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Employee satisfaction is the key to the success of any business, it is essential that the employees also be given the same chance to air their views and to let management know what makes them feel satisfied and as such dissatisfied. This study will probe to gather and analyze the genuine personal feelings and desires of all employees in order to convert SFT Fund Administration into the workplace where the employees can identify themselves with the company's culture where the end result should only result in efficiency, ability for empowerment, productivity, effectiveness and maximized performance. From the employer's side it should be very important to be aware of the factors that can attract, maintain and keep employees motivated and satisfied in order to have a satisfied and solid workforce (Drenth, 2009) where employees will be eager to stay and in turn minimize or eliminate retention
This chapter will explore previous literature on job satisfaction and its variables in the background of the study followed by the purpose of the study which will give a summary of what is expected from this study. An introduction to the problem statement and its sub problems will be included. Any area that will not be dealt with will be mentioned in the limitations. An opportunity to understand the further contents of the thesis will be mentioned in brief.
1.2 Background of the study
Job satisfaction represents "one of the most complex areas that today's managers are faced with when it comes to managing their employees" as described by (Aziri, 2011, p. 77). Still, many managers ignore the fact that job satisfaction is of such importance and fail to take the challenge in researching the level of satisfaction amongst employees. In a recent study Yasir and Fawad (2009) described job satisfaction as "the buzz word in today's corporate era".
Employee satisfaction has been an ongoing study for decades (Brayfield & Crockett, 1955), (Vroom, 1964), (Maslow, 1954) and (Locke, 1976) and though the findings have all been different, it has been detected from literature that this is a very crucial factor for the performance of any business. Throughout the years, the studies have been categorized such as content theories assuming that people's individual needs motivate their actions (Teck Hong & Waheed, 2011). Theorists (Maslow, 1954), (McClelland, 1961), (Herzberg, 1959) and (Alderfer, 1969) are the most renowned in this field. On the contrary, Teck Hong & Waheed (2011) explained that the process theory identifies relationships among variables which make up motivation and included findings of (Heider, 1958), (Vroom, 1964), (Adams, 1965), (Locke, 1976) and (Lawler, 1973). For the purpose of this paper we will focus on (Herzberg, 1959) and (Maslow, 1954).
Job satisfaction is being defined as the feeling of pleasure and achievement which you experience in your job when you know that your work is worth doing, or the degree to which your work gives you this feeling. Job satisfaction takes into account feelings, beliefs, and behaviors. In another study, Locke, (1969) defined job satisfaction as"the pleasurable emotional state that results from the appraisal of one's job as achieving or facilitating the achievement of one's job values" (cited in Gill, Sharma, Mathur, Bhutani, 2012 ).
According to Chatzoglou, Vraimaki, Komsiou, Polychrou, Diamantidis, (2011) most of the researches done on job satisfaction were focused on the motivation theories. Teck-Hong and Waheed, (2011) mentioned in their paper the assumption often made that performance and motivation being synonyms as they are very similar. In this same paper they cited (Hersey & Blanchard, 1988) who argued that motivation and satisfaction were quite different from each other. In a review of the classical literature and recent studies of job satisfaction the two major and most used theory areas revealed were: (Figure 1) Herzberg's motivation/hygiene two factor theory and (Figure 2) Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Surprisingly, these 2 theories are still being widely used to measure satisfaction and therefore constantly bringing forward the question for continued study of the link between motivation and satisfaction.
The two factor theory (motivator-hygiene theory) by Frederick Herzberg in 1959 explains satisfaction in the workplace are driven by factors and that these factors are either motivational or hygiene. He believed that motivators that make people satisfied in their jobs have to do with the actual work while on the contrary the hygiene factors case dissatisfaction.
