Importance Of Strategy In Shell Commerce Essay


Shell Aviation is not only world leader in marketing aviation fuel and operating airport fuelling facilities, but it also has a huge range of knowledge on everything from formulating better fuels to designing and managing cost-effective installations. The company has invested heavily in the future of aviation - in new locations and in upgrades to existing ones, in technical advances, and in people - at local, regional and global levels.  It is one of the few fuel companies with Research and Development facilities dedicated to the aviation sector. Its laboratories have generated countless innovations and discoveries which have "fuelled" the advance of air travel. (shell, 2011)

For example, Shell Aviation worked on the conception of octane ratings that combat engine failures caused by pre-detonation ("knocking").  Shell scientists also helped to design the combustor that made the Whittle engine a reality while Shell Aviation supplied special high-density fuels for long-range records. The results of 12th Armburst Aviation Group survey in October 2010 were declared which showed that Shell Aviation is the "World's best international Jet fuel marketer". The Armburst Aviation Group is a 75 year old organization dealing in the aviation fuel and airport business sectors. The "International Jet Fuel Marketer" survey is conducted by them since 1996 on an annual basis. According to the Armburst Aviation Group survey, since 1996 shell has got the 1st place five times versus Air BP five times and Exxon Mobil won in 2003 only. In the 2005 Armburst Aviation Group Jet Fuel report, Shell Aviation got 1st place in almost all the regions Africa/M.East, Asia Pacific, Europe and Latin America except North America. In Armburst Aviation Group survey 2010 there were only 37 respondents as compared to 71 in 2004 mainly because some respondents were reluctant and few of them didn't get an invitation. Report 2006 showed some comments on OMC are which show the changing attitudes of airlines towards large jet fuel suppliers. 75% of airlines felt there is less competition in the market, 70% feel marketers exploited market and supply conditions and 80% wants to increase business with regional players. (Source: Armburst Aviation Group Survey 2010)

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So by keeping in view all these facts, the need for better Customer Satisfaction arises to uncover the reasons of fluctuation in the position of Shell Aviation and to find out where Shell Aviation need to improve its service level.


Shell's pioneering efforts in the early 1900's to establish aviation fuel supplies at key (and often remote) airfields provided the infrastructure which was to make domestic and international civil air travel a practical possibility. Shell was therefore a natural sponsor for many pioneering aviation 'firsts'. Over the years, Shell has maintained this strong commitment to aviation. It is currently the market leader in aviation fuel supply at more airports than any other international supplier i.e. over 800 airports spanning almost 80 countries. In the past, prominent persons like Louis Bleriot, Sir Ross Smith, Sir Keith Smith, Sir John Alcock, and Sir Arthur Whitten Brown etc. used Shell fuel in their flights which makes Shell a choice of elites. This encouragement encouraged Shell to focus on the innovation in its products and the related fields. Some of its innovations include Avgas 100/130, Jet Engine, Ash less dispersant piston engine oils, Shell Turbine Oil 555, first semi-synthetic multigrade oil for piston engines, Aero Shell Grease 33. (Robert, 1998)


"Our view of the kind of business we aspire to become, and how we would like to be seen by customers, suppliers, shareholders, employees, colleagues and the communities in which we do business". (shell, 2011)

To be our customers' supplier of first choice... always

To be recognized as the clear industry leader, turning leadership into value for all our stakeholders

To be distinctive for our aviation professionalism and worldwide perspective

To be passionately enthusiastic about best practice and its global implementation

To be committed to the proper management of health, safety and the environment as a fundamental part of business success

To be a business which understands why money is made or lost and which is prepared to make hard decisions

To be highly respected and valued by Oil Products Operating Units as a business partner

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To feel fulfilled through what we do as individuals and through the opportunity

To contribute in cross-border and cross-functional teams

To be an organization of which we can all be proud


Expansion and Innovation are heart beats of an organization; it signals "I am alive" every time it does something new. Shell Aviation has continued to grow and expand since its establishment. It was serving only few countries when it came into existence but time by time it has expanded and grown its operations in different countries. Now Shell Aviation can announce that it's serving in almost 80 countries of the world including all major airports of the world. Shell Aviation has not only grown and expanded in terms of presence only but also in terms of product line. ( Chan,2006)

