentation: Roth et al Self Presentation Scale

Adopted

3

Ingratiation: Kumar & Beyerlein's Measure of Ingratiating Behavior in Organizational Settings (MIBOS)

Adopted

4

Self monitoring: Snyder's Self Monitoring Scale

Adopted

5

Emotional Intelligence: Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SREIT)

Adopted

6

Organizational Culture: Udai Pareek's OCTAPACE Scale

Adopted

STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES USED FOR THE STUDY

Considering the hypothesis, the collected data from 6 different institutions were screened, scrutinized and analyzed using appropriate statistical techniques and standardized.

The collected data was subjected to the following analysis in order to verify the hypothesis formulated and to validate the model developed for the present study, by using the software SPSS- Statistical Package for Social Sciences.

Percentage analysis/ Descriptive Analysis

ANOVA

Regression Analysis

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study is limited to understand the relationship between Relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Organizational Culture and Impression Management. It includes the extent to which these variables are associated with various demographic factors.

RESULTS

From the analysis of data, the following findings were enumerated. There is a significant relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Impression Management. Also there is a significant relationship between Organizational Culture and Impression Management. This indicates that the Person - Situation - Behaviour model of Organizational Behaviour is true in this case too. The personality traits ie, Emotional Intelligence and situational factors, ie, Organizational Culture have an effect on the behaviour of the person, ie, Impression Management.

CONCLUSION

This research was one of the first empirical efforts to establish the link between Emotional Intelligence, Organizational culture and Impression Management. In service industry 'moment of truth' is all the more vital and is tied to survival. Employees who are better in Impression Management become more desired in such scenarios. This study provides key areas for organizations to concentrate while recruiting people and while deciding training needs especially for organizations in service industry.

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