Figure 1: Herzbergs Motivators and Hygiene Factors
Frederick Herzberg's Motivation and Hygiene Factors (2009)
Herzberg classified these job factors into two categories-
Hygiene factors- Hygiene factors are those job factors which are essential for existence of motivation at workplace. These do not lead to positive satisfaction for long-term. But if these factors are absent / if these factors are non-existent at workplace, then they lead to dissatisfaction. In other words, hygiene factors are those factors which when adequate / reasonable in a job, pacify the employees and do not make them dissatisfied. These factors are extrinsic to work. Hygiene factors are also called as dissatisfiers or maintenance factors as they are required to avoid dissatisfaction. These factors describe the job environment / scenario. The hygiene factors symbolized the physiological needs which the individuals wanted and expected to be fulfilled. Hygiene factors include:
Pay- The pay or salary structure should be appropriate and reasonable. It must be equal and competitive to those in the same industry in the same domain.
Company Policies and administrative policies- The company policies should not be too rigid. They should be fair and clear. It should include flexible working hours, dress code, breaks, vacation, etc.
Fringe benefits- The employees should be offered health care plans (mediclaim), benefits for the family members, employee help programmes, etc.
Physical Working conditions- The working conditions should be safe, clean and hygienic. The work equipments should be updated and well-maintained.
Status- The employees' status within the organization should be familiar and retained.
Interpersonal relations-The relationship of the employees with his peers, superiors and subordinates should be appropriate and acceptable. There should be no conflict or humiliation element present.
Job Security- The organization must provide job security to the employees.
Motivational factors- According to Herzberg, the hygiene factors cannot be regarded as motivators. The motivational factors yield positive satisfaction. These factors are inherent to work. These factors motivate the employees for a superior performance. These factors are called satisfiers. These are factors involved in performing the job. Employees find these factors intrinsically rewarding. The motivators symbolized the psychological needs that were perceived as an additional benefit. Motivational factors include:
Recognition- The employees should be praised and recognized for their accomplishments by the managers.
Sense of achievement- The employees must have a sense of achievement. This depends on the job. There must be a fruit of some sort in the job.
Growth and promotional opportunities- There must be growth and advancement opportunities in an organization to motivate the employees to perform well.
Responsibility- The employees must hold themselves responsible for the work. The managers should give them ownership of the work. They should minimize control but retain accountability.
Meaningfulness of the work- The work itself should be meaningful, interesting and challenging for the employee to perform and to get motivated.
It is important to note that motivators and hygiene factors are not opposites, and correcting hygiene factors is not sufficient in itself to motivate workers to improved performance. However, before motivators can come into play, the correct hygiene factors should be in place. Surprisingly motivation theories are still being used to measure satisfaction thus making a clear link between motivation and satisfaction. Motivation differs from job satisfaction but is a very important element in improving productivity in an organization. Motivation is often defined as the set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways to increase the individual performance in an organization. Individual performance is generally determined by three factors: motivation, ability and the work environment. Among these three determinants motivation is the most important. Yorks, (1976) defined motivation as the forces within an individual that push or propel him to satisfy basic needs or wants (cited in Pardee, 2009). The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Logic would dictate that the most satisfied ("happy") workers should be the best performers and vice versa. Hygiene factors may not be able to motivate workers but should minimize dissatisfaction.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is presented in the form of a pyramid divided into higher and lower orders. The lower order needs include basic needs such as food, shelter, security, stability, and love. Examples of higher order needs include recognition and status, beauty, self-awareness and self-actualization. Maslow argued that lower order needs must first be met before higher order needs can be achieved.
Figure 2: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
The needs as per the hierarchy are classified in the following order:
Physiological needs- These are the basic needs of an individual which includes food, clothing, shelter, air, water, etc. These needs relate to the survival and maintenance of human life.
Safety needs- These needs are also important for human beings. Everybody wants job security, protection against danger, safety of property, etc.
Social needs- These needs emerge from society. Man is a social animal. These needs become important. For example- love, affection, belongingness, friendship, conversation, etc.
Esteem needs- These needs relate to desire for self-respect, recognition and respect from others.
Self-actualization needs- These are the needs of the highest order and these needs are found in those person whose previous four needs are satisfied. This will include need for social service, meditation.
The managers must identify the need level at which the employee is existing and then those needs can be utilized as push for motivation. It is essential to note that not all employees are governed by same set of needs. Different individuals may be driven by different needs at same point of time. It is always the most powerful unsatisfied need that motivates an individual.