When Shell aviation enters in any new area or country it doesn't compromise on price rather shell brand name captures the customers itself. It focuses entirely on serving customers with better quality and response in order to make long term relationship with the customers. Despite many current and potential competitors in almost all counties where shell is serving, Shell is committed to being an innovative leader for customers in the General Aviation market of the future. With the steady increase in products and physical locations over past two decades comes an increase in the need for quality employees. If we talk particularly about Pakistan man power requirement is a major concern for Shell Aviation as Shell already started growing it's marketing department to compete in the market. In today's cutting trout competition every single organization is struggling to maintain its leading edge in the marketing. As already describe earlier today's market is very tough for all the investors and organizations because this era is called customer era, where in all of the companies are bound to provide quality goods and services. In past few years Shell Aviation showed dynamic changes in its marketing and sales department through providing high quality products. (Chan, 2006)

Sales and Marketing is the core function of Shell Aviation which generates revenue, though there are also some other departments working at Shell Aviation like Operations and Finance but Sales and marketing has the high priority. So in order to be more responsive, accurate, focused on customer's attitudes, demands, level of satisfaction and improvement on the gaps, Shell Aviation has to expand its employee's database. These employees must be provided with better training and knowledge in order to bring satisfaction for customers at each level. With the increasing demand of Aviation products particularly in Pakistan, Shell Aviation also need to be physically present at all the major locations of Pakistan, because it is providing the Aviation products in selected areas and at the other locations where Shell Aviation is not physically present, PSO provide the Aviation products to shell customers on the behalf of Shell Aviation. The problem here is that PSO may not be proving the same kind of services which it provides to its own customers, so there may be customer dissatisfaction due to this. In order to cater with this problem Shell Aviation has to open up its operations in all major areas, so that it can deal with its customers properly and doesn't leave any room for customer dissatisfaction. (CAAPakistan, 2011)


Shell Pakistan is divided into six functional areas i.e. Retail, Commercial, Aviation, Operations, Finance and Human Resources. Within Shell Aviation they again have Sales, Marketing, and Operations; Aviation's finance is handled by Shell Finance department which is solely responsible for financial analysis, budgeting, risk management, forecasting, and routine financial management of Shell Aviation. SHELL AVIATION Pakistan. The growth in profits mainly results from the increase in distributors margins coupled with the shift in sales mix to higher margin products; this drastic increase in profits is also attributed mainly to record international investment.

Most of the company used vehicles including, tank lorries, fork lift trucks, mobile training units, transport vans, jet fuel bowers are leased by local financial and leasing companies and shell incurred very little initial cost. This also saves their depreciation and other recurring expenses too, thus giving more margins to stated profits. (Helfert, 2001) 


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SHELL also provides welfare, health, and retirements funds and benefits to its employees in Pakistan. SHELL Aviation like its parent company does provide all these perks which make a good part of expenses on SHELL Aviation.

Excellent performance and productivity as well as level of customer satisfaction are measured and managed best through a careful understanding of the economics of an enterprise as reflected in a simple numerator and denominator. Some examples are: sales. (Kaplan, 2001)



In recent years, there has been fierce competition in the aviation industry. An ongoing fight for customers and their loyalties because new fuel supplying companies are coming in with the improved customer care services. Previously PSO was the only fuel supplying company in Pakistan but with the passage of time Shell and Caltex came into existence giving tough competition to PSO.

As travelling became common, so many fuel supplying companies realized that doing business in Aviation industry will be quite profitable. Particularly in Pakistan PSO was the first to provide aviation products but then Shell in year 1963 realized that there is big business in aviation products and finally Caltex in year 1990 recognized its importance.



Pakistan State Oil (PSO) is the oil market leader in Pakistan of White Oil market. It is engaged in import, storage, distribution and marketing of various POL products, including Mogas, HSD, Fuel Oil, Jet Fuel, Kerosene, LPG, CNG and petro-chemicals. This blue chip company, the winner of "Karachi Stock Exchange Top Companies Award" and member of World Economic Forum, has been a popular topic of case studies in Pakistan and abroad based on its radical corporate turnaround over the last few years.

