In recent years, because of the greater level of industry segments, commercial links between different countries have become closer and closer. As the result of this development, many companies have changed their attentions. These companies have become more interesting in the international business and international staffs. Owning to this growth of interest, many corporations have been created. Once an organization has been founded, this organization is going to deal with the workforce diversity. Employees from all over the world are working in a same organization, thus a huge diversity of an organizational workforce has been created. The new workforce which includes employees from all over the world has a huge impact on the homogeneous workforce and a lot of senior managers believe that workforce diversity will have a great impact to a company.
However today workplace is is more diverse than it has ever been in history. While the workforce has made strides in the direction of equality, it is still far from attaining total equality in the workplace. A company must value diversity. The main objectives of valuing diversity include awareness, education, and positive recognition of the differences among people in the workforce. Organizations are increasingly emphasizing group work or teamwork as a source of competitive advantage in a diverse workforce.
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Aside the argument among researchers which believe workforce diversity will benefit organizations which insist the diverse workforce will damage a business. The workforce diversity is playing a more and more important role in businesses. Nigeria, which is one of the important African countries, has a large number of organizations in the country.
As the world is becoming more and more globalized, Nigerian organizations become more and more globalized. To deal with this change, employees from different places will be hired by these organizations. As a consequence, the way to manage a diverse workforce should be considered important to these Nigerian organizations.
However the concept of diversity includes acceptance and respect. It means understanding that each individual is unique, and recognizing our individual differences. These can be along the dimensions of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, political beliefs, or other ideologies. It is the exploration of these differences in a safe, positive, and fostering environment. It is about understanding each other and moving beyond simple tolerance to embracing and celebrating the rich dimensions of diversity contained within each individual.
Workplace diversity refers to the variety of differences between people in an organization. That sounds simple, but diversity encompasses race, gender, ethnic group, age, personality, cognitive style, tenure, organizational function, education, background, and more. Diversity involves not only how people perceive themselves but also how they perceive others. Those perceptions affect their interactions.
Diversity management is a process intended to create and maintain a positive work environment where the similarities and differences of individuals are valued, so that all can reach their potential and maximize their contributions to an organization's strategic goals and objectives.
1.2 Aims /objectives
Aim of this research is to observe the importance of managing workforce diversity to improve performance of staffs in ASD Motors limited Nigeria.
This assignment will look at the ways in which managing diversity in ASD Motors Nigerian Limited can improve the performances of their employees, and evaluate the information in order to offer recommendations , thought on how workforce diversity management could be enhance within ASD Motors Nigerian Limited.
1.3 Research Questions
Having a diverse workplace can help improve productivity and create a synergetic environment
Managing diversity can lead to more committed better satisfied performing employees and potentially better financial performance for an organization.
Do you think ASD Motors should take measures to manage diversity?
. Do you recognize that diversity exist and learn to respect fundamental difference and committing to reduce them
Do you think ASD Motors should develop some strategies to enhance workplace diversity?
Do you believe managing diversity is important?
Do you think ASD Motors is inclusive of diverse culture?
According to you workforce diversity is good for employees?
Do you believe being a women working with ASD Motors is good
1.4 ASD Motors Nigerian Limited
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
ASD Motors Nigeria Ltd. Incorporated in 1986, ASD Motors Nigerian limited is a leading and respectable distributor of Peugeot cars in Nigeria with its operational headquarter in Kaduna. The company also has branch offices in the heart of Abuja.
The company has experienced a steady phenomenon growth resulting from the quality of its services and the efficiency of its human resource. The activities of the company include sales of Peugeot vehicle, genuine spare parts and workshop service.
2.0 Literature Review
Many companies now span globe and / or outsource certain aspects of day to day business, which makes it important for cultural diversity at top of each list of companies. Although there is no exact definition of workplace diversity, some say that is how people differ as to affect their organizational experience in terms of performance, motivation, communication and inclusion. Therefore, for companies to compete around world have to deal with workplace diversity within their companies. As organizations began to grapple with issues of equality and diversity, organizational researchers have sought to understand the implications of the increasingly diverse workplace on organizations, work, and individual performance. Research has also sought to better understand the realities of diverse workers (DiStefano, & Maznevski, 2000).
