This assignment will be discussing about the change, significance of change and how changes play an important role in one's life and in the business field. Is change evitable or not? And how change can be accepted in organisations and utilise its importance through different strategies to survive in the present market world.
Today's business surroundings create change in the organisations rapidly and commonly than ever before. Getting merge, attainments, innovations and reformation are some of the causes that contribute to a growing environment in lack of confidence.
People have close connections with their business, working in a group and in the way of working. The capacity to form the changing the situation at work is a key for an individual and for organisational stand. For human issues, changes will be there to understand and to lead successful change efficiently.
Changes are very important in one's life. If we do not choose to change ourselves, we may end up our career at the beginning itself. Changes are unavoidable in our both personal and professional life. One who admits and applies it, succeeds in life. Sometimes in life things doesn't work smoothly and we see ourselves deserted. In such problems, one who agrees to accept it and tries to find things in a different way to overcome the situation arises with success and confidence. And on the other hand, one who thinks that such any change has made him useless; such person is left with nothing except sorrow. Working in new and different ways helps us to find brightness and success in life.
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Life becomes more interesting and fascinating when there is change. And when there is no change, life becomes dull. It is also important to notice Small changes should be noticed at the starting itself so that we can easily grasp and understand to huge changes easily. It is always good to try different practices than just running away. Therefore, change is essential. If change is projected, observed, and quick way to adapt it, then the life becomes enjoyable.
In a developing and challenging marketplace, if we should not do the things in the same way all the time to keep the business alive. That is why, Adaptation is important because of styles and people change. If we don't change, we will be treated as a past thing.
In business and in life, change is taken as a reality. And often times, it's better to respond to change by innovating new approaches to hold the business. Even more, being innovative brings us to change power so that we do not react to change, but makes a change a part of us.
Organisational change is a set of change in direction that affects the way an organisation works. Changes can be intentionally or changes may be planned by the leaders within the organisation planning strategy. Changes strategies could affect the organisation which uses to implement its task, the methods for implementing the policies and tasks performed by the people in the organisation. Some changes are relatively small; while others are widely in their scope, figure it to an organisational change. Change is the reality of organisational life, similar to a human life.
Some factors may cause organisational change necessary, including new market competition or new demands by customers. Few types of external forces may bring potentials of providing more efficiency, good service and innovative products. While, when the organisational change is well scheduled and executed; it helps to ensure the survival of organisation. It can provide some benefits as well, including improved keenness, better financial performance, and high level of customer and satisfaction of employee. These changes on benefits may take time to achieve. Every individual is not benefited in the organisation by change, some may become victims of change, especially if jobs are cut or rearranged.
Organisational change is about people changing. Then changes becomes a highly complexprocess that must be considered and the way people respond psychologically when they have to make major changes at work. Their reactions are changed. While some people embrace change, some people will resist it sometimes passively, giving an idea that they support it. Few people are eager about change, but many others may feel disturbed and uneasy. And people may be sent to different work sites, new positions and some may lose their jobs as well.
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During the process of change, every individual's reaction is different from other. The anxiety and confusion may lead to stress. People will require justifications when there is a highly possibility of uncertainty. Organisational change can be similar to the stages of sorrow with personal loss for the employees. They may feel disappointed or denial the change of organisation. Usually, organisational change is caused due to some major reasons, e.g., extensive cuts in funding, entrants of new markets/clients or need for immediate rise in productivity/services, etc.
Organisational change is quite difficult to achieve as there are resistances to change. The objectives are in conflict for the organization, for example, to increase resources to deliver change but also reduce costs to remain possible.Â These changes should not be done for the sake of change; it is a approach to achieve certain general goals.Â Sounds simple, but often times the organisation of wide changes goes against the morals held by members of the organization.Â For this reason, we need to discuss the changes in organizational culture and including changes to the entries' and beliefs in the way that ratify these values and beliefs.
For successful change, top level management must be involved including the board directors and chief executive's as well. Usually there is an expert who initially activates the change for being stable. The best way to handle the changes is through team work effort. Communications about change should be frequently discussed among the organisational members. To tolerate change, the structures and plans of the organisation itself should be adapted, including strategic plans, policies and procedures.And sometimes changes in organisation takes place due to some forces like market forces, globalisation and the level of government involvement, issues on politics, rules for tax structures, lack of natural resources and fast development in IT, etc.
Despite of the positive and negative outcomes, changes occurs at individual and organisational level as well. Resistance to change appears to be a common issue. Resistance can come into force in different ways like change in organisation includes ignoring the necessity and potentials of employees; when members have insufficient info about the nature of the change. They may fear over such matters as employment levels and job security, lack of skills at work, loss of job satisfaction, loss of personal control over work, etc.
To any major change, resistance will be considered as it is unavoidable reaction to any major change. Individuals normally try to protect themselves if they feel their job security or status is threatened and chances of losing the job.
According to Folger & Skarlicki (1999),"organisational change can cause scepticism and resistance in employees, and sometimes it becomes impossible to implement improvements in the organisation."(p. 25). If it is not accepted by managers to understand or work hard to overcome over the resistance, it can weaken even if the management is most focused and well-conceived change efforts. But those who are determined managers; they go according to their plans and process improvements.
Managers are enthusiastic and committed, but sometimes it does not work and still lack behind. That is why, communication is not there or chances of being misinterpreted, plans miss their aims and the result are negative. This is a common problem and we need to find out and ask why and how we can evade these disasters.
Employees have a selective perceptions regarding work, as they have been working in one particular pattern. Changes are proposed habits, especially if they are well-known and needs little effort,Â will be easily resisted. Life becomes more difficult and there will be little freedom of action if the change is likely to be proving as inconvenient, there will be resistance. Employees are likely to resist which may reduce their pay or increase in work for the same level of pay without any pay rise or acting as a threat to their job security. Changes which threaten people with the unknown tend to cause unease or fear.