 PSO serves both national & international air carriers like Aero Asia, Air Blue, Air China, Cathy Pacific, Defence Aviation Wings, Emirates Airlines, Etihad Airways, Gulf Airways, Indian Airlines, Iran Air, Kuwait Airways, Pakistan International Airlines, Qatar Airways, Saudi Arabian Airlines, Shaheen Air International, Thai Airways and many other small carriers/charters etc. But in Pakistan PSO serves a wide range of aviation customers. Professionals at PSO strive for providing unmatched and diverse services to the customers in line with best international practices. Currently in Pakistan PSO has a noticeable portion of aviation customers. But all of them do not deal solely with PSO rather some of them deal with SHELL and CALTEX as well.

PSO is constantly striving hard to live up to its customer expectations and to bring about customer satisfaction, so one of its mean is to conduct periodic surveys in order to bring excellence for its customers in terms of products and survives. PSO profit margins were hit back in last decade as show by its financial reports, because of its major competitor Shell who has been able to attract new customers and to capture the big market share. PSO does spent great deal of money in searching for new technologies and to bring innovation in the field of aviation. So every year PSO is sending 2 employees to France for Aviation training, which keeps them abreast with the technological development in the industry. (pso, 2011)


Caltex is present in more than 60 countries and territories in the Asia-Pacific region, Africa and the Middle East, including many emerging, high-growth markets. Majority of Caltex brand's business is conducted through alliances with other companies and national governments.

The Caltex Star stands for quality. The Caltex Star stands for value. The Caltex Star stands for service. But most importantly, the Caltex Star symbolizes commitment to treat customers as individuals and not as numbers. In everything they do, from advertising, to products and services, to staff and so much more, they always focus on building relationships with customers. The Caltex brand is the embodiment of everything they strive to accomplish. When you see the Caltex brand, it acts as an endorsement of quality. This is because the Caltex brand tells customers that we are professional, well established, customer focused and socially responsible. To become the brand of choice, Caltex rely on our creed of quality, professionalism, service and efficiency. Chevron Global Aviation provides Caltex-branded jet fuel deliveries to airline customers at international airports throughout the Middle East, Africa and Asia.

Caltex jet fuel is a premium aircraft turbine engine fuel that gives clean and efficient combustion as well as good high and low temperature performance. The excellent handling properties are attributable to superior cleanliness, ready water separation characteristics and outstanding storage stability. Caltex jet fuel meets or exceeds the requirements of all pertinent industry and government specifications. Caltex offers different kinds of products and services which include fuels, lubricants, LPG/ Auto gas, card products, star mark and hand wash. Caltex also serves both national and international customers but unfortunately in Pakistan Caltex has not yet stand out. As far as the local contracting companies are concerned PIA is the only customer who is dealing with Caltex but procures only a limited quantity.

In Pakistan Caltex has not grown in Aviation industry from last two decades, it has expanded its market share as fuel supplying company but particularly in Aviation industry and Aviation products it has no major contributions. (Caltex, 2011)


Shell has been selected as one of the Top 100 business 'Super brands and is the most preferred brand of retail fuel customers all over the globe Compression is that Shell has more outlets than McDonalds. The world's largest single branded retail network. Whenever a business decides to do business with Shell, it has at the back of its mind the impeccable brand image of Shell. The fact that jet fuel is a different ball game altogether doesn't get highlighted until and unless Shell manages to mess things up big time, which it feels it may have done just that owing to its declining popularity among customers as found by the Armburst Survey Group.

The biggest management fiasco occurred during the earthquake tragedy when Edhi air ambulance needed fuel to transport the emergency supplies to the affected areas and two of their aircrafts were grounded at Jinnah terminal. At first Shell refused to acknowledge their request, and then refused to cooperate until and unless they paid in cash. PSO on the other hand donated the fuel supply to Edhi. This stark contrast in attitudes towards your customers is going to go a long way in determining future sales. However, this indifferent attitude isn't the hallmark of the management. This can be gauged from the fact that PIA, Aero Asia and Royal Air have commended Shell Aviation for fulfilling their contractual obligations to the letter. (Martin, 2010)


There's not much margin of error in this industry. Price differential are not razor-thin, they are non-existent. That means the industry is devoid of one of the most potent competitive strategies: Price leadership. Shell Aviation is striving to compensate for this deficiency by pursuing other competitive strategies with zeal. One way is to provide the level of customer satisfaction which others may have overlooked and the quality the others failed to provide. This is easier said than done, and the management is seriously pondering over whether shell aviation has been at the receiving end of such a policy of one of its competitors especially in the wake of the Armburst Aviation Group Survey revelations. (Ferrell & Hartline, 2009).