There are two approaches to considering the relationship of workplace diversity to career development. The individual-difference approach takes a broad perspective about diversity and considers every form of difference as equally relevant and important to career development in diverse organizations (Cox, & Blake, 1991). Therefore, differences in personality and cognitive ability are equated to forms of difference that stem from race, culture, gender and ageing population within the labour market and the difficulties that 16-24 year olds are facing in order to get jobs and the high levels of unemployment of the over 55s plus. The individual-difference perspective strives to be inclusive by expanding the criteria by which one falls under the diversity umbrella. The individual-difference approach is important in that it can attract majority group members, like White men, to diversity-related conversations and action planning. Although this approach may decrease resentment and backlash from the majority group, it may also antagonize minority group members, who may feel that their opportunities to be heard and seek justice are being co-opted in order to make majority group members feel comfortable (Cox, & Blake, 1991).
In contrast, the social justice approach to examining diversity suggests that some differences are more socially significant and relevant to interpersonal dynamics in the workplace (DiStefano, & Maznevski, 2000). The social justice approach considers the extent to which social and historical legacies have prohibited or denied some groups full participation in organizations and thus stifled opportunities for learning, training, and career development (Cohen, & Bailey, 1997). The assumption guiding this approach is that the realities that minority groups face outside of organizations, such as discrimination, exclusion, stereotyping, and isolation, are transported into organizations through citizens who are also employees. From this perspective, differences based on characteristics such as race and gender are more important than diversity based on characteristics such as personality, because minority status due to demographic characteristics can be stigmatizing. These identities serve as social markers that create opportunities for access and treatment discrimination in organizations. That is why this entry places special emphasis on understanding the challenges for the career development of women and people of colour (Dahlin, Weingart, & Hinds, 2005). For members of these groups, a history of overt and modern forms of discrimination, exclusion, and isolation have limited their opportunities for personal career development and also their opportunities to meaningfully contribute to the healthy functioning of their organizations.
2.1 Definition of Workforce Diversity
Diversity is a term used most often to describe the different types of race, religion, and nationalities but in today's business world, it is used to describe the different individual behaviors of employees. Diversity is about characteristics and demographics that differ from person to person and how they affect human behavior
Workforce Diversity is a workforce that is more heterogeneous in terms of gender, race, ethnicity, age, and other characteristics that reflect differences (Cohen, & Bailey, 1997). Generally speaking, a true diverse workplace includes a proportionate number of ethnic minorities and male and female workforce that reflect the racial and religious makeup
2.2 Diversity Management
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Diversity management is usually in the sense of "social diversity constructively use" is used. Diversity management is not only tolerated the individual differences of the employee, but this rises in terms of positive appreciation especially for the show and she is trying to harness the company's success (Elron, 1997). The objectives of diversity management are to achieve a productive atmosphere in the overall business, social discrimination of minorities and to prevent the opportunity to improve. This is not the minority, even in focus, but all the employees in their differences and similarities. When the differences are, on the one hand, the externally visible differences, of which the most important race, ethnicity, age and disability are, on the other hand, the subjective differences like sexual orientation, religion and lifestyle (Brett, Behfar, & Kern, 2006).
2.3 Issues in Managing Diversity
One of the central issues in managing diversity is to do with the majority and the minority perspective. Usually, it is the case in organizations that there is a predominant majority of a particular race or ethnicity and various others in minority groups. And considering that the most pressing issue in managing diversity arises out of the treatment of women, we get a sense of the issues of race and gender as the primary drivers in managing diversity. In recent times, these issues have come to the forefront of the debate because of greater awareness among the minority groups about their rights as well as stricter enforcement of laws and regulations that govern workplace behavior.
2.4 Importance of Workplace Diversity
Diversity is especially crucial in today's global marketplace, as companies interact with different cultures and clients.Â The payoffs touch every area of the business by potentially resulting in increased creativity, increased productivity, new attitudes, new language skills, global understanding, new processes, and new solutions to difficult problems. greater agility, better market insight, stronger customer and community loyalty, innovation, and improved employee recruitment and retention.Â The businesses that fail to see the importance of Diversity might find themselves unable to attract and retain the kinds of customers, employees, and business partners that constitute our changing world in 5 to 10 years
Among theÂ importance of diversity in the workplace are:
Increased Productivity: Diversity brings in diverse different talents together working towards a common goal using different sets of skills that ignites their loyalty and increases their retention and productivity
Increased creativity and Problem solving: With so many different and diverse minds coming together many more solutions will arise as every individual brings in their way of thinking, operating and solving problems and decision making
Attract and Retain talent that add a competitive edge to any organization.Â Feeling included and appreciated increases loyalty and feeling of belonging.Â Language skills pool is increased and propels organization forward either to compete in the International global world or to increase its diverse customer base
Help to build synergy in teams and enhances communication skills that brings in new attitudes and processes that profit the whole team.
Applying the proper diversit management strategies does not only save money on litigation expenses generated by discrimination lawsuits but is the right thing to do for the business.
