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Purpose - The purpose of this study is to explore the study of motivational factors on employee turnover decision for their job satisfaction in private and public sector banks situated in Wah Cantt.
Design/methodology/approach - The purpose of this study is to explore the study motivational factors on employee turnover decision in private and public sector banks situated in wah cantt. This research methodology is designed in such a way that it provides testimony of hypothesis of the study. My research design is related to four independent and one dependent variable which would be collected from private and public sector banks through questionnaire from wah cantt branches. The research article is on the
Motivational factors on employee turnover decision. I include various research papers/articles from various sMyces to study and work on My main article. I include ten (10) local banks from wah cantt and sample of (20) out of 200 employees. I use data analysis tool i.e. descriptive method and Pearson correlation method. I have distributed questionnaire and it is in progress and will be completed shortly.
Originality/value -There have been very few research works on the motivational factors on employee turnover decision in banking sector of Pakistan and how to make strong and effective to the people that affect the motivational factors in the organization .
Key words: Motivational factors, turnover, decision.
Paper type: Research paper.
One of the most distinguished changes in the banking sector in Pakistan has been increasingly number of women who entered in banking profession in banking profession for many years. In banking sector most of managerial positions are held by male managers. A survey conducted by Imoukhuede (2001) estimated that woman in Nigeria filled only 12 percent of management positions in banking and financial sectors Imoukhuede (2001). The hurdles for woman in management are still very difficult, and are growing more intractable. In many developing countries such as Nigeria there are only a small percentage of women in management and related decision making positions (Al-Lamki 1999). This trend creates significant interest of gender related issues in banking sector of Pakistan. In future I are interested in collecting data from 10 local banks from Wah Cantt. In developing countries like Pakistan women holds a small percentage in management in decision-making positions and what are the motivational factors that motivate and loyal to their job. Females don't feel comfortable as compared to men because of harassments in different ways. Women work in different sectors and show trust on their kind of job. In countries like Pakistan women have now realized that they can compete with men in many fields, such as medicine, engineering and banking. In recent estimates, Oshagbemi (1996) suggest that, if a total number of relevant articles and long written study of subject Ire made, Locke's estimate, made only 20 years earlier would be doubled.
Locke (1976) defined "job satisfaction as a pleasurable and positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job experiences". One question that may arise is "why the study of salary gap and job satisfaction is so vital in Pakistan. I link job satisfaction to organizational commitment, turnover and absenteeism (Koh & Boo 2001) these mentioned variables are costly to organization because if the organization failed to overcome on these variables it leads to low moral, bad performance and less productivity. Job satisfaction has often been linked to organizational commitment, turnover intention, and absenteeism (Koh & Boo 2001). From theoretical point of view it is vital to enhance My understanding that has impact on salary differential on job satisfaction; by this it could stimulate further research in this area.
The scope of this research is to study Impact of motivational factors on employee turnover decision and job satisfaction closely and systematically the effect of male and female
Gender differences among men and women have been considerably researched and no end evidence has been found with the level of satisfaction, hoIver some result shows distinct studies have indicated that there is relationship betIen gender and job satisfaction (Hulin and Smith 1996; Bilgic 1998; Tudor and Lumpkin 1990) looked closely 295 male workers and 163 female taken from different manufacturing companies to study gender related differential, by help of this research it shows the relationship among male and female workers and their job satisfaction this result shows that female workers are less satisfied than their male fellows. Previous study managed by Lumpkin and Tudor (1990) Stedham and Yamamura (2000). It shows that female managers are not satisfied with their work because of less pay, slow promotions and also from overall job satisfaction. From this I conclude the following conclusion.
Is job satisfaction u-shaped in age? Bilgic,R. (1998),
From article first it shows the relationship betIen job satisfaction employee age and tenure in organization. Personality variables which include attitude, needs, expectations and situational variables that are job performance and the effect of age and tenure in organizational reward system are likely to play major role defining the empirical relationship betIen measure of age, tenure and job satisfaction.
Job satisfaction in Britain
Lumpkin J.R. & K. Tudor (1990)
In this article the researcher conducted the information from 500 British employees to investigate the relationship betIen three measures of job satisfaction and a vast range of individual and job characteristics. Men who work longer hMys and work in large organizations have low level of job satisfaction.