One of the innovations is its introduction of state-of-the-art browsers for fine purification of the jet fuel just before supplying to the aircraft. The jet fuel business is such that there's only so much you can do about product differentiation since there's a common supplier for all the sellers. In this regard, Shell has had the presence of mind to squeeze out any innovative advantage and the induction of effective browsers has been one such instance. One other thing Shell Aviation has been able to accomplish in the face of cutthroat competition is to induce an environment of trust between the major players PSO and Caltex culminating in form limited alliances with them. What this has meant that those regions in Pakistan where Shell Aviation has been unable to cater to its customer needs, one of its competitors which are operating in that region will fulfil Shell's customer needs. Of course this arrangement means that Shell has to reciprocate the favour as well. One of the risks this strategy poses is that while Shell will provide its competitors' customers with the same level of quality service that it provides its own customers, the competitors may not reciprocate the favour with the same level of enthusiasm. That means at the end of the day, Shell Aviation may end up with a disgruntled customer at its hand who get pissed off because he wasn't meted out the sort of treatment he expects from Shell Aviation. Although it wasn't Shell Aviation's fault to begin with, but the customer will associate the poor level of service with Shell and in the worst-case scenario, may even decide to pull out of Shell deals even in those regions where the level of satisfaction was up to the mark. (Ferrell & Hartline, 2009)

The setting up of its e-commerce portal through which the major customers can check their order status and perform a variety of functions is something which it's major competitors like PSO and Caltex have been unable to emulate until now. (Ferrell, 2009)


Primary products of Shell Aviation are its Aviation Fuels and Lubricants. Aviation fuels which comprise the major portion of its products is of three types, the Aviation Gasoline which is used in the piston engines, the aviation Turbine Fuels which are used in turbo-fans, turbo jet & prop engines and the power boost fluids. On the other hand Aviation Lubricants encompasses Piston engine oils, turbine engine oils, Aero shell Greases and Aero-shell Hydraulic fluids and preservatives.  In addition to these products, Shell Aviation's secondary products include Shell water detector which is used to make the fuel water-free, Shell Aviation Carnet Card which provides credit to purchase fuel, lubricants, greases and other products and services at airports worldwide and Astro Nova which is the Aviation's delivery data capture and management system for the aviation fuelling business. (Thomson, 2010)


Shell Aviation Pakistan has always given high priority to the betterment of society and extended every possible help and support in this regard. It frequently launches scholarships for the aviation industry and offer awards to the business schools conducting research work. Shell introduced the Canadian Schedulers and Dispatchers Scholarship which would be awarded to prospective schedulers and dispatchers. Its active participation in social responsibility is also evident from the sponsorships it extends. Sponsorship of the "3rd Middle East Corporate Social Responsibility Summit, Third Sound and Light show at the Rohtas Fort in Jhelum, AEROEXPO etc are some of the examples in this regard".

Along with these sponsorships and scholarships, Shell assumes its social responsibility by introducing different social programmes and by providing financial assistance to different sectors. It has provided Financial Assistance to Layton Rahmatullah Benevolent Trust (LRBT), a chain of nine hospitals throughout the country, providing free eye care treatment, donated Rs.40 million for the Tsunami Relief Donation and some provided funds for Mobile Relief Camp in Northern Pakistan. Finally, Shell has introduced "Shell Tameer Programme" which encourages youth aged between 18-32 years to consider starting a business as a desirable and viable career option by providing free information, advice and support, Mangrove Forest Preservation Programme for the protection and preservation of the mangrove forests in the Indus delta area (south of Karachi) and Ayubia Natural Park Conservation Programme to divert the Villagers near Islamabad on alternative fuel sources. (Kotler, 2005)


Given the spiralling of competition in Pakistan, Shell Aviation is looking forward to review its future strategy. This is going to be the topic of discussion when Mr. Mazhar-ud-deen calls two crucial meetings one after the other: one with the major customers and the other with his sales and marketing team. The agenda for the meeting is going to include issues like customer dissatisfaction, CRM (Customer Relationship Management), Technology, staff and operations. These issues surfaced when the survey was conducted by Shell Aviation back in 2005. Now pressure has been mounting on Mr. Mazhar by the parent company to mount a full-fledged fact-finding mission why this state of affairs has come to be. What Shell wants to determine is whether these issues are tip of the iceberg or insignificant chance variations. Finally, it would be no exaggeration to say that Shell aviation is undoubtedly an unprecedented market player, providing solution for jet fuel. Backed by its strong financial background and exponentially growing profit figures as well as management whizzes. But what does future hold? Winning and retaining customers and making them as delighted as they want to be still remain a question mark for Shell Aviation. (Shell, 2011)


