Impact Of Culture On Organizational Behavior

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Motivation is simply the reason for an action, which gives you purpose and direction to behavior. Motivation is present in every life function. Motivation is to give reason, incentive, enthusiasm, or interest that motivate someone to any kind of work, weather its eating or studying. Eating is motivated by hunger and studying is motivated by the desire for knowledge. Whenan effective speaker uses motivation, then the motivation can influence individuals or groups to work towards a goal and achieve them as guided within given period of time. There are two types of forces negative and positive motivational force. Negative motivation is based on fear. It means when a person is under pressure of have fear of loosing something that he really care about, for example: when you have fear that you can loose your money, or when you can loose you life or something valuable. Positive motivation is based service. Service means helping others like offering support, knowledge, material, or emotional help. There is a relationship between fear and service. When the level of fear is high then the level of service so low and when the level of fear is low then the level of service is high. When a person is not afraid then he will help people more because there is nothing to be afraid of. Another opposite to fear is curiosity, if you are curious to know something or to do something you have to get rid of your fears because if you are scared then you cant be curious. Motivation is important for everyone, for example students, employees, sportsman, doctors, etc. A motivated person is achieving his goals and aims faster than the others who are not motivated.

Motivation in organization

Motivation is as important in the organization as in any aspect of life. It plays a vital role. It is the job of a manager or a group leader to keep his team members motivated. He/ she should study different ways and methods of encouraging the staff. If the team is motivated in the right way it can result into great success, if there is lack of motivation then it can result into great failure.Motivation is a successful way to motivate a team. Motivation through communication is a vital way to express their thoughts and ideas it really helps to motivate the group. Motivation, ability, and the work environment influence an employee's performance.Motivation explains that the one who is motivated is more successful than the one who takes work more casually.

Intrinsic motivation

Ensuring that the employees have the relevant tools and enterprise required for the job. The employees must consider themselves competent to handle the job. The right tools, right office equipment, skills training or other relevant which outputs may be necessary for them to perform the jobs effectively. Employees feel valued and their motivation level is enhanced when managers seek their feedback and try to view things from their perspective. This can be done by conducting anonymous surveys or by interacting directly with the employees. By giving the employees to choose the ways and methods of doing a particular job helps the employees to enjoy certain degree of freedom and this in turn encourages the employees to be innovative and try out new ways of doing things.

Employers feel more fulfilled and satisfied if managers assist them in discovering their true potential. Conducting self-development programs for employees can do this. These steps can help create an environment where employees are intrinsically motivated. Rather than working for the sake of rewards or recognition, they work because they find the job satisfying and rewarding.

Extrinsic Motivation

Employers feel more fulfilled and satisfied if managers assist them in discovering their true potential. Conducting self-development programs for employees can do this.

These steps can help create an environment where employees are intrinsically motivated. Rather than working for the sake of rewards or recognition, they work because they find the job satisfying and rewarding.

Extrinsic motivation does not mean, however, that a person will not get any pleasure from working on or completing a task. It just means that the pleasure they anticipate from some external reward will continue to be a motivator even when the task to be done holds little or no interest. An extrinsically motivated student, for example, may dislike an assignment, may find it boring, or may have no interest in the subject, but the possibility of a good grade will be enough to keep the student motivated in order for him or her to put forth the effort to do well on a task.

Employee Engagement

Employee engagement describes an employee work environment in which employees are motivated, excited, thoroughly involved and engrossed in their work and contribution, and willing to offer their discretionary energy to accomplish work goals. Find out more about how to create a work environment that fosters employee engagement.

What Employees Want From Work: Employee Motivation

Every person has different reasons for working. The reasons for working are as individual as the person. But, we all work because we obtain something that we need from work. The something obtained from work impacts morale, employee motivation, and the quality of life. To create positive employee motivation, treat employees as if they matter - because employees matter. These ideas will help you fulfill what people want from work and create employee motivation.

What People Want From Work: Employee Motivation

Some people work for love; others work for personal fulfillment. Others like to accomplish goals or feel as if they contribute to something larger than themselves. Whatever your personal motivation for working, the bottom line, however, is that almost everyone works for money. Find out the latest thinking and research about what people want from their work - employee motivation.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs is often portrayed in the shape of a pyramid, with the largest and most fundamental levels of needs at the bottom, and the need for self-actualization at the top.

