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Job analysis has as purpose the identification and determination of the characteristics and specific tasks and duties of the job, and to use these to indicate KSAOs that employees should demonstrate as well as to state ultimately performance criteria (Woods and West, 2010; Fine and Cronshaw, 1999). Information for a job analysis can be gathered from a number of different sources and in a variety of ways (Heron, 2005). Regarding the specific position, job clarification was provided through an interview of a current human resource manager.
The interview was conducted using the Descriptive Job Analysis Form (in appendix section), by asking the employee about his experiences in a systematic way through the questions outlined on the form. Interviewing employees is one of the most popular ways to collect the amount of suitable information regarding a job (Spector, 2012) due to the fact that previous experiences provide the most appropriate way to establish a general idea concerning the job tasks, duties, responsibilities and abilities required to perform the job (Heron, 2005). According to Dierdorff and Wilson (2003), people are quite consistent in making their job analysis ratings; they presented a test-retest reliability of .83.
Additionally, the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) developed for further identification regarding the related information of a human resource manager (in appendix section). O*NET provides a tremendous amount of information about the content of occupations and the KSAOs needed by individuals to adequately perform them. O*NET has demonstrated a brief description and detailed information of the HR manager job on six domains - experience requirements, worker requirements, worker characteristics , occupational requirements, occupation specific information, and occupational characteristics which deals with other kinds of information concerning the labour market and salaries of the job (Spector, 2012).
The O*NET is highly usable and inexpensive technique for analysing jobs. It comprises three design principles that are fundamental of the O*NET content model - multiple windows, common language, and hierarchical taxonomies (Woods and West, 2010; Spector, 2012).
The different domains which O*NET provides, offer 'multiple windows' on the general environment of work and multiple sources of information regarding a particular job. A common language is used to describe each job with generalized information about work activities, personality characteristics and KSAOs. O*NET is not offering job-specific information however, broader descriptions tend to be more stable. Also, O*NET uses a taxonomic approach which summarizes and assigns information of the job to fewer categories (Fleishman and Quaintance, 1984), and these information in each domain are hierarchically arranged from broader to specific (Peterson et al, 2001)
Peterson et al (2001), in an effort to collect information on occupational descriptors found, in general, supporting results for the O*NET system. With an average of ten raters, they found inter-rater reliability at .70.
According to the employee interview through Descriptive Job Analysis Form and O*NET the identified job characteristics are the followings:
The main tasks/duties and responsibilities
Identify of staff vacancies. Participation in selection and training of applicants - development of job descriptions, person specifications, advertisements, and check of application forms.
Inform employees about the policies, job responsibilities, working conditions, wages, and opportunities for promotion and benefits.
Work with understaffing, administers disciplinary procedures, referees disputes, and fires employees.
Advise line managers regarding equal employment opportunity and provide recommendations on needed changes.
Analyse and modify compensation and benefits policies
Provide a link between the management and employees - resolve work-related problems, interpreting and administering contracts and handling questions.
Plan, supervise and coordinate work activities.
Maintain records and compile statistical reports regarding personnel data.
Develop recommendations for improvement of organisation's personnel policies and procedures.
Negotiate bargaining agreements and help interpret labor contracts
Knowledge: business and management principles involving HR planning strategies and leadership techniques, staff rules regulations and procedures, company policies, and production methods. Knowledge of principles and procedures of personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits and labor relations.
Cognitive skills: numeric and literacy skills, judgmental and negotiating skills, decision-making, problem-solving skills, creativity, memory, perceptual speed and accuracy.
Personal skills: interpersonal communication and liaison skills, leadership, integrity, dependability, initiative, written and oral communication.
First university degree (BA/BSc.) in business administration, human resources, education or social science.
Usually needed an advanced university degree (Masters) in business administration, HR or related social science/education.
Mostly work in offices and mainly it is full time job.
Requirement of much interaction with other workers and clients.
Job Title: Human Recourses Manager (HR manager)
Job goals and aim: HR manager plans and coordinates human resources activities and personnel of a company, ensuring that the company employs the right balance of people regarding to their skills and experience, enabling training and development opportunities to employees to increase their performance and achieve the organisation's goals.