Understanding the strengths and weakness of Maslow's hierarchy of needs is important in the field of international business. Evaluating the different needs, values, drives and priorities of people from different countries is incredibly valuable in cross-cultural communications, and especially within the workplace.
Since job satisfaction influences motivation which in turn influences productivity a great deal, it is the employer's responsibility to determine the job satisfaction level of their employees and if possible by all means assist and encourage employees using managerial tools to increase motivation which will in turn allow employees to perform at maximum within the organization. Each individual has their personal needs and if these needs are not being fulfilled then they become somewhat laid back. In his clear study of hierarchy of needs, (see Figure 1) Maslow (1954) listed self actualization at the top of his pyramid of needs. He reasoned that after realizing all other needs there is still the need for self actualization. He further mentioned that people do what they were born to do; they desired to be everything they can, becoming the fullest or complete thus being fully satisfied in all aspects of life (cited in Boeree, 2006, p. 6). Everyone wants to reach the highest point as described in Maslow's hierarchy and since two of the factors that helps with acquiring the needs bottom up are education and a stable job, SFT Fund Administration plays a very special role in each employee's life. If employees feel secure, satisfied at work and are highly motivated, there is no reason why they should not perform to reach self actualization.
"In the current ongoing competitive environment, the degree of job satisfaction is a critical factor affecting the consistency and continuity of an accounting firm" (Chatzoglou et al., 2011, p. 131). The above theories helps us realize and accept the importance of having motivated employees as this contributes to job satisfaction and even the way people think which in turn affects their actions and behavior towards work. It is therefore important to be aware of the satisfaction level of employees as this has a direct influence on the company's performance.
1.3 Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study is to identify the possible drivers of motivation and integrate these in the culture of SFT Fund in order to determine the level of job satisfaction amongst the employees and also to decide how to achieve maximized performance. Another goal is to identify ways in which we can encourage employees to perform at their maximum capacity and also attract employees who are not only eager to work but employees who look forward to each day spent in the office. With this in mind the researcher's final and most important aim is to find ways to determine the components of job satisfaction and measure the importance of each and the effect each has on performance. With such research the intention is to hand the findings to the management at SFT Fund Administration so they can use this information in their internal evaluation and appraisal procedures.
1.4 Research Question and Sub problems
Work is an important aspect of everyone's life and since many employees spend the most working hours of their lives at work it is really crucial and important that employers understand the factors involved in job satisfaction to improve employees' performance and productivity Opkara, (2009). With this awareness the following problem statement will be researched at SFT Fund Administration.
WHAT ARE THE INFLUENCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AND HOW DO THEY AFFECT JOB PERFORMANCE?
The following 4 sub problems will be used as the overall guideline on the path to answer the problem statement while studying the topic to be researched.
What are the determinants of job satisfaction?
To what extent do the determinants affect performance?
Is there a pattern between the demographic information gathered and job satisfaction?
Since satisfaction is a personal topic, the interviewer will avoid the direction of identifying individual motivation levels and rather integrate the individual responses gathered to retrieve general information on the overall satisfaction level at SFT. The research will not be conducted beyond the employees of SFT Fund Administration Curacao. The identities of the participants will not be exposed. All participants will remain anonymous in the final paper as their identities will be coded and no names will be mentioned or exposed to management.
1.6 Set up of the thesis
Chapter 2 elaborates extensively on the research topic using literature from previous studies. In this literature review, the main focus is breaking down the independent variables of job satisfaction presented in the conceptual model to be used as the pilot for this study. The procedures to follow in carrying out the research effectively, including a clear description of the participants and instruments are compiled in the methodology chapter 3. Additionally in this chapter a test for representativeness will be carried out. All this should flow into Chapter 4 in which the data collected is analyzed using the independent variables of the model to be presented during the literature review. From this analysis Chapter 5 will include the conclusions and recommendations that will be handed to the management of SFT Fund Administration.
Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
Chapter 1 introduced the term job satisfaction and its effects on the employees 'overall performance. It also focused on the expectations of the study and previous theories of motivation still being used to measure levels of satisfaction. From previous literature studied the conclusion could be drawn that everyone is motivated by needs and that one's lower needs must be fulfilled before he/she can move on to fulfilling the next level or view this as important. In this chapter more extensive literature will be explored in order to find the link if any between job satisfaction and maximized performance.
