Over the past decade, information technology has continued to exert a great deal of influence on modern life so much that it is determining the way organizations operate and wielding a terrific amount of force on organizational practices. In the field of HR, information technology have become a force to reckon with, one that shapes the practices, ideals and activities of contemporary human resource managers and now at the brink of dissipating the conventional and traditional processes of human resource management. In fact, in contemporary human resource planning, information technology have become a business imperative specifically because of its ability to increase productivity and capture planning areas that managers often tend to negligibly ignore. More importantly, IT is increasingly becoming a crucial instrument used in carrying out recruitment and selection processes in the field of HR in modern organisations; however, one causal question that has been left largely unanswered is how information technology impacts the recruitment and selection of candidates. Recruitment usually refers to the attraction of potential employees and generally the initial process of staffing, while selection involves the process of interviewing, candidate assessment and job orientation. (Lievens and Harris, 2003; Breaugh and Starke, 2000)
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These two processes are crucial to any HR success, however is characterized with a relative dearth of empirical evidence. Two reasons come to mind to explain this gap, first, that information technology is a new phenomenon therefore, studies on IT and its impact on recruitment and selection are at their formative stages. Second, researchers have underestimated the importance of recruitment and selection to organisations therefore, giving less attention to its study. According to Highhouse and Hoffman ( 2001) both justifications are valid to explain the current research problem; however, it could be better explained by the fact that HR is broad and thus researchers consider some issues to be more germane than other, therefore heeding more attention to other broader HR issues . Stanton (1999) observed that where there is sufficient research, a fundamental mix-up usually exists. The studies of Guion as far back as 1976 have made important assertion about this mix-up.
"Technology in employee selection is more vastly advanced than in recruiting or placement; therefore, the major emphasis is on selection Recruiting or placement are not less important processes; to the contrary, they probably are more vital and more profitable to the organization. An organization's success in recruiting defines the applicant population with which it will work; selection is more pleasant, if not easier, when any restriction of range or skewness of distribution is attributable to an overabundance of well-qualified applicants...Unfortunately, the contributions and confusions of the literature, the central social pressures, and the facts of contemporary practice conspire to place the emphasis on selection" (pp. 777- 779).
The postulation of Guion (1976) brings more important lessons to the fore, first, that lack of empirical evidence is caused by the mix-up by organisations themselves, therefore impeding researchers ability to identify research issues, second, more emphasis is placed on selection rather then recruitment therefore causing a misnomer. However, the aim of this study is to draw on these weaknesses and other emerging issues in the recruitment and selection processes of organisations. More importantly, this study will contribute to literature by investigating the advent of novel technology and how it has shaped recruitment and selection processes in organisations. This research uses a case study approach in order to differentiate concepts from scenarios, therefore, the outcome not only draws on conceptual assumptions but real scenario of recruitment and selection practices in organisations. As much as this study contributes to literature, it will also inform the decision making process of contemporary human resource managers. In achieving this aim, we have identified a number of objectives that is crucial to providing an empirical answer to the research problems earlier identified.
1.1 RESEARCH AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
1.2 RESEARCH MOTIVATION
In spite of the increasing need and use of modern information technology to improve personnel practices such as recruitment and selection in contemporary organisations, Lievens and Harris (2003) noted that managers are still confronted with a lot of questions like:
We have limited amount of money to spend on recruitment and selection, what is the most cost effective way of attracting candidates using modern technology? How can our limited budget be best spent to achieve the required result? What specific technology can we employ to help improve our recruitment and selection practices?
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What is in there for us? We have a lot of other business needs in which information technology is required, what will be the impact of employing IT on our recruitment and selection process? Will it be cost efficient? And will it minimize human errors and what specific role will it play in our recruitment and selection practices?
Can information technology be used to attract, recruit and select the best candidates such that there will be less staff interference in a way that ensures best HR practices?
How do we use IT to differentiate between recruitment and selection processes, so that we won't get it both mixed-up?