The most fundamental and basic four layers of the pyramid contain what Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "d-needs": esteem, friendship and love, security, and physical needs. With the exception of the most fundamental (physiological) needs, if these "deficiency needs" are not met, the body gives no physical indication but the individual feels anxious and tense. Maslow's theory suggests that the most basic level of needs must be met before the individual will strongly desire (or focus motivation upon) the secondary or higher level needs. Maslow also coined the term Metamotivation to describe the motivation of people who go beyond the scope of the basic needs and strive for constant betterment. Metamotivated people are driven by B-needs (Being Needs), instead of deficiency needs (D-Needs).

1. Self-actualization

"What a man can be, he must be."  This forms the basis of the perceived need for self-actualization. This level of need pertains to what a person's full potential is and realizing that potential. Maslow describes this desire as the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming. This is a broad definition of the need for self-actualization, but when applied to individuals the need is specific. For example one individual may have the strong desire to become an ideal parent, in another it may be expressed athletically, and in another it may be expressed in painting, pictures, or inventions.  As mentioned before, in order to reach a clear understanding of this level of need one must first not only achieve the previous needs, physiological, safety, love, and esteem, but master these needs. Below are Maslow's descriptions of a self-actualized person's different needs and personality traits.

Maslow also states that even though these are examples of how the quest for knowledge is separate from basic needs he warns that these "two hierarchies are interrelated rather than sharply separated" (Maslow 97). This means that this level of need, as well as the next and highest level, is not strict, separate levels but closely related to others, and this is possibly the reason that these two levels of need are left out of most textbooks.

2. Esteem

All humans have a need to be respected and to have self-esteem and self-respect. Also known as the belonging need, esteem presents the normal human desire to be accepted and valued by others. People need to engage themselves to gain recognition and have an activity or activities that give the person a sense of contribution, to feel accepted and self-valued, be it in a profession or hobby. Imbalances at this level can result in low self-esteem or an inferiority complex. People with low self-esteem need respect from others. They may seek fame or glory, which again depends on others. Note, however, that many people with low self-esteem will not be able to improve their view of themselves simply by receiving fame, respect, and glory externally, but must first accept themselves internally. Psychological imbalances such as depression can also prevent one from obtaining self-esteem on both levels.

Most people have a need for a stable self-respect and self-esteem. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs, a lower one and a higher one. The lower one is the need for the respect of others, the need for status, recognition, fame, prestige, and attention. The higher one is the need for self-respect, the need for strength, competence, mastery, self-confidence, independence and freedom. The latter one ranks higher because it rests more on inner competence won through experience. Deprivation of these needs can lead to an inferiority complex, weakness and helplessness.

3. Love and belonging

After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layer of human needs are social and involve feelings of belongingness. This aspect of Maslow's hierarchy involves emotionally based relationships in general, such as:

Friendship

Intimacy

Family

Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance, whether it comes from a large social group, such as clubs, office culture, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, gangs, or small social connections (family members, intimate partners, mentors, close colleagues, confidants). They need to love and be loved (sexually and non-sexually) by others. In the absence of these elements, many people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and clinical depression. This need for belonging can often overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer pressure; an anorexic, for example, may ignore the need to eat and the security of health for a feeling of control and belonging.

4. Safety needs

With their physical needs relatively satisfied, the individual's safety needs take precedence and dominate behavior. These needs have to do with people's yearning for a predictable orderly world in which perceived unfairness and inconsistency are under control, the familiar frequent and the unfamiliar rare. In the world of work, this safety needs manifest themselves in such things as a preference for job security, grievance procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority, savings accounts, insurance policies, reasonable disability accommodations, and the like.

Safety and Security needs include:

Personal security

Financial security

Health and well-being

Safety net against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts

5. Physiological needs

For the most part, physiological needs are obvious - they are the literal requirements for human survival. If these requirements are not met, the human body simply cannot continue to function.