Areas that will be focused are overall job satisfaction which for the purpose of this study will be the main focus as it is the dependent variable along with in-depth studies of the independent variables of the conceptual model in Figure 3 below namely: Pay, Recognition, Promotion, Supportive Management, Job involvement, Organizational commitment, work effort and self expression.
From the review of literature there should be a clear understanding on the drivers of job satisfaction and their effect on performance. The conceptual model in Figure 3 will be used as the guideline and each component will be analyzed to finally determine if they are the satisfaction influencers and also to identify others.
2.2 Conceptual Model
Figure 3: Conceptual model
Yasir and Fawad (2009)
The independent variables can further be grouped as intrinsic and extrinsic variables. Intrinsic variables are those that directly affect the employee and are the qualitative attributes of a job (Chatzoglou et al., 2011). Intrinsic factors are based on personal perceptions and inner feelings (Worrel, 2004). The intrinsic variables if compared to Herzberg's theory can be identified as the motivators/satisfiers though there is always the chance that one or more variables can be both intrinsic and extrinsic. Motivating factors are the aspects of the job that make people want to perform and provide employees with satisfaction. In the theory of Frederick Hertzberg the intrinsic factors are those that are related to motivation and job satisfaction (Yasir & Fawad, 2009). These factors found to be satisfiers are essential to the nature and experience of doing the work itself (Sowmya & Panchanathan, 2011). Mccook (2002) noted that employees who are highly involved in their jobs are most likely to show positive results.
From the model above the independent variables can further be grouped as intrinsic and extrinsic variables.
Intrinsic Variables Extrinsic Variables
Job Involvement 1. Pay
Recognition 2. Supportive Management
Work Effort 3. Promotion
2.3 Intrinsic Variables
Work is unquestionably an intrinsic part of peoples' lives. "It is often our source of identity and at times our reason for being " (Bruce and Blackburn, 1992, p. 4). Aside from decent pay, economic security, and other extrinsic and tangible rewards of employment, the intrinsic aspects of work are also relevant to the study of job satisfaction. Intrinsic factors are employees' affective reactions to the job, such as their satisfaction with the freedom they have to choose their own methods of working, the recognition that they receive for good work, and the opportunity they have to use their ability. Intrinsic factors may also include perceived respect and responsibility, task variety, and meaningful work.
Job Involvement- This can be described as the opportunity for employees to be involved, be identified with the company and the overall feeling of empowerment in the decision making process. In a recent study Katrinli, Atabay, Gunay, Guneri (2008) described job involvement as 'â€¦â€¦the degree of important of one's job to one's self image.' It is the extent to which one can identify themselves within an organization as organizational identity is very much linked to job satisfaction and employee performance. Employees who identify themselves with the organization tend to behave in accordance with the interests of the company and will be more committed (Katrinli, Atabay, Gunay, Guneri, 2008). Researchers have proven that job involvement has a positive effect on job satisfaction and job performance and a negative impact of job absenteeism and turnover. It is expected that the more involved an employee is the more likely it is for the company to become a part of their lives and individual identity. As cited in (Katrinli, Atabay, Gunay and Guneri, 2008) according to Benkhoff, (1977) and Riketta, (2005) within the organization, there are a few factors affecting job identification positively. These factors include support and appreciation of superiors, opportunity for career advancements and access to supervisory positions. As tenure increases more and more employees adapt to the organizational values (Mael & Ashford, 1992) therefore it has been proven that tenure employees who have been employed with the company for longer periods and who have identified themselves with the company are more satisfied. Though the demographic factors tenure and age may affect job identity, it should not be ignored that the main factors affecting job identity are definitely the factors affecting the job dimensions. Employees should be given the chance to utilize their talents and skills on the job by assigning tasks of which they are responsible with little or no supervision. When an employee is being empowered they develop high self esteem as they feel valued and will eventually identify themselves with the organization. Not only being a part of the process but being able to make personal decisions and give suggestions to the company increases job satisfaction. Job involvement will be measured in the study through the facets 1, 3, 5, 8, 9, 10, 13, 18 and 19 of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). These facets were chosen in order determine how the employees view the usage of their skills, autonomy on the job, task identity and significance, feedback from supervisors and the job itself.