Dent & Goldberg (1999), individuals are not really opposed to change, but the loss of status, loss on the earnings, or loss of ease be resisting. Claiming that the time we give out with the expression resistance to change and find a more suitable and applicable models for describing what the phrase means, employees are not ready to embrace a change that management is willing to apply.
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If the change is likely to be inconvenient, making life harder, reduces freedom of action will increase the possibility of resistance. Changes challenge people with the unfamiliar habit which creates fear. And most of the major changes in a working organisation, there is an uncertain change due to innovation of latest technology or approaches of working.
Organisations have to get familiar to their atmosphere; as they tend to feel relaxed to work within the structure, plans and procedures which have been framed to deal with the present situations. (Mullins, 2005)
Organisations normally aim for protection against change and choose to focus on the day to day things they do. And one of the reason for resistance against change can be the development of the principles of an organisation, maintaining stability and predictability (especially large-scale ones), investing in way of funds which may already be committed to invest in other areas like buildings, machineries, technology, etc. The organisations may have past agreements or settlements with other bodies like government, trade unions, suppliers and customers. Limited changes may fall in behaviour with these agreements. For e.g., introducing the latest technology or different ways of practices. And sometimes, change can be seen as a danger or influence of some groups within the organisation. For Example, managers try to avoid the new plans or introducing the worker-directors which increases the workers role and responsibilities and a threat to their own managerial positions.
(Piderit, 2000) defines the term resistance as appraisal of past practical research which reveals three different importance's in conceptualisations of resistance: as a cognitive state, as an emotional state, and as behaviour.
As a cognitive state, it is the lack of enthusiasm which is known or labelled as resistance. In behavioural terms, resistance is a state which leads to a cognitive state and referred as (UN)-readiness. As an emotional state, Piderit cites resistance to change is a defensive tool triggered by frustration and anxiety. And the final conceptualisation emphasis on individual behaviour is to describe employee resistance to change. Piderit cites resistance as planned acts of insolence or inadvertence. Piderit claims that the concept of these three resistances has excellence and plays an important role in responding to change with the experiences. Therefore, any idea focuses on one opinion at the outflow of the others seems incomplete.
Thus here we analyse, people react differently to change. Some adopt easily and eagerly embrace innovations and some will manage to change themselves, if sufficient time and information is given and some will never adopt change. People resist change as they do not know the value of the change or they are not sure of getting success with change. And some of the employees felt that they were required to work more with less or with the same pay.
Apart from these threats, Tony Eccles(1994), as cited by Huczynski and Buchanan (2001), believed that there are few more sources of resistance for an individual and for an organisation as well. For example; a problem arises due to failure of understanding, the solutions is not accepted because preference is given to an alternative, a feeling that the projected solution looks doubtful, the rewards from change is not sufficient, not able to cope with the new situations rises fear, the chances of abolish existing social arrangements threatens change, new values and practices are repellent, new proposals are least considered and other interest is highly valued which reduces the change supremacy and career opportunities.
As we know, changes are inevitable and people resist changing. And resistance cannot be ignored or avoided, so an individual should accept the changes and ready to take the responsibility to overcome the resistance.
To minimise the problem of resistance, the most important aspect is to create an environment of trust and shared commitment and the member of staff should understand fully the reasons and the importance of changes in an organisation. Information about any changes should be properly communicated to all members related to the organisation. And every individual should be encouraged to subsidise their involvement by giving their own thoughts, ideas and experiences. Managers should individually discuss with the staff and handle the difficulties in work or try to come up with some solutions agreed with them.
Organisation should allow employees to give their ideas and utilise their creativity minds through providing proper training, educating and the developing new skills and innovation, which can decrease the level of redundancies. There are other ways of minimising the resistance and that can be done through introducing of incentives payment schemes which may help in motivating the staff and overcome the resistance. Incentive should me on individual basis, payable to each individual on their efforts and performances. Staff will be assured by the managers to receive a guaranteed return for an agreed quality and quantity of work done through new systems. Actual working plans and tasks are heavily dependent on teamwork. Groups and teams must practice different ways of work and must have a creativity mind to flow successful innovative plans.
Kotter and Schlesinger (1979) identified methods for overcoming resistance and those are by providing proper communication and education to staff, participation of staff in the planning and designing of the change, negotiation by managers with staff directly affected by a change to minimise the resistance, forcedly change when time is short and this could take the form of dismissal, re-assignment of jobs, employees are given advises and treatment to overcome of worries and concerns about change and finally support from top level management to their staff to overcome the resistance (cited in Appleby, Robert C, 1994, p.169)
The nature of resistance to change is described through a continuous process. And in a developed organisation, acceptance of change and resistance of change (rejection) are usually treated as separate, unrelated phenomena (Coetsee, 1999).
We analyse that whatever the changes in an organisation and the motives which made changes necessary, and the easy way of applying the changes positively is to create the involvement and the communication of the manager with the employees as vital parts of the process change. And several facilitation measures, which include making any necessary changes, informing about the changes in prior to be well prepared and providing sufficient time and information to adjust them in different ways of doing things which can help to reduce the resistance to change.
Finally, we conclude that there are no solutions to the problems of resistance. As every individual differs, their views differ and every organisation have different reasons for resistance, some may be because of crisis and some may resist due to lack of efficiency, information and innovation but the only way is so to understand the sole circumstances by every individual for knowing the cause of resistance and diminishing effectively.
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Folger, R. & Skarlicki, D. (1999). Unfairness and resistance to change: hardship as mistreatment, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 35-50.
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