Physiological needs include:

Breathing

Human nutrition

Water

Human sexual activity

Sleep

Homeostasis

Excretion

Air, water, and food are metabolic requirements for survival in all animals, including humans. Clothing and shelter provide necessary protection from the elements. The intensity of the human sexual instinct is shaped more by sexual competition  than maintaining a birth rate adequate to survival of the species.

Communication

Communication is transfer of information and understanding from one person to another. It is a way of explaining your feelings to others through thoughts, ideas, and facts.

There are four type of facets in all type of communication i.e. sender, receiver, information behavior. In any type of communication the sender is trying to communicate a message, the receiver is the person at whom the message is directed, a message is sent to convey information, information is meant to change behavior. We communicate to share our ideas and opinions, provide feedback to others, get information from others, gain powers and influence, develop social relationships and maintain self-expression and our culture.

There are two types of communications:

Verbal

Non-verbal

The verbal communication is the basis of communication between people.

Verbal communication includes oral, written and email.

Non-verbal communication is usually understood as the process of

Communication through sending and receiving wordless messages.

Non-verbal communication includes:

a. Expression

b. Expressive behavior

c. Body language

Communication Network:

Flow of information is regulated by several factors. Proximity of workers to one another, the rules governing who communicates with whom, the status hierarchy, and other elements

Such as job assignments and duties.

Types of communication network:

The flow of information is centralized or directed through specific members

1. Wheel

2. Y

3. Chain

The communication flow can originate at any point and does not have to be directed through certain central group members

1. Circle

2. All channels

Barriers against effective interpersonal communication are:

1. Emotions

2. Filtering

3. Overloaded with information

4. Defensiveness

5. Jargon

Emotions: when people communicate an idea or matter with each other, the receiver can feel how can the sender feel about the matter.

The message, which is exchanged, is interpreted differently for different people. It's always best to avoid responding or reacting to the subject matter when you are upset or angry because most of the time you don't think clearly about the matter and take wrong decisions when you are angry.

Filtering: This where the sender manipulates the information that he communicates to the receiver. Filtering the information may mislead the receiver into thinking into something favorable and the let down may be upsetting if it's found out that the information has been filtered.

Overloaded with information: If there is too much of information given to the to a person about the same matter then it can be very confusing for him. The human brain can only take in so much information to process, overloading it with information will exceed our processing capacity.

Defensiveness: Its human nature that they refuse to understand the situation when they feel that are being threatened or have any disadvantage. It consists of putting out sarcastic questioning their motives or being overly judgmental about the matter.

Jargon: Jargon should be avoided when talking to someone who isn't familiar with your personally or within the organization.

Types of communication inside and outside the organization:

There are two types of communication internal/organizational communication and external communication. In the internal/organizational communication the communication takes place within (or across) organization. In addition to the usual than telephone communication the modern organizations may use email or fax to communicate internally.

In the external communications the communication is between the organization and those outside the organization. Modern organization may design technology system so they can communicate with other organizations.

Formal and Informal communications:

Formal communication is defined as communication, which occurs through the official organizational channels or is undertaken by an employee to do their job. For example: official meetings, letters and a manager asking an employee to carry out a particular task.Informal communications is that which occurs outside the recognized communication networks foe example lunchroom or hallways between employees.

Upward and downward communications:

Downward communication is created by the directors and managers and passed down to the workers in the organization. Downward communication can increase efficiency by synchronizingorganizational procedures and can ensure that everybody is working towards the same overall aims and objectives. Types of downward communication include job descriptions, evaluations and organizational systems.

There are advantages to downward communication organizations have began to encourage the upward communication. Encouraging upward communication may increase motivation and make employees feel valued and respected, which enable managers to understand how employees are feeling. Types of upward communication include suggestion, feedback, surveys, and employee-manager discussions.

Lateral communication:

This is communication that occurs between the employees at the same level in the organization. This can involve decision-making it can create efficiency, as employees do not have to wait for the managerial approval. On the other hand if the manager is not kept informed or if the manager fails to set boundaries there is potential for conflict.

Diagonal communication:

This occurs when communication between workers in a different section of the organization and where one of the workers involved in on a higher level in the organization. For example in a bank diagonal communication will occur when a department manager in head office converses with a cashier in a branch of the bank in the city.