(Bensoussan, 2008)


The Pakistani market has always been politically volatile with political upheavals a historical hallmark. However the present government has managed to create an aura of stability and removed much of the bureaucratic red tapism at least on the investment side. This positive change in the state of affairs does not augur well for Shell Aviation since now a new entrant won't need high-level contacts in the government or to come up with hefty kickbacks in order to enter the market.

Then there's the issue of political isolation of Shell Aviation. Shell Aviation happens to have its biggest customer (PIA) as well as its biggest competitor (PSO) state owned entities which means they can connive to create a hegemony which leaves Shell on the rocks. And for all Shell knows, this very thing may have contributed to Shell being sidelined since PSO takes away the biggest slice of pie from PIA's fuel demand. (Schmitt - 2007)


The search for alternative aviation fuel is being intensified in the wake of mounting criticism of jet fuel's polluting properties. Bio fuels are economically competitive with aviation fossil fuels at this time, and are actually less expensive if the real cost of the fossil fuels is taken into account. The Renewable Aviation Fuel Development Centre (RAFDC), at Baylor University, has been developing ethanol and ETBE as fuel for piston engine aircraft and has initiated research, development and testing programs of blends of biodiesel and Jet A for turbine engine aircraft. RAFDC has obtained Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certifications for engines and aircraft powered by ethanol. RAFDC has obtained Supplemental Type Certificates (STCs) for the use of 100% denatured ethanol for the IO-540 series of 260 HP Lycoming engines, for the O-235 series of Lycoming engines, and the Cessna 152 series of training aircraft. These were the first FAA certifications granted for non-petroleum fuel and as such represented a significant step in alternative aviation fuels research and development. (Institute for Air Science- Baylor University)

Environmental Trends

Although airplane travel accounts for only 3 percent of global carbon emissions, it is the fastest growing source of emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) expects airplane travel to account for 15% of all carbon emissions in 2050. Currently, airline fuel is the cheapest in the world, as the industry is exempted from fuel taxes. Australia and the US oppose a worldwide levy on aviation fuel, but many other countries including the European Union have expressed interest. Non-governmental organizations are also pushing for increases in the VAT (sales tax) levied on airline tickets and increases in landing fees. Efforts to implement an EU aviation tax are part of a wider challenge of developing more sustainable transport policies and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This awareness came about when in 1997 a coalition of green groups that included European Environment Bureau (EEB), Transport and Environment (T&E), Aviation Environment Federation (AEF) and 75 other environmental and citizen's groups in 17 European countries, as well as Australia, Japan and the USA, urged the European Commission to take "serious measures" to reduce the environmental impact of air traffic. Therefore, there are two pending crises in the aviation world: 1. the mounting pressure to remove lead from the aviation gasoline used by the piston engine fleet and; 2. the commercial aviation's environmental impact escalating both at the local and global level. (Global Policy Forum)

While Pakistan has not been inclined in the past to do much about its deteriorating environment apart from a meek show of concern, the EPA (Environment Protection Agency) is becoming active to an extent. At the end of the day any decision about the environment is going to be laced with political connotations and whose side Pakistan is on. For instance Aviation is the only transportation industry in the United States whose engine emissions are not yet regulated. So if Pakistan continues to be the 'all-important' ally of the US, then it won't be hard-pressed to do something about its air traffic pollution which is good news for the fuel suppliers.


"To achieve higher levels of customer satisfaction and loyalty as well as eliminating attrition without compromising on price." (Joyce, 2001)



FIVE FORCES ANALYSIS: helps the marketer to contrast a competitive environment. It has similarities with other tools for environmental audit, such as PEST analysis, but tends to focus on the single, stand alone, business or SBU (Strategic Business Unit) rather than a single product or range of products. For example, Dell would analyse the market for Business Computers i.e. one of its SBUs. Five forces analysis looks at five key areas namely the threat of entry, the power of buyers, the power of suppliers, the threat of substitutes, and competitive rivalry. (Lynch, 2005)


Economics of scale e.g. the benefits associated with bulk purchasing.

