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Human resources needs in the government sector in planning, implementation, operation and maintenance, data collection, research and regulation activities. Form this above we can easy find the ratio of increasing the percentage of human resources in Nepal. Our country has enough human resources that could help to develop the country in tremendous way and manner. Our census of human development is in the rate of increased from 2002 to 2012.
Education is vital to human development, and Nepal recognizes this fact and is committed to making education universal. Despite the fact that substantial progress has been made in this direction, much still remains to be done. The country is still caught in the vicious cycle of poverty, lethargy of illiteracy, and tradition. Three-fifths of the country is still illiterate, with three-fourths of women being illiterate. In the 1990s, the country clearly moved toward democratization; however, the unstable governments and tenuous leadership have not yet yielded clear benefits for the masses. The education system is good but it does not help to create a good opportunity in economic sector.
Human resources management (HRM) focuses on the level of the individual organisation and is concerned with issues such as recruitment, selection, pay, performance and human resource development. Trade Union means any combination, whether temporary or permanent, formed primarily for the purpose of regulating the relations between workmen and employers or between workmen and workmen, or between employers and employers, or for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or business. It has conclude selections payment and who the staff of organization performance while he or she has to do a job and settle all the task for a period of time that it was set for in systematic and scientific way.
Trade unions are formed to protect and promote the interests of their members. Their primary function is to protect the interests of workers against discrimination and unfair labor practices. The labour sector is totally neglected in Nepal. Labour administration is incapable and weak in the enforcement of law, in monitoring, in dispute settlements, in implementation collective bargaining agreements and in updating labour statistics. For example, the provision of issuing an appointment letter in accordance with the Labour Act 1992 is not implemented for all workers. Even in PEs workers are not awarded a permanent certificate despite crossing 240 working days
Trade Union movement of Nepal: Present position
Nepal's trade union movements cannot be compared with the trade union movements of advanced nations. Our movement is in the young stage in terms of size, period and industrialization. Though started from 1947, the Nepalese working class was prohibited to form trade union organizations during the thirty years of party less autocracy. This movement has reached the present stage by a zigzag path, crossing a considerable part of suppression while making a few achievements.
The system of minimum wage in service and industrial sectors is not scientific. A minimum wage is that level of wage below which an earner cannot survive. The minimum wage is fixed on the basis of various factors interacting in the market. However, the determination of minimum wages in Nepal is dependent on government attitude and on the bargain between the demand of workers and on the will of the employers. Furthermore, workers in agricultural farms and plantation are getting even less wages than the fixed minimum in other sectors.
A union is an organization that represents employees' interests to management on issues such as wages, hours, and working conditions. Generally, employees seek to join a union when they are dissatisfied with aspects of their job, feel a lack of power or influence with management in terms of making changes, and see unionization as a solution to their problems.
The most significant impact of a union on the management of human resources is its influence in shaping HRM policies. In the absence of a union, the company may develop all HRM policies based on efficiency. But, when a union enters the picture, management must develop HRM policies that reflect consideration for the preferences of workers who are represented by a union
Employment relations (ER) can be seen as encompassing the study of all aspects of people at work.
It is concerned with the relationship between employers and employees and their interaction at the workplace.
It is also concerned with employersââ‚¬â„¢ and employeesââ‚¬â„¢ representative bodies, such as trade unions and employer associations, and with how they interact at the workplace, industry, national and international levels.
It encompasses both industrial relations and human resource management.
Problem of the Trade Union movement of Nepal
We are entering the 21st century with above mentioned national realities. Facts warn that we will not be able to face challenges without genuine reforms and changes in present conditions. To address the challenges, following issues have to be raised by our trade union movement.
Industrial revolution and economic liberalization
In the past half a decade, after the vital political change brought about by the mass-movement of 1990, nothing has changed significantly in the industrial sector. A major causal factor in this respect is the continuous neglect of the importance of the role of working class in the process of rapid industrialization. As experiences indicate, Japan's process of economic growth is the outcome of the maximum utilization of manpower and labour-force. So is the Chinese scenario. In our case, however, no strategic initiative has so far been taken for the identification of a suitable industrial base and the prioritization of national industries.
Successful liberalization is not possible in any country which denies government interventions. This international experience and our own experience from 1985 clearly indicates that the trade union movement can only accept "Selective liberalization - selective privatization" when there is a guarantee of the full protection of workers' interests.
Elimination of child labour
Child labour is considered as a cheap and easily available source of labour supply in the labour market. As it is risk free with regards to collective bargaining and so on, employers have given promotions to the supply of child labour in different sectors of production and services. Legally child labour is prohibited in our country, yet it is quite clear that children are working in different sectors from hazardous jobs in factories, mines, construction and transport to the jobs in agriculture, plantation, hotels/restaurants, tea-shops and home services. It can be strongly argued that the rate of adult unemployment is increasing due mainly to the use of child labour.