Drawing from other existing research, more examples could be generated as to the main issues and organizational challenges concerning recruitment and selection of candidates in modern organisations. However, the preceding is sufficient to justify the need for more research to provide broader empirical answers to the questions often asked by modern HR managers. More so, since Guion's seminal research in 1976 claiming that recruitment research have been too fragmented; there have been little research painting broader and contextual answers to organizational problems regarding technology acquisition and best practices in recruitment and selection, therefore, this study seeks to capitalize on this weaknesses and attempts to examine recruitment and selection in a broader context. In so doing, this study bridges current gaps in research and brings a more robust argument to the fore. While this helps in generating an outcome that is empirically needed in HR literature, it equally provides answers to the growing questions of HR managers who are continually seeking empirical support and attention to their growing IT demand.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION
Since this is a single case study research, the possible outcomes whether positive or negative cannot be generalized in the sense that the result cannot be applied to solving IT impacts in other organisations or contexts apart from the one contextually studied because organizational scenarios are inherently different from each other thus, generalizing the outcomes may be a drawback. One strategy which could have been employed as to making our outcomes more generalizable is the multiple case study research. However, such scope may be broader than the boundaries of this research, thus the researcher has devised a fascinating strategy of confronting this limitation by employing a rigorous methodological and analytical approach that will capture the most important details of IT impact on recruitment and selection.
1.5 RESEARCH SCOPE
This study theoretically explores the crucial impact of information technology on recruitment and selection processes in human resource functions; therefore, its scopes are set within this bound. Importantly, this study reviews the modern information technology gateways which are available for HR managers to employ in their recruitment and selection practices. One important aspect of this is the internet which has become useful in recruiting and selecting candidates. According to Cappelli (2001) the Internet is increasingly becoming a modern tool for recruitment, selection and testing process of organization's potential job applicants. In explaining the internet's growing use in recruitment and selection, Lievens and Harris (2003) explained the notion of E-recruitment and how it is shaping how organisations recruit and select potential candidates. (See figure 1 and 2), in the novel terrain of the internet, candidates can directly apply for a job using a pre-structured form or an email format to apply for a particular type of job. Armstrong (1995) therefore, job-sites are functioning as intermediary linking firms and candidates (Beck 2002).
Fig. 1: The e-recruitment landscape
Source: IES (2004)
In addition to exploring the internet and E-recruitment. This study further explores other novel technologies that are being used in candidate recruitment and selection while it looks at the processes and procedures of recruitment. Furthermore, this study considers the pros and cons of modern technology acquisition by organisations including the cost benefits and operational advantages. Lastly, this study conducts an organizational case study of recruitment and selection of candidates in Reed so as to link research theories with real scenario. By conducting this case study, the researcher is able to broadly explore present challenges and IT adoption in contemporary firms.
1.6 RESEARCH BACKGROUND
Competition and uncertainty have characterized the environment in which businesses operate in the 21st century, hence, every business both small and large are increasingly finding ways to cut down costs but maximize business opportunities. For many, cutting down staff and using modern IT infrastructure have been their focus while others still hold on to the claim that despite the hostility of the business environment, people are their most important resource. For this particular types of organisations, managing a vast pool of employees although is not an easy option out, but flexible design of employee recruitment and management is the focus. According to Di-Tomaso (2001) in this type of organisations, employees are more loosely affiliated and work is conducted in a more flexible and project based approach. (Malone and Laubacher 1998; Beck, 2000) observed that because of this flexible setting, the length of employment bond between employers and employees gets shorter and candidates requires being matched with job offers more often, hence increasing the need for efficient recruitment procedure. The organisations however cannot risk losing experienced candidates due to unorganized recruitment capable of leading to delayed responses when interacting with potential candidates.
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This particular reason including other efficiency factors have increased the need for best practice in the way organisations recruit and select candidates. Albert (2004) classified the recruitment process into two, first, attraction of candidate and the second is the selection of candidate (See fig: 2), Albert proposed that there exists two distinguish phases within each class of the recruitment process and within each, planning can be separated from execution. According to (Farber et al, 2003) the setting up activities describe the general strategy based on the personnel planning which describe tangible evaluation for the successive planning actions. The implementation conducts consist of employer branding activities focused on creating a striking image before of prospective job candidates. (Armstrong 1995) noted that therefore it can be seen as a tool to obliquely attract qualified potential candidates.