The high or low costs of entry e.g. how much will it cost for the latest technology?

Ease of access to distribution channels e.g. Do our competitors have the distribution channels sewn up?

Cost advantages not related to the size of the company e.g. personal contacts or knowledge that larger companies do not own or learning curve effects.

Will competitors retaliate?

Government action e.g. will new laws be introduced that will weaken our competitive position?

The Government of that country in which that company is working they fix a high taxes for them to import that oil from outside.

How important is differentiation? E.g. The Champagne brand cannot be copied. This desensitizes the influence of the environment. (Lynch, 2005)


This is high where there a few, large players in a market e.g. the large grocery chains.

If there are a large number of undifferentiated, small suppliers e.g. small farming businesses supplying the large grocery chains?

The cost of switching between suppliers is low e.g. from one fleet supplier of trucks to another. (Lynch, 2005)


The power of suppliers tends to be a reversal of the power of buyers.

Where the switching costs are high e.g. switching from one software supplier to another.

Power is high where the brand is powerful e.g. Cadillac, Pizza Hut, Microsoft.

There is a possibility of the supplier integrating forward e.g. Brewers buying bars.

Customers are fragmented (not in clusters) so that they have little bargaining power e.g. Gas/Petrol stations in remote places. (Lynch, 2005)


Where there is product-for-product substitution e.g. email for fax where there is substitution of need e.g. better toothpaste reduces the need for dentists.

Where there is generic substitution (competing for the currency in your pocket) e.g.

We could always do without e.g. cigarettes. (Lynch, 2005)


This is most likely to be high where entry is likely; there is the threat of substitute products, and suppliers and buyers in the market attempt to control. This is why it is always seen in the centre of the diagram. (Lynch, 2005)

 SWOT Analysis:


1) Brand Image

2) E-commerce website for customers

3) Innovative equipments

4) Large market share in terms of customers

5) Flexible working environment

6) Strong Product Line

7) Big Profits


1) Traditional approach

2) Rigid Policy

3) Stingy when it comes to physical presence.

4) Lack of foresight to break new ground and stations into un-chartered territory.

5) Sales force less than the required

6) Not present in all major cities of Pakistan.

7) Weak Customer Relations


To grow in areas where it's not physically present.

To capture market share through customer satisfaction.

To entice new customers who are not doing business with shell.

To grow its employees network

Make use of information system technology to augment as well as integrate the numerous operations to develop an efficient and less-labour oriented system.

Need for expansion in all major cities of Pakistan to serve customers well.


Threat of current competitors, especially PSO

Threat of new technology and innovation from competitor's side.

Threat of new entrants, cheap and easy licensing.

Threat of losing market share due to customer dissatisfaction.

Threat of the introduction of newer, enhanced competitive products.

(Fine, 2010)


In order to increase the level of customer satisfaction, to hold its customers for long term and to attract new customers, shell has cop up with the following things:

Innovations and improvements should be made in all activities concerned with operations.

Shell Aviation should make sure the availability of staff for fuelling purpose because this is one of the causes of customer dissatisfaction.

Shell Aviation should design some new pricing proposals which can provide the customers different options for procuring products.

It has to focus on its customer service in terms of timely supply, immediate responses, and prompt information. It has to be more responsive, considerate and courteous in order to catch all the customers and to prove its best customer service. 

Sales persons should be made more considerate and courteous towards their clients as they represent the whole world. Shell Aviation should increase its participation in Pakistan. Shell Aviation should review its prices because customers are not satisfied from the pricing structure of shell. It requires great deal of efforts to catch the attention of non customers. It needs to offer certain packages (benefits) to its major customers.

Best Alternative:

More responsive, considerate, customer focused sales and marketing activities would result in better customer satisfaction and loyalty, and this can be achieved through proper implementation of a Customer Relationship Management System.


Shell Pakistan. 2011. Shell Pakistan. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 03 February 11].

PSO. 2011. PAKISTAN STATE OIL. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 01 February 11].

Caltex Pakistan. 2011. Caltex Pakistan. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 26 February 11]

CAA. 2011. Civil Aviation Of Pakistan . [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 09 February 11]

ASIG. 2011. ARMBRUST AVIATION GROUP. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 10 February 11]