(Figure 4) was used as a guideline for the facets chosen. In a recent study on the job characteristics model done by Judge and Church (2000) it was discovered that jobs that provides the below core characteristics were more satisfying than those who failed to. It was further explained that the core job characteristics leads to experienced meaningfulness of the work, responsibility for outcomes and knowledge of results which in turn leads to job satisfaction. Job involvement can be measured through effort. Brown and Leigh (1996) stated that 'employees who are more involved in their jobs should exert more effort' (cited in McCook, 2002, p. 5).
Recognition or praise that an employee receives for his/her achievements is a great stimulant for continued performance. Stewart (2000) suggested that helping to make workers feel independent had large positive effects on both performance and satisfaction outcomes. Kirkman and Rosen's (1999) work also spoke to the importance of worker autonomy and it's positive relationship with job satisfaction and performance. Cappelli (2000) highlighted the importance of intrinsic rewards when participants rated interesting work, open communications, and opportunities for advancement as the top three things they desire in their jobs. Tatsapaugh (1994) suggested that the lack of advancement on the job is a frequent factor influencing resignation.
Work Effort - the effort that employees exert in order to accomplish given tasks. When employee's feel their work is meaningful and that they are responsible for their outcomes, Thomas & Tymon, (1997) state that workers show higher levels of effort and attention to doing tasks well.
Self Expression - the employee's freedom to express themselves
Organizational Commitment -
2.4 Extrinsic Variables
The extrinsic variables are aspects of the working environment or are results/consequences of the company's culture and the employee has no direct influence. According to the Herzberg theory, these variables are also seen as the hygiene factors and are found to be dissatisfiers. The extrinsic variables identified from the conceptual model are pay, promotion and supportive management.
Pay not only includes the salary that the employee receives but rather all emoluments including
short and long term fringe benefits should be taken into consideration (Yasir & Fawad, 2009). According to McCook (2002) satisfaction with pay and promotion highly depends on the employees' happiness with the job and the fairness for promotional opportunities received as pay back for the job performed. As mentioned in IJCTA (2011) although pay appeals to all employees, nowadays employees are more interested in a achieving a better work life balance. It was also emphasized that employees are looking to their employers for options to work from home or remotely or to be given time off after stressful work periods.
The premice of Maslow hierarchy of needs highest priority for virtually every employee who starts a new job is pay. This supports Maslow's theory as the salary received for job performed can be used to supply and fulfill the psychological needs which are the lowest in the hierarchy of needs. Zobal (1998) mentioned that pay can also be viewed as a communicator when this is given to the employee against his services which shows how valuable the employee is (cited in Parvin, (2011)).
Employees are more interested in job satisfaction than in earning large amounts of money. In a recent study of Dewhurst, Guthridge and Mohr (2009) it was concluded that for people already earning enough salary, non cash motivators were more effective when building long term commitment. On the contrary, (Akintoye, 2000, p.3) asserts that ''â€¦. money remains the most significant motivational strategy" (cited in Ayeni & Popoola, 2007).
Though pay when received fairly can be a motivation it can also bring dissatisfaction when an employee is overpaid as this employee will have feelings of guilt when not being able to perform as is expected (Worrel, 2004). Lawler (1971) argued that though low salary was a major factor for dissatisfaction earning a high salary does not automatically lead to satisfaction (cited in Worrel 2004.) The concern is more about fairness than the actual dollar amount. Job satisfaction can therefore be defined as the extent to which ones feels satisfied with the reward for the quality of work he/she performs. Unlike Maslow and Herzberg focusing on needs, Vroom (1969) in his expectancy theory stressed on outcome. He viewed that employees would decide whether or not they would perform given the expected outcome.
Promotion is an effective tool to increase the spirit to work in a concern. If the employees are provided opportunities for the advancement and growth, they feel satisfied and contented and they become more committed to the organization.