Fig. 2: The Recruitment Function
The selection process usually involves all methods employed in recruiting candidates from all sources both from internal and external. However, the usual instruments used in the recruitment processes are; employment agencies, online add, print media etc. The selection process usually involves screening candidates for suitability to the job based on their submitted resume or their pre-submitted profile. The result of the screening determines whether or not the candidate enters the interview or assessment level, where final selections are made as to employing the candidate or not. (Armstrong 1995)
1.6.1 Current IT Support for Recruitment and Selection processes
There is an increasing amount of evidence from literature laying claim to the growing trend of information technology and its impact on recruitment and selection of candidates in contemporary organisations. In the longitudinal study of (Keim, Malinowski and Weitzel, 2005) they establish that the internet more specifically have been playing a front role in changing the style of recruitment and selection. Their study of 1,000 German firms shows that the internet is becoming increasingly espoused by potential candidates in applying for new jobs. See fig 3 below
Fig. 3: Percentage of jobs filled per recruitment channel (Keim et al. 2005)
(Keim et al, 2005) further find that one of the reasons why the internet is becoming increasingly used by recruiters is that it ensures cost savings and has time management advantages. More so, job posting via electronic methods offers cheaper advantage because it is capable of being positioned resolutely than usual advertisement in conventional media. According to (Beck, 2002) It can also be modified or amended at some point in the available time, while also it provides more potential regarding the assortment and appearance fashion of job analysis and details. The selection and final point can be supported by IT using online forms or other inventive evaluation processes (Konradt and Sarges 2003). The considerable benefit of using a candidate management system is that it sustains the supervision of candidate's records in the process of the entire process of application. A candidate management system is a method that enables the recruiter to swiftly set, trace and administer the details of the candidates who are being recruited. Usually, the candidate management procedure includes a database that is connected to the internet which imports information automatically when they are filled, this system also allows candidate's resume to be retained in their real and original format, a candidate management system is also capable of tracking the key candidates through every stage of the recruitment and selection process, while it is capable of allocating feedbacks to applicants and give them an interview schedule. The (CMS) candidate management system (Burnes 2004) is becoming increasingly popular amongst recruiters because of its use in managing applicant's data. This IT software's and their fundamental impacts will be broadly explored in the next chapter; however, the following section gives the structure of this research.
1.7 RESEARCH STRUCTURE AND OVERVIEW
Providing answer to the research question and achieving the stated objectives of this research can only be through the careful identification, exploration and examination of important research issues, therefore, this research have been divided into chapters in order to achieve a clear and systematic outcome that will be useful for the established purpose.
Chapter one is the introduction which establishes the research problem, defines research issues and presents a coherent set of objectives which will guide the research. This chapter further provides an introductory case of recruitment and selection within the context of human resource management in organisations and how information technology is shaping the practices of recruiters as well as the candidates. In addition, this chapter provides a window for understanding the scopes and limitations to this research and how the researcher aims to address the main problems and limitations, this chapter leads to the second chapter
This is the second chapter where the researcher broadly explores the main impact of IT on recruitment and selection of candidates, in achieving this, extant literature were broadly explored while contextual theories were identified and reviewed. This chapter further looks at modern information technology platforms, software's and devices which are used in contemporary HR in organisations. Furthermore, this chapter broadly gives a picture of recruitment and selection in modern HR functions and the intrinsic factors that contribute to IT impact. This chapter leads to the third where we provide evidence for the chosen methodological concept.