The main duties and responsibilities of an HR manager are to identify employee vacancies and recruit staff, including the development of job description and person specification, preparation of advertisements, participation in interviews, assessment and selection of applicants and also the analysis of training needs. The HR manager provides information to the employees of the company about their job duties, working conditions, wages, and opportunities for promotion and benefits and policies of the company. Deals with understaffing, referees disputes, decides whether to remove employees and administers disciplinary procedures. Assists line managers to understand and implement procedures and strategies and provides advises regarding the organisational policy matters like equal employment opportunities. HR manager offers analysis and modification of compensation and benefits policies, determines the causes of personnel problems and provides recommendations for improvement of the company's personnel policies and procedures. Additionally, links the management and employees in order to help to resolve work-related problems, organises, supervises and coordinates work activities of the personnel, maintains records and compile statistical reports concerning employees' data. Finally, negotiates regarding bargaining agreements and helps the management to interpret labour contracts.
Academic Qualifications and
First University degree (BA/BSc) in business administration, human
resources, education or social science
Advanced University degree (Masters) in business administration, HR or
related social science/education
2+ years of experience in HR field
Business and management principles and UK employment legislation
Skills and Abilities
Excellent communication and interpersonal skills
Outstanding organisational, leadership and negotiation skills
Ability to coordinate work of other employees and assure that meets quality and production standards.
Ability to work on own initiative- independently with minimal direction
Ability to work under pressure with high levels of accuracy and attention to detail
Creative thinking and innovation skills
Decision making and problem-solving skills
Written and oral communication
In order to be more effective a strategic recruitment plan was conducted considering yield ratios and time-lapse issues.
Recruitment goals: To attract a minimum of 35 qualified human resources applicants
Preparation of an up to date Job
Description and statement of duties and responsibilities
Develop selection criteria - Person
Decide to recruit within and outside the organisation
Attract the appropriate applicants - Advertisement
Newspapers, job posting on job sites, ads in company's web site and ads on websites related to HRM.
Management agreement to the advertising strategy for the post
Panel meets to plan the selection methods
Application forms and CVs, interviews, assessment centre and check of references.
Closing date for application forms and CVs
Closing dates for receipt of applications will be set 4 weeks after publication date.
Panel meets to decide on short-list and agree for the selection process
Totally unqualified candidates will be rejected.
Days depended on the interest of applicants for the position.
Unsuccessful applicants who do not meet the essential criteria need to be contacted by telephone or email
Within next week.
Prepare the interview structure
Behavioural Competency based
Design the questions and rating scales
Set the interview date
Successful candidates invited to the selection event (interviews)
Interviews will be held 5 working days after the invitations
Days depended on the number of applicants.
10-15 minutes each candidate.
Provide further details about the job position
Panel meets to decide on short-list and design the assessment centre method
Days depended on the remaining applicants
The goal of the short-list is to remain only 5 applicants.
Design the exercises and rating method.
Set the date.
Candidates informed about interview decisions
Within next week
Preparation of assessors
Assessors have training before administering the assessment centre within 5 days.
Successful applicants invited to the selection event
Assessment centre will be held 5 working days after the invitations
Between 1 day
Panel meets to decide on short-list
Within next day
Standard list of questions
Within next day
Feedback on assessment centre exercises
Assesses receive feedback on their performance and informed of any recommendations
Offer position to the successful candidate and send regrets to remaining non-selected applicants
Within next day
New employee start date
Within 3 weeks
According to Cook, 2004, the methods that are normally used in UK selection are the application forms accompanied with CVs, psychometrics, assessment centre and finally the check of references.
In addition, the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) factsheet of selection methods, supports the use of interviews, assessment centres and the use of references, stating that interviews remain a popular way of selection since they predict future performance and interviewer and interviewee have the opportunity to meet and discuss face to face, exercises of assessment centre if they are based on job description and person specification, they reflect the reality of job tasks, and the reference checks has as purpose to obtain details about the candidate's suitability (CIPD, 2012a).
Candidates with disabilities
Organisation should be aware of the provisions of Disability Discrimination Act 1995. It is significantly important to ensure disabled candidates that they will take protection measures and ask them if they require any additional assistance or adjustments, such as additional time or particular equipment needs, to enable them to participate in the selection process (ACAS, n.d).
External and internal selection
Employers encourage applications within and outside organisation. External recruitment can be a vast benefit for the company; new people can bring innovation and new skills and competencies, and in many situations it can be quicker solution. On the other hand, external recruitment can be expensive and knowledge of the company's culture may be lost.
Internal recruitment is cheaper since training programs and inductions of new personnel can be avoided. Parallel, current employees are aware of the company's procedures and policies; they are trusted and respected from their employers in terms of integrity and quality of their work. However, current employees may not bring fresh and creative ideas into the company (Knapp and Mujtaba, 2011).