Supportive Management - (Janssen, 2001) sees the immediate supervisor/manager as the most important representative of the organization and concluded that "satisfaction with work and the immediate supervisor serves as features of job satisfaction." The type of supervision given can also impacts satisfaction significantly Worrel (2004). Bruce and Blackburn, 1992; Vroom, 1982 in previous studies have shown that employees with who positively interact with their supervisors are generally more satisfied while Schroffel (1999) explained that positive reaction meant constructive feedback, effective communication and a focus on quality rather than quantity (cited in Worrel 2004). Supervison is a complex variable and Schroffel (1999) suggested that employees with less experience be given more supervision and those experienced allowed to function more independently. Also in chaotic environments supervision should always be administered.
2.5 Demographic Variables
A review of the literature shows that numerous variables have been investigated in their
relationship to job satisfaction. These variables include demographic data (e.g. age, gender, and
race), intrinsic features of the job (e.g. recognition, advancement, and responsibility), and extrinsic variables (e.g. salary, supervision, and working conditions). Researchers have always focused on age as being a main factor influencing job satisfaction (Worrel, 2004).
2.6 Job Satisfaction and its Importance
Gordon, (1999) revealed that "Job satisfaction occurs when a job meets the expectations, values and standards of an individual and will influence their commitment and performance" (cited in Wubuli, 2007 p. 13). At the same time managers should be aware, however, that satisfied employees are not necessarily those most productive. Also Hussami (2008) noted that both job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not only dependent on the nature of the job but they also depend on the expectation.
According to Teck-Hong and Waheed (2011) job satisfaction contributes to the success of an organization. Crossman, (2003) believes that satisfied workers will be more productive and will be more committed to the company in contrast to dissatisfied employees who will be less productive and have a greater chance of quitting (cited in Teck-Hong and Waheed 2011). Wubuli (2007) classified job satisfaction as an essential element to increase customer satisfaction in this intense competition, he also noted that dissatisfied employees through word of mouth normally spread their problems to work mates and can cause harm to the organization. Therefore managers are encouraged to deal with dissatisfied employees.
Job satisfaction reflects employees' feelings regarding their work and has been found
to affect many operations within the organization. If the level of satisfaction is low,
the impact on the organization may be negative and vice versa.
On the other hand, when employees' level of satisfaction is high, they are willing to
exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization, feel that the level of internal
work motivation is high, organizational and professional commitment is strong, while
the management observes significant decreases of turnover Chatzoglou et.al (2011).
Satisfied employees within the company lead to cost reduction as ultimately absences, task errors and turn over will decrease (Yasir & Fawad, 2009). Two-Factor theory implies that the managers must stress upon guaranteeing the adequacy of the hygiene factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction. Also, the managers must make sure that the work is stimulating and rewarding so that the employees are motivated to work and perform harder and better. This theory emphasize upon job-enrichment so as to motivate the employees. The job must utilize the employee's skills and competencies to the maximum. Focusing on the motivational factors can improve work-quality.
2.7 Benefits for both Employee and Employer
Both managers and employers can both use the Maslow's hierarchy of needs as a framework for developing meaningful benefit plans for their employees Sadri and Bowen (2011). Since not everyone is at the same level on the hierarchy of needs it is quite clear that the same incentive does not work for everyone. Managers are expected to personalize the attention given to each employee in the most acceptable form. Subsequent incentives should take into consideration the previous Sadri and Bowen (2011) and work upwards until all five needs have been met.
2.8 Effects of Job Satisfaction on Performance
The study of the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance is one of the most venerable research traditions in industrial-organizational psychology. (Saari and Judge, 2004) argued that the study of the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance are controversial as literature reveals a weak and inconsistent relationship.
Performance management is about managing the organisation. It should be a natural process where everyone concerned with the business should be involved. It should be managed taking the organisation's internal and external environment into consideration. Managers as well as employees are responsible for the results and therefore should agree beforehand what they need to do and how they need to do it. Taljaard (2003, p.126).
Job performance can be measured in various ways but the most common and widely used measurement in organizations still remain the performance appraisal method. Though it has been proven that both the rate and rater are quite dissatisfied it is still being practiced thus proving its importance (Denisi & Griffin, 2008). Performance management is a continuum process in which the duties are established, performance standards are established and communicated, performance is inspected, observed, and the observation documented and recorded.