Research Design and Methodology
The third chapter starts to provide the case of Reed which is the company under study in this research; it provides the data collection methods, research strategy, design and justification
Analysis and findings
While this chapter provides a clear analysis and outcome of data, it also introduces the thematic framework analysis which was used to investigate the impact of IT on recruitment and selection processes. The rationale and a deep exploration of thematic analysis were
Conclusions and Recommendations
Chapter five provides the research conclusion and a logical evaluation of the results. In this
As with state of the art empirical investigations, this chapter has clearly provided broad but potent sets of objectives that will act as a tunnel light for this research. By establishing these objectives, we identified a reasonable set of research questions with the aim of drawing a scope for this research and particularly to limit any attempt to transgress from the research objectives. In combination of the research question and objectives, these chapters have been able to define the research problems in a broader perspective and establish important issues in the field of recruitment and selection.
If indeed there is any specific role that information technology plays on recruitment and selection process of an HR function, how do these impacts unfold? What are the tools and mechanisms through which these impacts manifest? Does recruiting and selecting potential candidate offer cost effectiveness for an organisation compared to its traditional practices? And what exactly are those components of IT that affect recruitment performance? These clinical questions call for theory refinement and the conceptualisation of innovative ample models of the Recruitment-IT connection that include intermediate linkages and boundary conditions....This chapter seeks to theoretically provide answers to this questions, by reviewing literature and exploring extant theories and research models. As previously established, this field of HR needs theory refinement, therefore, this chapter will contribute by bringing a novel framework to the fore.
2.1 PREVIOUS RESEARCH
There exists a relatively scanty amount of studies that provides empirical evidence on the impact of information technology on HR recruitment in contemporary firms. Elliott and Tevavichulada (1999) have conducted a comparison investigation between private and public firms and their use of IT in recruitment and selection process. They find that IT exerts a great deal of influence on recruitment process but has no huge impact since the companies studied do not have full information technology processes fully backing their recruitment procedure. Reddick (2009) conducted a case study of human resource information systems and web-based HR self service in city governments in the Texas. He found that approximately 30 percent of potential candidates are contacting HR through email and the Web. However, Web-based self-services offered by HR are mostly providing information, with much less supplying online services, such as job boards, webinars, etc. Ball (2001) surveyed 115 firms in the UK and their usage of information technology in HR and candidate recruitment and selection. His found that organizational size was an obvious determinant of whether an organization has information technology at all and whether it adopts certain applications. His result further shows that most IT applications adopted by firms for HR and candidate recruitment tend to focus more on admin duties other than decision support. The study of West and Berman (2001) investigated the operation of information technology in local governments of approximately 50,000 inhabitants. Their outcomes reveal that a very small number of cities use IT and HR in a far-reaching approach and more so many of them tend to ignore it in their candidate recruitment and selection. In the study of (Norris and Moon, 2005) 200 respondents shows that internet recruitment and selection of candidates have compacted the cost of operation and enhanced service quality to potential candidates. Another prominent research in (2003) by Cedar surveyed 328 private and public firms; indicated that HR managers think that HR Web-based initiatives including candidate recruitment have impacted data precision and quality enhancement positively. The result further shows a headcount decline and lower terms of success objectives.
2.2 THE INTERNET AS A TECHNOLOGICAL TOOL FOR RECRUITMENT AND CANDIDATE SELECTION
There is increasing evidence in literature to suggest that while organisations are adopting IT strategies to cut recruitment costs and achieve more efficiency in candidate selection, candidates are also adopting IT as a way of hastening their application processes and getting recruiters swift response, Harris (2005) explored the internet as a recruitment channel and decomposed internet recruitment into two broad approaches, the first approach is the "we-find-you and the second is you-find-us approach". The former is the system where the recruiter hunts for potential candidates; the latter, (you-find-us approach is the process where the recruiter places a job offer and the potential candidate acts on initiative to apply. According to Harris the "we-find-you methods" are the ones typically considered as E-recruitment, the study of (Lievens and Harris, 2003) distinguishes the use of career job sites or job boards to recruit (Rooy, Van and Alonso et al, 2003; Yakubovich and Lup, 2005) Job boards are analogous to job advertisements in news-prints. Equally, they comprise a catalogue of employment prospects and profiles of potential candidates. Therefore, these platform is capable of being employed in double fold by recruiters, first to advertise available employment positions and opportunities and second to search for suitable resume of candidates hence, these online job boards can be classified correspondingly as "we-find-you approach and you-find-us approach" and a Potential candidates can advertise their profile on the job board from anywhere around the globe round the clock, while recruiters use search clues to find potential candidates with requisite profile and experience. (Yakubovich and Lup, 2005) Examples of some modern job board's are totaljobs.com, cv-library.co.uk and many, these job boards have been recording a huge number of traffic and are increasingly