Advertisement for the job: (in appendices section)
The advert has created taking into consideration some job adverts in the press as well as from information on advertisements from CIPD factsheet on recruitment (CIPD, 2012b). It contains a specification of requirements, including basic educational requirements, and previous relevant experience that would be desirable, and increasingly, a profile of essential or desirable KSAOs. The advertisement should typically contain information designed firstly to attract potential applicants, but secondly to enable them to make a self-selection decision (Woods and West, 2010).
The employer has the responsibility to ensure that there will be no discrimination in any stage of the selection process and all applicants will receive fairness. It is significant to state in the job advertisement that the employer encourages employees who are under-represented in the organisation to apply for the position (ACAS, n.d.).
First, the panel introduces their selves and their position in the company and provides brief description of the company policies, procedures, goals and aims.
Question 1: previous experience in HR field
Tell us about your previous experience in the Human Resource Department. What duties and responsibilities did you have?
Question 2: communication skills
Describe a situation where you had to explain something complex to a colleague or a client. Which problems did you encounter and how did you deal with them?
Question 3: organisational skills and ability to work under pressure
Give us an example of when you had to organise a complex workload to meet deadlines. How did you cope? What was the outcome?
Question 4: written and oral skills
Describe an occasion when you had the choice of either writing a report or giving an oral report. Which option did you take and why? What was the impact of this decision?
Question 5: management control skills
What methods do you usually use to keep informed of what is going on in your area of responsibility? Provide an example of a situation that seemed to be slipping out of control and tell us what you have done to correct it.
Question 6: relationship building and cooperation skills
Describe the skills and personal qualities you believe are valuable, and those you have personally contributed to build good working relationships and to accomplish a group task or project.
Question 7: problem-solving skills
Describe the biggest problem you have encountered in your last role? How did you handle it? What steps did you take after you identified the problem?
Question 8: leadership skills
Walk me through an example when you successfully led a team to overcome a work-related problem. What methods and techniques you used?
Question 9: initiative skills
What projects have you started on your own initiative in your previous job? Tell me about one. What was the result?
Question 10: creative thinking and innovation skills
Describe a time when you generated a new approach with a lot of new ideas to complete a project. What reactions did you get? What was the outcome?
The panel thanks the candidate for his/her time and ask if he/she has any questions for them. They inform the candidate that they will contact in the next week to tell him/her their decision.
Interviews will be conducted by the panel, which it will identify the key criteria required for the HRM position, knowledge, skills and abilities and person-organisation fit (Warr, 1996; Cable and Judge, 1997). In line with Campion, Pursell and Brown (1988) study, questions reflect of competencies derived from the job analysis, open-ended, clear and concise and free of jargon.
Structured interviews allow the interviewers to collect the same information of all candidates because of the standard set of questions that are asked to every applicant. The questions are asked in a set order with the same phrasing using standardised scoring systems to minimise bias (Spector, 2012; Herriot, 1989).
Structured interviews, as it is widely accepted, have greater validity and reliability than non-structured interviews and as numerous studies showed, ratings of structured interviews on candidates' employment suitability can predict future job performance (Judge, Higgins and Cable, 2000; Cooper and Robertson, 1995; Campion, Pursell and Brown, 1988, McDaniel et al, 1994). More specific, Wiesner and Cronshaw (1988) conducted a meta-analysis of over 100 studies in which they compare structured and unstructured interviews. They found that the average correlation between the interview ratings and future job performance for the structured interviews was higher (r= 0.34) than for the unstructured interviews. Huffcutt and Arthur (1994) found similar correlation results but McDaniel et al (1994) found lower validation (r=0.24). Moreover, numerous studies have shown that interview's rating consist in as the most fair selection method (Bertolino and Steiner, 2007; Ispas et al, 2010).
However, interviews have been criticised a lot due to the fact that interviewer's biases and cognitive processes can reduce the accuracy of judgments and ratings (Conway et al, 1995; Dipboye and Gaugler, 1993). For that reason the panel will be comprised of trained interviewers, competent at documenting and interpreting information, who will be aware of the most common types of error to reduce the risk of bias in ratings and avoid problems such as the Halo effect, first impression, cloning, contrast effects, central tendency, leniency, and strictness (Anderson and Shackleton, 1993).
However, it is almost impossible to reduce biases completely (Herriot, 1989). According to Hough, Oswald and Ployhart (2001), even with experienced interviewers, adverse impact cannot completely be eliminated.
The interview type is competency based behavioural; the questions are behavioural in nature that probe the core competency (UTSA. University career canter, n.d.).
Interviewers will elicit valuable information on candidates' experience and performance in in certain related areas of HR field (IPA, n.d.). This is the most effective approach since it provides an important indicator of their future performance in similar situations (United States office of personnel management, 2008). Additionally, questions related to past behaviour ensure a fair and unbiased selection method since they reduce any misunderstandings and misinterpretations (IPA, n.d.).