Gender differences in the job satisfaction of university teachers
Gaertner, J.F. and Ruhe, J.A, Larkin, J.M. (1990),
From article 3rd I have examined gender differences in the job satisfaction of Britain universities teachers that male and female more or less equally satisfied with their jobs. In this article it is concluded that job satisfaction betIen male and female are not significant when I apply three way annova. Gaertner and ruhe (1988) and larkin (1990), they show that gender effect the job satisfaction of university teachers particularly including the senior lecturers, readers and profession. The research shows that female faculty is more satisfied of comparable ranks. Researchers concluded at last that female faculty of senior ranks appears to be more satisfied.
Job satisfaction of highly educated:
Bartel, A. P. (1981), Clark, A. E., Oswald, A. J. and Warr, P, Hamermesh, D. S. (1977), Sousa-Poza, A. and Sousa-Poza, A.A. (2000)
Economists have been slow to examine job satisfaction. Early examination by Freeman (1978) and Hamermesh (1977), Bartel (1981) find a small amount of studies by economist at the start of the 1980s but more than 3500 by other social scientists. The current catalog of determinants include that the youngest and oldest workers have high job satisfaction (Clark,Oswald and Warr, 1996), that women have higher job satisfaction in the US and UK (clark,1997; Souse-Poza and Sousa-Poza 2000).
Job satisfaction among bank employees in Punjab, Pakistan
Hoppock, R. (1935), Kaya, Ebru (1995)
A greater part of man's life is spent in work is a social reality and social expectations to which man seem to confirm. An even economic action has never satisfied men. It is all the times of higher interest to know why men work and at which level he/she satisfied with the job.
Psychologists and sociologists have long been interested in the functions and significance of job attitudes (Hoppock, 1935).
Job satisfaction is important aspect of job attitude. The most important evidence indicating the condition of the organization getting unIll is the low rate of job satisfaction (Kaya, 1995).
Pay and job satisfaction
Crossman, A., & Abou-Zaki, B. (2003), Opkara, J. O. (2002).
Job satisfaction is a key instrument to gauge the organizational health as service largely depends on the human resMyce. (Crossman and Abbu-Zaki, 2003).Locke (1976) defined job satisfaction as "a pleasurable or positive emotional state, resulting from the appraisal of one's job experiences." In common,job satisfaction refers to an individual's positive emotional reactions to a particular job.it is an effective reaction to a job that results from the persons's comparison of actual outcomes with those that are desired, anticipated, or deserved.(Opkara, 2002).
Compensation in the year 2000 pay on performance
Steven and Mackenzie (2000)
The basics of incentive pay and how it correlates with known organizational Behavior theories can be linked with the achievement of corporate goals through the use of reward system. There are many approaches to incentive compensation, such as cash bonuses, stock purchase, and profit sharing. This article will examine the individual and group incentive concepts that reward performance based on predetermined organizational goals and metrics, several behavioral theories that can be associated with reward and compensation (motivation, achievement, equity, etc.), and convergent and divergent views and conclusions from the business community.
Compensation Management of Commissioned Sales Employees
Chris to pher J. Ship ley and Brian H. Klei ner (2005)
The purpose of this article is to recognize the different types of compensation programs for com missioned sales employees and to establish ways to manage these programs in an ever changing business environment. This article will identify companies who use compensation programs for their com missioned sales employees.
Fairness perceptions and satisfaction with components of pay satisfaction
I.M. Jawahar and Thomas H. Stone (2010)
The purpose of this paper is to integrate two streams of research and investigate the associations of different forms of justice perceptions on attitudinal reactions to fMy components of compensation: pay level, pay raises, benefits, and structure and administration In doing so, it responds to calls for more primary studies linking interactional justice perceptions to pay satisfaction.
Fringe benefits and job satisfaction
Benjamin Artz (2010)
The paper seeks to empirically identify the theoretically ambiguous relationship between employer fringe benefit provision and worker job satisfaction.
UNDERSTANDING PAY SATISFACTION: THE LIMITS OF A COMPENSATION SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
Frederick et al (2001)
Although a common organizational intervention, research investigating the impact of compensation system implementation on employee outcomes is limited. As one type of intervention, job evaluation usually includes substantial employee participation in order to improve employee pay satisfaction.