Strategies to improve communication:

Employees suggestion scheme,

Grievance systems,

Open door policies,

Employee surveys,

Improving stages of communication flow.

Personality

The word "personality" originates from the Latin word persona, which means mask. Personality acquired attributes and quality through learning.

Personality is the dynamic organization with the individual of those psychological systems that determine his unique adjustments to the environment. Personality can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characters possessed by a person that influences his or her motivation and behaviors in various situations (Ryckman, 2004).

Determinants of Personality

Heredity

Environment

Situation

Heredity

Heredity has a great influence on biological and mental features. Heredity refers to the transfer of personal characteristics from father or mother to their children.

Environment

The components of environment that effects are culture, religion, family, school, and place of work.

Situation

A situation is an antecedent to behavior. Situation plays a vital role in personality

Development.

Psychoanalytic Approach

Conscious is something when we are aware of at any given moment. Preconscious is something when with a little effort everything can be brought into consciousness and unconsciousness is something when everything is inaccessible warehouse of anxiety thoughts and drives.

Id:

Instinctual drives present at birth does not distinguish between reality and fantasy, operates according to the pleasure of the principle.

Ego:

Ego develops out of the instinctual drives in infancy understands reality and logic, mediator between id and superego.

Stages of development:

Freud's stages of development are important fro personality development.

Oral stage

Anal stage

Phallic stage

Genital stage

Carl Jung is known for the theory behind MBTI. It is a 100-item instrument developed by Myers and Briggs, the instrument generates sixteen personality types.

These are 16 types are based on the combination of four aspects-

Extroversion & Introversion

Sensing & Intuiting

Thinking & feeling

Judging and perceiving

Personality Job-Fit Theory

According to john Holland's theory, most people are one of six personality types:

1.Realistic

2.Investigative

3.Artistic

4.Social

5.Enterprising, and

6.Conventional

Holland has proposed a personality- job fit theory. People having careers suitable to their personalities are satisfied and contribute more to their profession. People who resort to careers not suitable to their personalities face many problems.

Cattell's theory

Cattell's produced a standardized test, the 16-personality factor (16-PF) test, which could be used to rate individuals on the 16 factors. When the test is administered to groups of people from different occupations, group profiles may emerge. For example, writers tend to be highly imaginative, while airline pilots are tough-minded, and creative artists are intelligent, sensitive, yet controlled.

16 personality traits

Abstractedness- imaginative versus practical

Apprehension- insecure versus complacent

Dominance- aggressive versus passive

Emotional stability- calm and stable versus high-strung and liveliness enthusiastic versus serious

Openness to change- liberal versus traditional

Perfectionism compulsive and controlled versus indifferent

Privateness- pretentious versus unpretentious

Reasoning- abstract versus concrete

Rule consciousness- moralistic versus free-thinking

Self-reliance- leader versus follower

Sensitivity- sensitive versus tough-minded

Social boldness- uninhibited versus timid

Tension- driven and tense versus relaxed and easy going

Vigilance- suspicious versus accepting

Warmth- open and warmhearted versus aloof and critical

Lifestyle Approach

From the point of view of broad life styles two type of personalities have been identified type A & B.Time urgency and impatience, free-floating hostility or aggressiveness, impatience, rudeness, being easily upset over small things

Never feel urgency and are patient, relaxed, do not display their achievements.

Psychological and physiological - Personality is a psychological construct, but research suggests that biological processes and needs also influence it.

Impact behaviors and actions - Personality does not just influence how we move and respond in our environment; it also causes us to act in certain ways.

Multiple expressions - Personality is displayed in more than just behavior. It can also be seen in out thoughts, feelings, close relationships and other social interactions.

Psychosocial Stage 1 - Trust vs. Mistrust

The first stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life.Because an infant is utterly dependent, the development of trust is based on the dependability and quality of the child's caregivers.If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. Caregivers who are inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care for. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable.

Psychosocial Stage 2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

The second stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development takes place during early childhood and is focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control.Like Freud, Erikson believed that toilet training was a vital part of this process. However, Erikson's reasoning was quite different then that of Freud's. Erikson believes that learning to control one's body functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence.

Other important events include gaining more control over food choices, toy preferences, and clothing selection. Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident, while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt.

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