Interview decision: rating scales and notes (in appendix section) and examples of actual answers
Candidates will receive individual ratings from more than one interviewer. This is considered as more fair and interviews will be conducted from a panel - validity of panel interviews has been supported by meta-analyses of Wiesner and Cronshaw, 1988.
Each question will be rated individually and interviewers will take detailed notes of any observable behaviour - body language and verbal responses (United States office of personnel management, 2008). Common rating scales indicate a crucial component of the procedure of structured interviews, improving consistency and increasing legal defensibility. Moreover, formal scoring procedures enhance the validity and reliability of interviews (United States office of personnel management, 2008; Woods and West, 2010).
After the candidate leaves the room, the panel will review their ratings and summarise the content of their notes. They will ensure that they consider the total performance of each interviewee thoroughly and objectively and that their ratings are based on specific behavioural examples. Interviewers will also use examples of the actual answers of each question to compare them with each candidate's response (United States office of personnel management, 2008). The rating scale has range from 1 to 5, where 1 represent 'limited qualified' means that the candidate's response is not complete at all and not addresses the question and 5 is for 'very well qualified' where candidate's response is thorough and complete and completely addresses the question.
Candidates with higher scores will be conducted to continue for the assessment centre process.
The assessment will begin with assessors introducing themselves and thorough explanation of the process. Explanation will include a brief overview of the history and purpose of assessment centre, details for each exercise, the use of assessors and assessment procedure and how the information will be used for the final selection (Knapp and Mujtaba, 2011).
This particular selection method is considered as the most suitable for managerial positions due to the requirement of significant interpersonal elements. Assessment centre can be considered as undoubtedly useful because of the richness of the assessment system and information it reveals. Multiple competencies can be assessed with multiple exercises, enabling candidates to present a sample of their job behaviour (Knapp and Mujtaba, 2011; Woods and West, 2010).
A highly qualified team of assessors is essential and significant for the success of the assessment centre, in order that they will be able to accurately observe, classify and rate candidate's competencies and finally include their gathered information into a brief report (Knapp and Mujtaba, 2011; CIPD, 2012a). Assessors will have training before administering the assessment centre since research noted that training of assessors affect the validity and reliability of their ratings (Lievens, 2001; Knapp and Mujtaba, 2011). Furthermore, regarding the use of multiple assessors, Knapp and Mujtaba (2011), suggest that six assessors are a very workable number- and exercises, group discussion of ratings and observations, and assessors' awareness of biases regarding the particular method, can help to increase the defensibility of decision and reduce those biases.
Exercises will be based on job analysis and they will simulate and resemble the actual job duties in order to assure the content validity (Knapp and Mujtaba, 2011; CIPD, 2012a). Candidates will have in-tray/in-basket exercise, a group activity and a presentation assessing communication, decision-making, problem-solving, creativity, managerial and planning skills.
After the competencies were selected and the reflective exercises were designed, a matrix of competencies against exercises was constructed (in appendix section). This indicates which competencies are assessed in each exercise and is used by assessors to evaluate the candidates (Woods and West, 2010).
Decision: Candidates will be rated through a recent development in assessment procedures, the frame-of-reference method of assessment (Lievens and Klimoski, 2001). This method encourages assessors to compare incidents of behaviour and job performance that incorporates behaviour set within work context (Woods and West, 2010), rather than focusing solely on behaviour as in the ORCE (Observe, Record, Classify, Evaluate) method. The frame-of-reference method has been supported from a lot of studies (e.g. Schleicher et al, 1999).
After the conducting of exercises, assessors will integrate their judgments and ratings. Candidates will be scored on each competency, and then the scores will be averaged to give an overall grade. Final decisions will be depended on this final score (Woods and West, 2010).
Taking into consideration the instructions of 'Guidelines and Ethical Considerations for Assessment Center Operation' (2000), candidates will receive feedback on their performance and assessors will provide any recommendations upon it. According to Knapp and Mujtaba's perspective, feedback it the most significant part of assessment centres since in this stage the purpose of the method, the employee selection will be achieved (2011).
Conducting assessment centres are very expensive - they require several assessment tools and assessors- and time consuming (Knapp and Mujtaba, 2011). However, only five applicants will proceed to that stage of selection, there will be three exercises which they will be carried out in a day.
The final decision will be depended on interview and assessment centre scores. Employer's references will be checked for candidates who will have the highest scores. Employers will be asked a series of questions concerning the performance of their previous employee.