Executive compensation and gender: S&P 1500 listed firms
João Paulo Vieito &Walayet A. Khan (2010)
Examine if a gender gap persists in executive compensation and if the composition and the determinants of executive compensation for men versus women are the same for the S&P1500 listed firms during the period from 1992 to 2004. This analysis is also extended to high tech firms.
Understanding Multiple Dimensions of Compensation Satisfaction
Margaret et al (2007)
Negative relationship between employee costs and benefit satisfaction. Additional results provide the foundation for My discussion of the current state of research in these areas, recommendations for practice, and suggestions for future research.
Brooks Pierce (2001)
An extensive literature documents recent wage inequality growth in the United States. Although researchers adopt varied data sMyces and data construction conventions, this literature tends to agree on several basic facts. Wage inequality growth was especially large in the early 1980s, and continued at a slower pace through the mid-1990s. Wage inequality grew among men, among women, and in data combining men and women. Wage dispersion changes are apparent throughout the wage distribution, but generally are larger above the median than below the median. Rising wage differentials across schooling, age, and occupational groups contributed to wage inequality growth, as did increased wage dispersion among workers with similar observable characteristics
New Risks for Workers: Pensions, Labor Markets, and Gender
Kim M. Shuey and Angela M. O'Rand (2004)
This paper considers the changing social institution of employer sponsored pensions within the framework of the sociology of risk. Employer-sponsored and the others in which one is pensions are elements of a variable and changing occupational welfare system in which the risk and responsibilities for retirement income security have shifted from employer to worker through the expanding role of third-party vendors (insurers). Risk processes can be identified at the employer, insurer, family, and individual levels. This system can be conceptualized as a hierarchy of risk that begins at the organizational level with employer sponsorship of alternative pension plans and extends to the allocation of workers across pension jobs, to worker decisions regarding pension participation and investment of funds, and to final pension balances. Embedded in this multi-level risk system are gender differences that further stratify the aging workforce. We discuss the implications of these changes for future research on life cMyse and retirement and recommend that risk preferences be examined within the contexts of the workplace and the household.
Strategic Reward Systems: A Contingency Model of Pay System Design
Brian K. Boyd and Alain Salamin (2001)
such, the strategic management of human resMyces can play a key role in an organization's survival. A firm's compensation plan plays a prominent role in recruiting, motivating, and retaining employees, and thus is central to building a durable advantage.
Pay and Job Satisfaction: A Comparative Analysis of Different Pakistani Commercial Banks
Kamal et al (2001)
This paper endeavors to study the various factors of job satisfaction among different commercial bankers in Pakistan and highlight the findings by performing statistical techniques like regression and correlation to gauge level of significance for the factor. Pay has been considered as the major factor for job satisfaction however other related factors like promotion, recognition, job involvement and commitment are also taken into account.
The Job Satisfaction-Job Performance Relationship: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review
Timothy et al (2001)
The study of the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance is one of the most venerable research traditions in industrial-organizational psychology.
Impact of HR practices on perceived firm performance in India
Kuldeep Singh (2004)
The impact of human resMyce (HR) management practices on the performance of firms has been a leading theme of research in the past decade and the results have been encMyaging, indicating positive association between HR practices and firm performance.
Job Satisfaction Among Bank Employees in Punjab,
Pakistan: A Comparative Study
Salman Khalid (2010)
Five components of job satisfaction; work, pay, promotion, salary and recognition, were examined besides overall job satisfaction. The aim of this study was to examine job satisfaction level of bank employees in Punjab Province.
Job Satisfaction of the Highly Educated: The Role of Gender, Academic Tenure, and Comparison Income.
Keith A. Bender and John S. Heywood (2006)
The determinants of job satisfaction are estimated for Ph.D. level scientists in the United States across academic and nonacademic sectors. Female scientists report lower job satisfaction than males in academia but higher job satisfaction than males in the nonacademic sector. Academic scientists with tenure have substantially greater job satisfaction than non-academic scientists but academic scientists without tenure report similar levels of satisfaction as non-academic scientists. Finally, in each sector, job satisfaction is greater when comparison income is greater in their own sector, while comparisons across.
Employees of both private and public sector banks which is situated in wah cantt will be included in population. List of these banks are given in Annex B.
I have distributed 50 questionnaires in the local banks of wah cantt in month of December 2012; I received response from employees of banks. List of banks is attached as Annex B.
Based upon the literature review following are the hypothesis to be tested.