been patronised by both recruiters and applicants. (Crispin and Mahler, 2005) There are diverse natures of job boards; some are singular job boards, while others are Vertical. The vertical one combines the job-results of other boards and the singular boards tend to centre more on profession or a particular region. (Crispin and Mahler, 2005; Harris, 2005) more so, many literatures regard career websites to professional organizational job boards (Crispin and Mahler, 2005; Yakubovich and Lup, 2005) Using company career job-sites is analogous to professional job-boards. They can be utilized to advertise job opportunities and to hunt for distinguishing profile of potential candidates; therefore organisational career job-sites can also be classified as a (You-find-us and we find-you approach). Organizations can broaden the functionality of advertising available opportunities on their career job-sites by establishing a web-application system. Using career job-sites and job boards are identified as different methods because of the extensive utilization of both: Career job-site of organisations generated over 60% of all Internet recruitment by large UK organizations in 2005. (Crispin and Mahler, 2005). A research in 2001 revealed that about 88% of Global 500 firms had a career job-site. (Lievens and Harris, 2003)
Source: Veger (2006)
2.3 THE IT IMPACT ON RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION: EVIDENCE FROM LITERATURE
Previous studies have shown a relative influence of IT on recruitment and selection, however, it has become more noticeable that majority of the studies examining this impact have focused more on the internet, whereas information technology encompass all processes including the internet and all forms of electronic recruitment, candidate management systems and human resource information systems with all the technological processes that are used in HR to monitor, recruit and select candidates (Reddick, 2009). It may therefore be that most empirical results have shown the impact of internet on recruitment and selection process and not the impact of information technology as they claim to show (Harris and Dewar, 2000) In a more effective response to this methodological impasse, few studies have recently studied the impact of information technology on recruitment and selection, the study of Reddick (2009) in studying this impact classified it into three stages, the first stage is operational impact of IT, the second, the relational impact and the third, transformational impact. Reddick argued that by dividing the impact by stages, it can be well studied and understood. The outcome of Reddick's study shows that the first phase (operational impact) tests positive on many organizations which he studied in his longitudinal research given the heavy administrative burden within recruitment and selection of candidates, according to him, efforts to automate record keeping and routine clerical activities such as choosing the appropriate candidate and scheduling interviews make sense. By doing away with paperwork, automated processes have the likelihood to shrink company overhead and enhance major cost savings. On the relational impact, Reddick find that since firms are able to achieve more efficiency and productivity by increasing service timeliness in recruitment process therefore, to a large extent, IT has a positive relational effect on recruitment and selection processes. Lastly, Reddick find that the highest impact of HR on recruitment is its transformational role which is owed to the fact that unlike before, recruiters are now able to attract potential candidates from any part of the world and communicate more closely with potential candidates without spending much money as it would traditionally, as Reddick state: "IT has enabled people to communicate across geographic boundaries and share information, it has eliminated barriers of time and space". (Reddick, 2009)
In another recent study investigating the impact of IT on recruitment and candidate selection (José Antonio, Susana and Jorge, 2006) explored the use of HRIS in recruitment and selection in Spanish firms, the result shows that information systems is in a developing stage in HR, however, it has a positive influence on recruitment and selection process over a long period of term for firms which are more established, their result also shows that for small firms, the impact of information systems is mixed. The survey of overman (1992) conclude that the potential advantages of HRIS are more rapid information processing, better information accuracy, superior planning and improved communication with both potential and current employee. Recently more and more research has shown that the use of information systems in Recruitment and Selection reduces costs and the need for bigger HR employees (Ball, 2001; Awazu & Desouza, 2003) by allowing HR managers to expediently deal with essential data and information, communicate effectively with potential employees and make timely decisions without consulting HR experts. Ideally, with the deployment of Information technology, fewer employees should be required to conduct administrative responsibilities like, record custody and more time would be on hand for managers to provide support on a strategic level. One study put forward that there is reasonable proof that HRIS can enhance shareholder value (Brown, 2002; Beadles II, Lowery, Johns, 2005)
While evidence from literature is increasingly attesting to the positive impact of information technology on recruitment and selection, the area of ambiguity is how to measure these impacts on the bottom-line. Recent authors have used cut way assessment methods to measure HRIS impact (see e.g. Mayfield, Mayfield, and Lunce, 2003; Beadles II, Lowery, Johns, 2005) who have used administrative methods such as employee reduction and cost minimization in HR departments. It is however tricky to evaluate specifically the return on investment and precise improvements in productivity within recruitment and selection of candidates (Mayfield, and Lunce, 2003). Indeed, while the ideal assessment of HRIS success might include hard measures such as ROI, the control of extraneous variables makes this type of measurement of success difficult if not impossible. This is why user satisfaction and perception of the system has often been used as a proxy measure for the effectiveness of the system (Haines and Petit, 1997).