In fact, child labour is the reflection of existing acute poverty and exploitative socio-economic relations in the country. The existing social system based on inequalities has further aggravated the close association among poverty-illiteracy-unemployment and child labour.
A number of provisions like the restrictions on employing children under 14 years of age, prohibition on the trafficking in children for occupational and sexual exploitation, prohibition on kidnapping and keeping under slavery and prohibition on using children in risky and hazardous jobs have been included in our constitution, laws, rules and regulations. But obviously, child labour can't be stopped at once. To view that child labour would take a very long time to eradicate and to boycott all the third world export items as their production uses child labour are two extremis viewpoints. We feel that child labour should be gradually and progressively eliminated. Doing so should involve following strategies:
Preventive strategy: it deals with education, literacy and awareness and other activities
Functional strategy: it creates rescue of children at risk, welfare programmes for working children and other process of evaluation of a particular terms.
As in the past, the national centres of trade unions will take up necessary efforts to pressure and/or persuade the concerned institutions towards the gradual eradication of child labour.
Women workers and gender discrimination
It is well known that the condition of female workers is miserable in Nepal. Because of the existing social system, woman workers have also been victimized by social discriminations imposed right from their birth.
In fact, the problems of Nepal human resources does not get the jobs and they have to goes to abroad to get jobs .in abroad they has treated as low class worker so their pay scale is lower than other staff. The trade union has arisen a problem in different sector in Nepal which effect the whole some of business environment and have face lot of circumstance which is the reason to fall the stock market.
Foreign employment and migrant workers
Many people migrate one place to another for the jobs that settle their economic growth and the entire thing appear to force them to earn their living.
Self-employed masses are engaged in works of varying nature ranging from carpentry to handicrafts and from boot-polishing to foot-path selling. All these works can be covered by the trade union movement. However, craft unionism is depreciating day by day and industrial unionism has become world-wide. It is really fruitful to utilize the role of craft-unionism for wide coverage and strengthening of trade union movement in socio-economically backward countries like ours. So it is essential to organize these self-employed 'employers cum workers' in accordance with their craft and nature of the service they provide. We have thought of working for the protection of their interest, for the improvement of the quality of their products and services, and for the development of their skills and training and mainly for the upliftment of the living standards. For this, the government should adopt a policy of physical and financial investment.
Workers' participation in management
In our context, we feel that the demand for participation in management should be raised in order to bring about transparency in managerial activities, and to strengthen the psychology of labourers as labour-investors of an equal status. Participation will produce positive results in connection with productivity and distribution of bonus. To sum up, the issue of workers' participation in management has to be raised in resemblance to the promotion of industrial democracy.as we know strike is create in any field in Nepal due to undue influence of people they whole business sceneries has to suffer form it a lot and effect our economic and boom the whole design of a particular target.
The concept of workers' cooperatives was first generated in 1844 by unemployed young men in England. As the time passed, the use of cooperatives proceeded on to fulfil diverse objectives. Somewhere 'cooperatives' is taken as a collective company. In contrast, the role of social responsibility of cooperatives has been neglected in other places. Similarly, It has different sector to evaluation about the trade union but to indicate the process of proper human power or a skill to allocate the assumptions properly in order to make the sense.
Workers' education and training
The opportunity of participation in long-period training abroad has also been provided and some friends have gained good knowledge and expertise in some of the aspects of trade union movement. But no responsible trade union can regard it as sufficient and neglect the urgent need of education and training for the working masses. They look for bonus and incentive before getting any kind of job .the business house have to fulfil their demand first and before their get job although the business house need good qualification before getting jobs .many business organization fall or closed due to trade union for example kfc which international food cord have closed due to strike of staff and their lots of demand
It is the movement of mass for the benefit of their staff in their equal term to accepted their demand which union leader have discuss to manger or the boss in the upper level .
Solution of trade union of Nepal in human recourses management
Before discussing about making trade union is right or wrong I want to conflux u that trade union create opportunity for the people for their appropriate demand but wrong leader might cause great conflict in deed .so trade leader has to take the responsible decision while absorbs the situation.
In this 21st century human manpower need more facilities then their way to increase the performances which makes them to fall back ward. They look for bonus and incentive before getting any kind of job .the business house have to fulfil their demand first and before their get job although the business house need good qualification before getting jobs .many business organization fall or closed due to trade union for example kfc which international food cord have closed due to strike of staff and their lots of demand. They forget about their duty and responsibility which have to follow to run the organization very smoothly and frequently for long term business vision. If the union of trade have demand then they should take their duty and responsibility and get into the process. Nowadays union membership has been decline in private organization due to misrepresented of trade union at all so the member do not know about the deal with their union leader and their ability to work as team to complete the task of organization.
Name: maheshwor pandey
Semester: fourth (4th)