H1: is there any impact of salary differential on employee job satisfaction.
From hypothesis first I check the impact of job satisfaction on salary differentials.
Ho: there is no impact of salary differential on Employees job satisfaction.
From second hypothesis I will check that there is no or less impact of job satisfaction on salary differential.
These are the determinants, which affect the turnover decision.
Factors that affect turnover decision
To find the hypothesis the following tools will be used to analyze the data:
It describes the main features of a collection of data quantitatively. Descriptive statistics are distinguished from inferential statistics (or inductive statistics), in that descriptive statistics aim to summarize a data set, rather than use the data to learn about the population that the data are thought to represent.
Pearson Correlation Analysis:
Pearson Correlation Analysis is one of the measures of correlation which quantifies the strength as Ill as direction of such relationship. In the study of relationships, two variables are said to be correlated if change in one variable is accompanied by change in the other, either in the same or reverse direction.
Cronbach's alpha is a statistic. It is generally used as a measure of internal consistency or reliability of a psychometric instrument. It measures how Ill a set of variables or items measures a single, one-dimensional latent aspect of individuals. (Choudhury, 2010).
In statistics, regression analysis includes many techniques for modeling and analyzing several variables, when the focus is on the relationship betIen a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. More specifically, regression analysis helps one understand how the typical value of the dependent variable changes when any one of the independent variables is varied, while the other independent variables are held fixed. Most commonly, regression analysis estimates the conditional expectation of the dependent variable given the independent variables - that is, the average value of the dependent variable when the independent variables are held fixed.
A chi-squared test, also referred to as chi-square test or Ï‡2 test, is any statistical hypothesis test in which the sampling distribution of the test statistic is a chi-squared distribution when the null hypothesis is true, or any in which this is asymptotically true, meaning that the sampling distribution (if the null hypothesis is true) can be made to approximate a chi-squared distribution as closely as desired by making the sample size large enough.
N of Items
The cronbach's alpha is used to determine the reliability of data. This study is based on the primary; the reliability test is used to check the authenticity of the scales. The value of Alpha is .464 is very small. For social studies it must be above .65. The small value of alpha is due to the small sample size. If the sample is increased this will improve.
Pearson Correlation Analysis:
TRUN OVER DECISION
The correlation analysis is applied to find the association between the variables. The correlation coefficient it varies between +1 to -1. The correlation matrix is also use to find the multicollinaerity problem. If two variables have correlation values above .70 then the problem of multicollinaerity. The matrix reports no evidence of multicollinaerity. There is negative relationship between Salary and turnover decision but insignificant (.099).Education has negative relationship with turnover decision but insignificant (.027).Experience has positive relationship with turnover decision but insignificant (.270).Co-workers has positive relationship with turnover decision but insignificant (.081)
Valid N (list wise)
The scale which I used is likert-scale which have minimum value 1.00 and maximum 5.00. For work I have minimum 2.00 and maximum value 5.00. For Salary I have minimum 1.00 and maximum value 5.00. for Co-workers I have minimum 1.00 and maximum value 5.00. For Experience I have minimum 1.50 and maximum value 4.50. For Education I have minimum 1.00 and maximum value 5.00
Sum of Squares
b. Dependent Variable; TURNOVER DECISION
ANOVA table is used to define the model summary. The value of F statistic is .766 but it is insignificant.
a. Dependent Variable: TURNOVER DECISION
Adjusted R Square
Std. Error of the Estimate
R-square is .182. It defines that My dependent variable is how much explain by independent/explanatory variables it explains the variations in dependent by independent variables.
My research shows a satisfactory picture of the banks in wah cantt. By comparing the satisfaction level of employees to salary, experience, co-worker attitude and education . I have found that both male and female Employees are satisfied from their salaries to salary, experience, co-worker attitude and education. The study found that those both male and female Employees have negative perception about promotion, experience and managerial level and positive perception about pay satisfaction. The different perceptions of the sexes may stem primarily from the discrepancy in the salary levels of the genders. Education and experience contributed a great deal to the gender salary gap. Work, pay, supervision and education shows positive perception but insignificant. The study conclude that, as education levels increase, the levels of pay satisfaction and job satisfaction may also increase, because increases in education increase the amount of job responsibility. From (h1) hypothesis one I have found that there is impact of salary to salary, experience, co-worker attitude and education on job satisfaction and less trun over decision