Many recent findings have tied the IT impact on recruitment and selection to that of efficiency, cost reduction and administrative re-structuring, however, one specific channel through which the impact of IT manifests is E-HRM (see e.g. Lengnick-Hall & Moritz, 2003; Maatman, 2006; Bondarouk and Ruel, 2009) according to Voermans and Van Veldhoven (2007, E-HRM is the administrative support of the HR function in organizations by using Internet technology' (p. 887).
One of the imperatives of a process is the time involved in finishing it, however, a likely advantage of e-recruitment is that it could express the time involved in completing the recruitment practice. (Car, 2001; Kuhn, 2003; Searle, 2003) Employers can post job opportunities 24 hours each day while potential candidates can also place their resumes 24 hours a day on recruiter's website. By means of online application processes, essential job conditions can be checked automatically and so the primary selection of candidates is through the application channel. Studies of Bartram (2000) show a usual time from job posting to hire to be16 days for E-recruitment in contrast to over 30 days for usual process. (Bartram 2000) The internet is a platform where job posting and continuous update is uncomplicated for recruiters. (Berry, 2003) Moreover, posting of curriculum Vitae's and response can be performed much faster by the other player in the recruitment practice: By saving time it is possible that the firms require fewer resources channelled into the recruitment and selection practice, therefore, less money and trained recruiting staff is needed (Searle, 2003; Car, 2001; Kuhn, 2003). While E-HRM is gaining popularity as the novel channel for candidate recruitment and selection in HR, there are mixed evidence as to its advantage (Bartram 2006; Verhoeven and Williams, 2008) suggest that in using the internet rather than more conventional hiring and selection manners, both applicants and employers will come across its various merits and demerits (Tong and Sivanand 2004; Verhoeven and Williams, 2008). See table 2 which shows both the positive advantages and disadvantages of Internet recruitment and selection for both employers and employees. As table 2 shows (see below) internet recruitment has a lot of identifiable advantages and disadvantages on candidate recruitment, according to (Baillie 1996) most literature have been oblivious of its disadvantages however, (Pin et al, 2001) postulate that the Internet offers smaller firms the window of how bigger firms work and put forward that, owing to the inexistence of impediments smaller firms can employ E-recruitment strategies in a similar pattern as bigger companies. Conversely, this submission is divergent from other literature findings which suggest that small firms are underprivileged as they are relatively unfamiliar to jobseekers and thus be visited less automatically as those of well-known companies (Baillie 1996). Lower firm pleasant appearance and lower search engine ranking mean that, Internet recruitment is more effective for firms already familiar to job-applicants (Galanaki 2002).