It increases market share and create a satisfied diverse customer base by relating to people from different backgrounds.Â It does propel the United States and its status to claim its place and success in the global business world of the 21st century
The advantages of diversity embracing affects the base line revenues of any organization and can be the make or break of any business.Â Ignoring the effects or the existence of diversity in this global new market will only keep organizations back loosing on all the productivity and most important profitability of any business and its core of existence.
Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions Theory
According to Hofstede & Geert, (1984, 55), Hofstede is particularly known for his formulated culture model, which uses a number of identified dimensions defining characteristics that a culture owns. In addition to this, the theory is concerned with the factors of cultures which can be compared. In addition to understanding these differences, the theory goes further to understand the national and regional differences affect the functioning of institutional organizations (such as governments, families, businesses, schools) (Carte, & Chidambaram, 2004). The model aims to better understand cultural differences and how they are best bridged.
2.5 Hofstede's Dimensions
According to Hofstede, there are six dimensions that affect the work force and result in diversity in any cultures (Carte, & Chidambaram, 2004). Those six elements are discussed below.
2.5.1 Power distance
The degree of power distance is derived from the relative value of social inequality and hierarchy. Places that score high in having power distance are Latin America and Arab countries. On the other side, Netherlands scores low in having power distance, while that Scandinavian countries score extremely low (Chatman, & Flynn, 2001).
Individualism refers to the degree of people living together, or preferring to live individualistically. The degree of individualism (vs. collectivism) is high in the United States and low in Guatemala. The individualism scores of countries seem to run in proportion to the GDP of that country, "rich" countries are individualistic and poor countries are generally collectivist. Contrary to what one would expect Japan mediocre scores on individualism (Chatman, & Flynn, 2001).
The degree of masculinity or femininity indicates the extent value placed on traditionally masculine and feminine qualities (Bowers, Pharmer, & Salas, 2000). Male values â€‹â€‹include competitively, assertiveness, ambition and the accumulation of wealth and opulence. On the other hand feminine values â€‹â€‹are reflected in modest behaviour, service and solidarity. Another thing that is true in "masculine" countries is a clear division of roles between men and women, where this is not the case in low-scoring countries, where the roles of men and women seem more overlap (Chatman, & Flynn, 2001).
2.5.4 Uncertainty Avoidance
The degree of uncertainty avoidance can be expressed through regulation, formal procedures and rituals. The higher the score, the more one is inclined to proceed in calculating the international business. This has to do with the fear of uncertainty, and thus everything else. High scoring countries tend to have everything under control with low-scoring countries seem to have a natural calm and everything will come off (Dahlin, Weingart, & Hinds, 2005).
2.5.5 Long-or short-termism
The fifth dimension is added later (Eastern) perseverance in developing and implementing innovation contrasted (Western) desire for truth and immediate results. Western countries are longer term oriented, while most Middle Eastern countries are short term oriented (Ely, 2004).
As researchers have talked about the aspects how Nigerian organizations deal with their workforce diversity: Culture diversity, have children or not, age diversity, generation diversity, religion diversity, disabilities and sexual orientation (Bell, 2007).
Culture: culture diversity is having different culture respect each other's differences. People also know that Nigerian organizations always ask their local employees to show respect to employees who come from other countries with different culture background. It seems fine. It shows the Nigerian spirit of hospitality to foreigners; it makes non-Nigerian employees feel like they are not strangers.
3.0 Research Methodology
Data collected in systematic manner, it should be analysed through proper analytical tools & it was interpreted in order to find out the answer for research objectives (Earley, 2006). This is being identified as research methodology
3.1 Research Design
Research design is the sketch of projected research progression comprises of a structure of records collection, classification, measurements, analysis and presentation for this type of study (Salvi, 2008). It is mostly a period as well as a capital supportive technique of working out a research dilemma to ease the compilation diversity of statistics and to give details for the uneven associations by means of suitable methods.
The main objective of the report is to identify whether the Managing workforce diversity could really improves the performance of ASD Motors employees. The methodology for this report will focus upon both primary and secondary research methods which will be used to obtain the opinions of the employees at the ASD Motors Car dealers Abuja Branch.
3.1 Primary Methods
Needham et-al (2003) states that primary research mainly consists of data collected by an organisation, or individual, for their own purposes and are generally collated first hand from 'the horses mouth'. Needham (2003) offers the opinion that the main methods of collating primary research are through conducting face to face interviews, telephone interview, and questionnaires and through direct observations. Primary data can be either qualitative or quantitative. Qualitative research data tend to be more explanatory whereas quantitative is generally more descriptive.
The main part of the research for this project will consist of two primary methods questionnaires/survey's and face to face interview.
