People spend a lot of time at work thus there is nothing to be surprised that they are expecting for some sort of reward which also further describe their organisation is satisfied with their work. The biggest assets of organizations are motivated employees and it is because job satisfaction and motivation is clearly linked. Today management are focus on effective utilization of human resources in achieving organizational goals and objectives. The personnel department directly concern in organizing human resources need of the business. Basically he tries to maximum output to the business by bringing talent employees by training and development, bringing talent employees by training and development some sort of bonus or rewards and makes people to work in full satisfaction.
Today employee motivation is one of the important issues in every business organization. Business are trying its employees to work and perform well by bring different motivational factors. In short they use trying to create "will to work". Managers always should think in motivational way, make good use of motivation so that his employee can follow him and complete work with willingness.
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Motivation is willingness to exert high level of effort to satisfy individual needs. It is also concern to why people do things and what are things that are driven them to do those things. Many research shows that motivated staff or employees are happy in workplace, less absent, loyal and enthusiasm are some characteristics of motivated employee. We can say they are more satisfied from their work. Hence it can contribute in the development of organization.
Motivation is the set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways (Ricky Griffin). The key element in motivation is effort, goals and need. Effort motivates people to do hard. It energized to make efforts. Effort energizes behaviour. Goal directs the behaviour. The efforts are directed towards goal achievement. Every individual have need and motivation is process of satisfying those needs. Today motivation is one of the key elements of the management. Every time it encourage employee for higher productivity. It helps in reducing accident, employee turnover and absenteeism. Once the employee's are motivated change is seen effectively and work is done effectively. Motivation is a psychological process. It is concern with individual needs, motives and drives. Motivation is complex. Individual are different thus it is hard to predict. Motivation is a continuous process. Once one need is fulfilled automatically another needs emerged. People have many needs. Motivation is situational which means motivations differ from time to time and person to person. We can also say motivation is pervasive. It means motivation is the task of all levels of managers. Every manager should motivate its subordinates. After that you can increase or higher the productivity. Motivation is goal oriented. It leads to action. It includes efforts to achieve goals
Motivation also can be positive or negative. Positive motivation refers to incentives and rewards for individual who is performing better whereas negative refer to punishment to individual who perform poor. Motivation also can be extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic motivation are externally induced and intrinsic are self generated. As an example financial incentive for a job well done is extrinsic and sense of satisfaction for a job well done is intrinsic.
There are several theories regarding motivation. Some of them are like Hierarchy of Need Theory by Abraham Harold Maslow, Motivation-Hygiene Theory by Frederick Herzberg, Mayo Theory by Elton Mayo, Taylor Theory by Frederick Taylor, Theory X and Theory Y and so on. The review on theories is done below. However, the research is already familiar in the beginning with those theories. One thing also should be considered that the motivation theories are quite old but still popular and used in field of work motivation. These above theories are chosen by the researchers and quite helpful in the research question. As all the motivation theories somehow inter connected with each other and very useful in term of work motivation in present context. According to Molander (1996) it can be possible to identify human needs and from this identification of his need we can know what motivates him as individual and also the process to fulfil their needs.
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Theory of Hierarchy of Needs ( Abraham Maslow)
Abraham Maslow advocated theory of hierarchy of needs. It also indicates that needs motivate individuals. He arranged human needs in a hierarchy. According to him an individual progresses step by step up in the hierarchy of needs. The bottom needs are pressing needs so are satisfied first. It is also a physiological need as an example food, shelter, air and clothing. After satisfying individual basic need their motivation changes and they want for something more as higher in order to be motivated? Hence, in order to motivate individual first we need to know where the employee is placed within the hierarchy. The basic things of Maslow's theories are man is a wanting being. Human beings always want for more. Their needs are never completed. They continuously want more and more. Once your need is fulfilled automatically another comes in. Needs makes people to work hard, it influence their behaviour. Hence, need motivates for big efforts. Maslow also suggested that satisfied need never motivates individual. Human needs have a hierarchy. They are also arranged in hierarchy and they are fulfilled step by step. Here needs should be satisfied in order. The human needs are five and they are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. Lower order needs are physiological needs and safety needs. They are most essential needs of individual whereas higher order needs are social need, esteem needs and self-actualization needs and they are least essential.
Motivation-Hygiene Theory (Frederick Herzberg)
Motivation-Hygiene theory was advocated by Frederick Herzberg. Herzberg conducted and interview with 203 accountant and engineers in Pittsburgh USA. As a result of research, he came up with motivation-hygiene theory. He tests those satisfiers staff are productive staff. His theory is also called as two factor theory. Those two factors use Hygiene and motivators factors. He also suggested that good working environment creates satisfaction on employees whereas bad working environment creates bad working environment. Herzberg also claimed that all hob factors don't motivate employees. The attitude of individual towards job determines satisfaction. The two dimensions of job satisfaction are hygiene and motivating factors.
Hygiene factors are extrinsic factors. It is also called as dissatisfies. It is always related to job context. Job dissatisfaction is caused by the absence of this factor and job satisfaction is caused in the presence of this factor. There are some factors in workplace which can make individual happy which may cause work environment excessive bureaucracy as an autocratic. The some hygiene factors are salary, status, job security, company policy and administration and interpersonal relationship. In the presence of hygiene factor cause satisfaction while in the absence it causes dissatisfaction, which also lead to absenteeism, grievances and employee turnover. Maintenance factor is also called to hygiene factor.
Motivating factors are intrinsic factors. They are also concern with job content. The presence of such intrinsic factors causes job satisfaction. But in the absence also it does not cause job dissatisfaction. The factors like achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement, growth are some common motivating factors which also encourage in increasing effort and performance.
Theory X and Theory Y
The theory X and theory Y was given by Mac Gregory. He suggested that there are two types of employees. They are lazy employees and ambitious employees. Theory X represents the lazy employee. Hard workers, ambitious workers represent theory Y. He also suggested that to increase the performance of lazy employee, they should be motivated. His theory is also emphasized on control and punishment to those workers who doubt like working and avoid works. He assumed unambitious, trying to get ride from responsibilities, avoiding work are some characteristics of theory X employees. Hence to motivate this employees management should follow hard rules like tight control, day to day observation of their work, are some other approaches. Theory Y employees are self motivated. This people also can be motivated by good working environment, duties and responsibilities.