From the literature it has been discovered that job satisfaction matters. Studies showed that employees who are satisfied with their jobs tend to perform better, withdraw less, and live happier and healthier lives (Judge and Klinger, 2009). Organizations whose employees are satisfied with their jobs are more likely to be productive and profitable. According to Judge and Klinger (2009) 'the single most effective way organizations can achieve a satisfied workforce is to provide their employees with mentally challenging work.'
While managers try to find intelligent ways to retain skilled professionals, studies have proven that the work of employees goes far beyond an income but now shows status and pride with the bottom line being job satisfaction (IJCTA, 2011). In summarizing job satisfaction is important to both the employee and employer. Satisfied employees will perform at their best and aim to reach self actualization while dissatisfaction only leads to absenteeism and even turnover. The more motivated and satisfied the employees are, the more empowered the team is and the easier for managers to manage effectively. The review reveals the factors influencing job satisfaction and their weight on performance.
Many reasons for employee dissatisfaction are well within the control of employers and managers should take the time to ensure that their employees are given the required attention and also portray good managerial practices to diminish these reasons as satisfied employees will be more committed and profitable to the company (Gregory, 2000).
From the information gained in the literature review, Chapter 3 will incorporate the manner in which previous studies have collected their information and also the samples chosen. Literature revealed that the most suitable way to measure job satisfaction is with questionnaires. The MSQ questionnaire was chosen for this study and though this questionnaire is the lengthiest, it will be used as this is one of the most effective measurement as it focuses on 20 satisfaction areas. Recent studies have also proven its validity (Tella, Ayena & Popoola, 2007), (Sweeney, Hohenshil & Fortune, 2002), (Waskiewicz, 1999), (Chimarukire, Mutandwa, Gadzirayi, Muzondo & Mutandwa, 2007) and (Worrel, 2004). The MSQ has 100 questions and covers 20 areas of job satisfaction. The MSQ has been revised and shortened to 20 questions which take 5 minutes for completion while with an extra 15 minutes the original version of 100 questions can be completed. With this immaterial time difference the MSQ 1997 version was chosen.
In addition to the MSQ, Chapter 3 will provide a breakdown of the demographic information to be collected in the form of age, sex, years of service with the company and among others level within the company. This information when collected along with the data of the MSQ will be analyzed and cross referenced.
Chapter 3: METHODOLOGY
In this chapter an in depth explanation will be given on the methodology to be followed in order to execute the research and answer the research questions. Procedures such as the design, the sample choice and its size, and the instrument to be used for the measurement in order to undergo the research will be discussed. The objective of the research is to identify the key factors of job satisfaction and also to contrast and compare the pattern by using the demographic information gathered.
With this descriptive research, quantitative data will be collected by using a questionnaire. Quantitative research involves collecting and converting data numerically in order to obtain statistical calculations and draw conclusions (Alzheimer Europe, 2009) by a representation of numerical information such as average and frequencies. Since objectivity is of much importance in a quantitative analysis, the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire will be used to avoid the researcher's presence and any possibility to be bias if creating a questionnaire from scratch. The cencus sampling method will be administered and employees who fail to complete the questionnaire will be coded as non respondents.
The researcher will conduct a session in which the questionnaire will be introduced in short and the researcher will communicate the importance of the study to both the employees and the employer. The anonymity will also be explained as the employee's identity will be kept confidential. After this setting each employee will be sent the (MSQ) in a separate personalized email directed to the individual. A deadline for the collection will be announced and there will also be a special pick up location to avoid matching respondents with questionnaires.
Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) will be used to analyze the data collected. The demographic information that will be used for the comparisons are: Age, Sex, Tenure, Highest Education and Position within the organization. This information will be represented in charts and tables and comparisons between and among variables will be discussed. .
Results will be communicated to the employer but no raw data will be exposed.
The research will be conducted at SFT Fund Administration. There are currently 24 employees which present the opportunity for all employees to participate in the study. Like a cencus all the employees will be emailed the same (MSQ) questionnaire and demographic data form for completion (Appendix 1). (Figure 4) shows the organization chart of the company which depicts the hierarchy of each participant.