The first methods being a survey to question employees within ASD Motors to determine whether, in their opinion, Managing diversity would really improve their performance. This method has been chosen as it is easy method to collate considerable data and it is a relatively cheap method of collating the data. To ensure response rates were high consideration was given to the distribution and return methods. The chosen method was a constructed questionnaire, the questionnaire provides the respondent with anonymity should they wish to withhold their identity.
I have chosen to opt against a paper based system as Needham et-al (2003) offers the argument that response rates to postal systems are often as low as 30% and I feel this method may introduce bias to the overall conclusion. There the alternative option of personally distributing and collecting the survey's for which Swetnam (2002) claims can increase the response rate to almost 70%. However given the short timescales for the project I only intend to sample the views of 50 to 70 people.
The second method being direct face to face interview, I have visited the ASD Motors organisation personally and interview about 10 people on their opinion on the importance of managing workforce diversity and how it would improve their performance.
3.2 Secondary Methods
Secondary research is the use of theories and academic literature, previously written by others, these sources include previously published models and frameworks, such as textbooks, professional journals or research previously conducted by provisional bodies.
Whilst theory is a crucial factor in academic learning and organizational success leading academics offer different views on it effectiveness. Saunders et-al (2003) explains that secondary research, especially academic journals, are the most important source for any research because they are evaluated by academic peers prior to publication therefore generally of good quality. Ghauri (1995) offers the opinion that secondary research is has there are major advantages of secondary research mainly through savings in time, money and resources as academic literature from various sources is widely available and easily obtainable. However Needham et-al (2003) warns that the information may not always be of good quality, may not represent the whole picture and the research could be out of date. These opinions were considered whilst conducting the literature review.
3.3 Ethical Considerations in Research
It is vital to follow ethical standards when conducting the research. In fact the research will be adhered to the code of ethics stipulated by the research body and every effort was made to maintain the ethical principles. In order to make sure that the code of respect, values of dignity, anonymity of the respondent, data protection, and the permission of the participant taken prior any data is being collected from them.
However research in the business field naturally involves people and may affect working relationships. Therefore the people involved need to be treat with respect, tact and diplomacy. The effective use of people handling skills is paramount and will be reflected in the quality of data collated. Saunders et-al (2003) state the main obligations to participants are
They have the right not to participate
They should not be harassed, offered inducement or contacted if they don't respond
Consent should be sought before recording information
Confidentiality is important and there names should not be disclosed in published documents without consent. Thus removes any occupational threat or comeback from peers.
Accuracy of data is paramount and must not be distorted or altered.
Jankowicz (2000) states the main ethical issue encountered are that of people's expectations. If research is conducted the respondents have the expectation of remedial action or improvement into their current problems.
Ethical consideration should also be made to the organisation. Findings should not be mis-represented, when presenting data it should not be presented in a slanderous manner and the results should be processed fairly and in an unbiased manner.
To comply with these ethical issues each survey will be anonymous; in the questionnaire there is no need for the respondents to enclose their names contact address etc. This way confidentiality won't be broken as the information won't be requested.
The chosen method of survey distribution and collections was through the use of questionnaire; this collated the answers of respondents. The data was then exported into Microsoft Excel to provide a more professional presentation for this document in providing professional graphs and findings.
Result and Discussion of Findings
This section is concerned with descriptive analysis of data collected from the empirical research. Data are presented in pie charts, tables, percentages and words.
The profile of respondents is presented in Table 1.2.3. and 4 The majority of the respondents were male (89%) and 11% were women. In terms of age group, the majority of respondents were in the 26- to 36-year age group (64.70%), followed by the 21- to 25-year age group (20%) 46-55 11% and above 55 4%. Most of the respondents were degree holders (47.3%), By HND holders (45.3%) and diploma holders (7.3%). The majority of the respondents were Hausa ethnic background (50%) followed by Yoruba (31.9%) the Ibo and others (18.1%) The distribution of the units showed that 29 % were in Administration; 10 % were in Operation, 25% were Management, mechanical 10%; security 9 % and 22% were workshop.