2.4 MEASURING THE IT IMPACT ON RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION
The scores of literature that have been reviewed have shown that IT has a stretched impact on recruitment and selection most importantly through efficiency and cost reduction, however, to identify this increased efficiency and advantages, the impact has to be measured. While this impact can be measured in several ways, what is important is to use a performance measure that supports an organisational strategy. Thus this section is dedicated to reviewing literature on how impacts can be measured in recruitment and selection, but since several measures could be used the remaining section of this chapter will focus on two measures of HR performance:
HR score card and balanced score cards. However before touching on these two points it is imperative to review theories standpoint of IT impact in recruitment processes.
When measuring the impact of IT on Human resource effectiveness, we are theoretically pointed to the "improvisational model of change" (Gallivan et al. 1994) which postulates that technological changes cannot be achieved with a stringent plan and an implementation along the plan as that explained in the traditional three-step model of change formulated by Lewin & Burnes, 2004). The theory puts forward that "predefining the technological changes to be implemented and accurately predicting their organizational impact is not feasible." (Mintzberg 1987; Orlikowski and Hofmann, 1997) It also presumes that change that is hinged on technological executions is a progressive change course of action instead of a single occasion with a pre-defined finishing (Orlikowski and Hofmann, 1997).The dissimilar technological changes that occur inside the change process cannot be predicted in their entirety (see; Mintzberg 1994). The model consequently divided the change process into three and defined them a, (anticipated, emergent and opportunity based). The foremost, expected changes are those premeditated and arise as planned. The second, emergent changes however cannot be envisaged in lieu, but emerge instinctively and occur based on the existing novelty inside the complete process of change. Lastly, opportunity changes explain incidents that are "not expected before hand but are established firmly and deliberately all through the course of change in reaction to any unforeseen opportunity, breakdown or event (Orlikowski and Hofmann 1997). On the other hand, the improvisational change model in particular appears to seem right in regions where Information Systems haven't have not be fully deployed, as in recruitment and selection. Based on this notion it is assumed that changes ensuing from the deployment of IT in recruitment processes in organizations trail an incremental advance. Primarily, straightforward solutions such as adverting on career job-sites are executed. Based on experiences gained within these first operations, opportunities are accomplished (emergent or opportunity-based changes) appealing to other processes of change and therefore, implementing enhanced E-Recruitment solutions such as applicant administration systems.
2.5 THE BALANCE SCORE CARD
The BSC is a novel and widely used approach in measuring performance in strategic management and was first conceptualised by Kaplan and Norton (1990) as a response to the increasingly weak imprecision and weakness of preceding management methods. The BSC offers a coherent approach to what firms should measure in order to set a sense of balance from a financial perspective. It is also an approach that allows firms to elucidate their strategy and vision so as to interpret them into action. The BSC also offers response to internal organisational processes against external outcomes so as to continually enhance results and performance in strategic management (BSI, 2005). The balanced score card includes an incorporated set of performance measures developed from a firm's strategy that gives top management a speedy and inclusive perspective of a firm unit. In the same vein, it considers both financial and non-financial measures of performance. According to Veger (2006) who also used the BSC in his empirical measurement of IT-HR impact, the balanced score card considers the firm from four dimensional angles: (customer, financial, learning and growth and internal business processes).The dimensions that are applicable to the recruitment and selection processes are performance of the recruitment process including learning and growth, the learning and growth dimension considers the infrastructure, which comprises the employees that the business must put together to generate lasting growth and advancement; the interior business processes viewpoint looks at the efficiency of the recruitment process. (ibid) The Balanced Score Card transforms intentions into measures and such measures must be targeted. With the Balanced Score Card, the effectiveness of business is measured in a quantitative approach. IT Impact and performance measures for recruitment and selection can be included in the (3) relevant dimensions, beside the performance measures for other business processes (Drury, 2004).
See table 3 for the three process description.
Table 3: The three Balanced Score Card-dimensions
Source: Veger (2006)
According to Daft (2000) performance in the context of an organisation is the organization's capacity to accomplish its goals in and resourceful and efficient manner. "The learning and growth dimension" looks at the resourcefulness of the recruitment process; in this dimension the organization can have measurable goals, for instance on the specific amount and quality of candidates. The internal business processes and financial looks at the effectiveness of the recruitment process with respect to costs and resources. By using the Balanced score card to measure IT impact on recruitment process, HR knows what specific objectives they should set to accomplish in their overall organizational strategy and top management knows how recruitment and selection performs in supporting its holistic strategy. By measuring the performance of IT on recruitment, there is possibility of comparing different recruitment methods and decide on those that supports the overall strategy at its best. While the Balanced Score Card gives an impression of the organization, its focus is not on HR or recruitment in contrast to HR score card which is described in the next section (Veger, 2006).