Figure 4: Organization Chart SFT Fund Administration
For this research N =24. From the group of employees 87.5% were reported as female and 12.5% were male (Table 1 and Figure 5). The following demographic information was collected on the respondents. Age, gender, tenure, level within the organization and degree of education.
Table 1 Sex
Figure 5 Male Female Percentage Rate
Table 2 Age Group
Developed in 1967 by Weiss, Dawis, England, & Lofquist, the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) has become a widely used instrument to evaluate job satisfaction. Three forms of the MSQ have been developed, two 100-item long forms (1977 version and 1967 version) and a 20-item short form. The MSQ is designed to measure specific aspects of an employee's satisfaction with his or her job, and it provides more information on the rewarding aspects of a job than do more general measures of job satisfaction. The MSQ has been widely used in studies exploring client vocational needs, in counseling follow-up studies, and in generating information about the reinforcers in jobs (Vocational Psychology Research, 2002).
The Minnesota Questionnaire (MSQ) will be used to investigate the trends and characteristics present in the population and to collect the data for this quantitative research. The interval scaling used in the survey was: 1 = "Very Dissatisfied", 2 = "Disagreed", 3 = "Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied", 4 = "Satisfied" and 5 = "Very Satisfied".
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire incorporates the below 20 facets in order to determine the areas that are satisfying to each employee.
1. Ability Utilization - opportunity to use abilities
2. Achievement - feeling of accomplishment from work
3. Activity - keeping busy
4. Advancement - opportunity for promotion
5. Authority - being in-charge of others
6. System policies and practices - school policy implementation
7. Compensation - perceived balance of work performed to salary received
8. Co-Workers - relationships with co-workers
9. Creativity - flexibility to try one's own methods
10. Independence - opportunity to work alone
11. Moral Values - opportunity to act in ways that do not go against beliefs
12. Recognition - acknowledgment for a job well done
13. Responsibility - freedom to use personal judgement
14. Security - anticipation of steady employment
15. Social Service - being able to help others
16. Social Status - being respected in the community
17. Supervision-human relations - relationship between employee and supervisors
18. Supervision-technical - the technical quality of the supervision
19. Variety - the opportunity to do different things
20. Working Conditions - physical aspects of the work environment
Each of the above subscales is composed of five questions that are rated on a five-point scale. Respondents were asked to rate their job on each question by checking that they are Very Satisfied, Satisfied, Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied , Dissatisfied or Very Dissatisfied. All 100 responses from the twenty subscales were combined to obtain an overall job satisfaction score.
According to Zikmund, (2003) validity is the ability to measure the expected. This research is intended to measure job satisfaction. The first section of the questionnaire contain demographic information and the main part which is the (MSQ) itself contains 100 questions which measures 20 facets of overall job satisfaction. Each of the items on the modified MSQ had four possible response items, each assigned an ordinal weight. Very Dissatisfied (VDS) was given an ordinal weight of 5, Dissatisfied (DS) was assigned an ordinal weight of 4, Neither (N) was given an ordinal weight of 3, Satisfied (S) was given an ordinal weight of 2, and Very Satisfied (VS) was assigned an ordinal weight of 1. Thus, higher scores indicated higher levels of job satisfaction. With five questions per subscale, totals for each of the 20 areas could range from 5 to 25.
This chapter provided a description of the research methods and the rationale for their use
in this study. The population of all employees was chosen making the research sample fully representative. The data was collected using self administered questionnaire (MSQ) and the analysis will be done using (SPSS). Means, averages and other statistical methods will be used to compare the demographic data to the study itself. In Chapter 4 the data collected will be analyzed by finding the weighted average of each variable. The patterns and frequency of each variable will be studied and compared to the demographic information to check if the tendencies mentioned in the literature review were present at SFT Fund Services.
Chapter 4 - Drivers of Job Satisfaction
4.2 Respondent's Profile
4.2 Job Satisfaction Motivators
4.3 Weight of each Satisfaction Motivators
4.4 Patterns of Motivators
Chapter 5 - Conclusions and Recommendations
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