4.1 Sex distribution of the respondents.
From the findings table 1 shows the sex distribution of the respondents indicates that there were a total of 52 respondents out of which 43 were male (83 %) and 9 were female (17%)
Table 1 Shows Distribution of total respondents by sex
Table 2 shows distribution of total respondents by Age
Table 3 shows distribution of total respondents by ethnic background
Ibo and others
Table 4 shows distribution of t
Section 2 Managing workforce diversity
It can be seen from the graph below at least that 85% of the respondents strongly agree that having a diverse workplace can help improve productivity and increase a synergetic environment. 11% Agree only 2% disagree and 2 and also about 75% of the ASD Motors staff Strongly agree that managing diversity can lead to more committed better satisfied employees, and potentially better financial performance 15 agree, 3% only 2% strongly disagree and 5% rather not say anything. However about 80% of the respondent strongly agree that ASD Motors should take measures to manage diversity about 10% agree, and 3% disagree, 2% strongly disagree 5% rather not to say, Also 68% of the ASD Staff said they recognize that diversity exist and learn to respect fundamental difference and committing to reduce them, 32% of them they don't. Also from the finding At least 88% of the respondents strongly agree that ASD Motors should develop some strategies to enhance diversity within ASD organization 12% agree, about At least 85% of the respondents strongly agree that managing diversity is important, 10% agree 5% disagree. However about 77% of the staffs strongly agree that ASD Motors is inclusive of diverse culture. 10% agree, and 3% disagree, 2% strongly disagree, 2% rather not to say. According to the questionnaire about 79% of the respondents strongly agree that workforce diversity is good for them, 11% agree, only 2% disagree, 1% strongly disagree, 7% rather not to say anything. However about 56% of the respondents believe that being a women working with ASD Motors is good, is only about 11% agree, 11% disagree, 5% strongly disagree, 13% rather not to say anything. Finally the respondents were asked if their boss happens to be of the opposite gender did they think their relation will be same as current, or they will have problem, or they will have problem but they will adjust, At least 32% thinks would be as current, about 45% thinks that they will have no problem, and 2% thinks they will have problem but they will adjust. And finally 21% think will be same as current.
Result in Figure
Through this investigation I have attempted to gain a more in-depth understanding, in an attempt to tackle, what I see as one of the important issues in any industry; workforce diversity..
This research shows that the majority of ASD Motors staffs at least 72% strongly agree that managing diversity can lead to more committed better satisfied performing employees and also better financial performance for the organization as a whole ,and also overwhelming 80% of the staffs believed that having a diverse workplace help improve productivity and also create a synergetic environment.
Significant number of ASD staffs about 88% thinks that ASD motors should develop strategies in order to enhance diversity within the organization.
However I recommended that ASD Motors Management should develop some strategies to enhance workforce diversity. Should also address diversity issues within the organization, by considering these questions: what policies, practices, and ways of thinking and within ASD organizational culture have differential impact on different groups? What organizational changes should be made to meet the needs of a diverse workforce as well as to maximize the potential of all workers, so that ASD Motors can be well positioned for the demands of the 21st century? And they should not ignore the diversity issues as ignoring diversity issue can costs time, money and efficiency. Some of the consequences can include unhealthy tensions; loss of productivity because of increased conflict; inability to attract and retain talented people of all kinds; complaints and legal actions; and inability to retain valuable employees, resulting in lost investments in recruitment and training.
In the other hand organizations with diverse employees are better suited to serve diverse external customers in an increasingly global market. Such organizations have a better understanding of the requirements of the legal, political, social, economic, and cultural environments.
Managing diversity successfully means creating an environment that values and utilizes the contributions of people with different backgrounds, experiences and perspectives. On the other hand successful diversity management can enhance organizational performance and deliver benefits to an organization, such as the attraction and retention of the best employees; improving motivation and productivity; and reducing staff turnover costs
Finally as it was found that at least 68% of the respondents recognized that diversity exist and they learn to respect fundamental difference and committed to reduce them and 32% don't. I think ASD Motors should design and implement customized diversity programs that more precisely target the needs of individual employees, specific departments, or the organization as a whole. The result would be a more relevant and effective approach to managing workplace diversity; this would also strengthen employees' behaviors toward accepting diversity.
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I would like to thank my Tutor Clive Findley and all the staffs of student services of Brighton school of business and management for their help over the past 3 years. This assignment has encompassed some part of each and every module of the HND route and could not have been complied otherwise.
I would further like to acknowledge the help of ASD Motors Managing Director Muktar .l. Dauda for his help and support. And all the staffs of ASD Motors for providing their views and opinions.
D8, Brick City
26 November, 2012
The Managing Director
A. S. D. Motors
REQUEST FOR PERMISSION TO CIRCULATE A RESEARCH QUESTIONAIRE TO STAFF OF POSSIBLE RESPONSES IN THE COURSE OF MY RESEARCH
The above subject matter refers.
I am a student of Brighton of Business and Management, Brighton, England Studying HND Business Management, Presently, doing my research project in the above named School. I am using ASD as my case study and wish to request ASD staff to support my research questions.
In view of the above I do hope my request will be granted to enable me carry out the Circulation of the questionnaire.