2.6 HR SCORECARD
In contrast to the balanced score card which measures various dimensions of performance such as finance and growth, The HR scorecard is an approach that specifically matches business strategy against HR objectives and deliverables. It is also an instrument of management that enables business to administer HR as a source of competitive advantage and a strategic asset;- it generates and evaluates the scale of arrangement between the strategy of the business and its Human Resource style. Quantitatively demonstrate HR's role to the firm's financial outcomes and bottom-line productivity. Similarly, the HR Scorecard makes it possible for HR to enhance its role as a strategic business asset; consequently, it involves a seven-step model for using HR as a strategic business asset. (summaries.com, 2001) (see table 4) .
Table 4: Seven-step model of the HR Scorecard approach
This chapter has reviewed literature on the various impact of IT on recruitment and selection of candidates in HR. Fascinatingly, one idea that has constantly emerged is that HR has a wide impact on recruitment processes; these impacts were reviewed and explored from the perspective of extant literature while the novel idea of E-HRM was examined. It is also noted that most of the studies that currently exist in literature are focused on E-HRM, besides, few studies that exist on HR information systems do not specifically focus on recruitment and selection, but nonetheless, this research has been able to combine all the perspectives in literature and lastly, it has provided a mixed strategy of measuring the performance of IT in recruitment processes, in so doing, we presented the HR and the Balanced score card so as to understand how the impact of IT manifest by understanding its performance.
ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
Following the broad review of literature and presentation of our research design in preceding chapters, this chapter aims first to present the method used for data analysis and more importantly analyze the data that was collected from both primary and secondary sources.
Analysis of data was guided by the research questions and the analytic framework that was chosen for this study is the thematic framework analysis. In order to demonstrate rigor we employed a inductive thematic approach of Crabtree and Miller (1999) Boyatzis (1998) to reach a level of interpretative understanding devised by Shultz (1967) as a method for understanding social events involving two senses of (interpretive understanding). The first sense is the course of action by which people interpret the occurrence of the daily life. The second order involves spawning "ideal types" through which to construe and express the phenomenon under investigation. In consonance with the dictates of thematic framework, the empirical outcomes of this research were later corroborated by linking the stated objectives. In this way the validity and reliability of the present study was improved.
4.1 DEMONSTRATING RIGOUR USING THEMATIC FRAMEWORK
Beyond its advantage of supporting the demonstration of rigor through a research analysis, the thematic framework has been chosen because it supports the case study research. According to (Daly, Kellehear and Glisman, 1997) it is an exploration and identification of recurrent themes that emerge as being essential to the account of an experience.
It was Francois Augustine the 18th century French philosopher who once asserted that:
"A master in the art of living draws no sharp distinction between his work and his play; his labour and his leisure; his mind and his body; his education and his recreation.Â He hardly knows which is which.Â He simply pursues his vision of excellence through whatever he is doing, and leaves others to determine whether he is working or playing.Â To himself, he always appears to be doing both." (Augustine, 1862)
For me completing my master's Dissertation has been a tremendously challenging experience owing to the various events that happened in the course of action. But nonetheless, I have enjoyed every aspect of it from start till completion having embedded in me the moral discipline and pursuit of excellence in all endeavours including academia and
COMPLETING THE DISSERTATION
I was able to complete the Dissertation by first, visiting research databases to find contextual journals which I found and downloaded. After downloading several research journals, I dedicated enough time to read each journal to get good grasp of recruitment and selection in organisations and information technology. Having gained a broad understanding of the research problems and issues, I started the introduction which I later cancelled because the idea wasn't sound enough to me. I then went back to read more books and journals which later added to my understanding and then