Hrm Activities In Healthcare Organizations Commerce Essay

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Manpower planning enables a department to project its short to long term needs on the basis of its departmental plans so that it can adjust its manpower requirements to meet changing priorities. The more changing the environment the department is in, the more the department needs manpower planning to show:

the number of recruits required in a specified timeframe and the availability of talent

early indications of potential recruitment or retention difficulties

surpluses or deficiencies in certain ranks or grades

availability of suitable qualified and experienced successors. (Anon, Civil Service Branch. December 1995, e HRM guide pdf)


Before a department takes steps to employ staff, it should work out the type of staff it needs in terms of grade and rank, and the time scale in which the staff are required. The general principles underpinning recruitment within the civil service are that recruitment should:

use procedures which are clearly understood by candidates and which are open to

public scrutiny;

be fair, giving candidates who meet the stipulated minimum requirements equal

opportunity for selection; and

select candidates on the basis of merit and ability. (Anon, Civil Service Branch. December 1995, e HRM guide pdf)


Performance management is a very important Human Resource Management function. Its objective is to improve overall productivity and effectiveness by maximizing individual performance and potential. Performance management is concerned with -

improving individual and collective performance;

communicating management's expectations to supervisors and staff;

improving communication between senior management, supervisors and staff;

assisting staff to enhance their career prospects through recognizing and rewarding. (Anon, Civil Service Branch. December 1995, e HRM guide pdf)


The objective of training and development is to enable civil servants to acquire the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes necessary to enable them to improve their performance. Staff training and development should focus on the department's objectives and goals and staff's competencies in achieving them. A strategic approach has the following characteristics :

commitment to training and developing people;

regular analysis of operational requirements and staff competencies;

linking training and development to departmental goals and objectives;

skilled training personnel;

regular evaluation. (Anon, Civil Service Branch. December 1995, e HRM guide pdf)


The purpose of staff relations is to ensure effective communication between

management and staff, to secure maximum cooperation from staff, and to motivate staff to give their best by ensuring that they feel fairly treated, understand the overall direction and values of the Civil Service and those of their departments, and how decisions that affect them have been reached.

The principles that govern staff relations are that, where possible:

management should communicate regularly and openly with staff;

staff should be consulted on matters that affect them;

problems and disputes should be resolved through discussion and consultation;

the Government should uphold the resolutions of the International Labour.

1.2 Assess how the HRM objectives are achieved by effective management of human resources.

High-performance work systems (HPWS) is a term used to describe a collection Of HR practices or characteristics of HR systems designed to enhance employees' competencies so that employees can be a reliable source of competitive advantage. A summary of the research on HPWS indicated that a one standard deviation of improved assessment on a HPWS measurement tool increased sales per employee in excess of $15,000 per employee, an 8 percent gain in labour productivity. Some HRM objectives are given below:

Societal objective. The failure of organisations to use their resources for society's benefit may result in restrictions. To be socially responsible to the needs and challenges of society while minimizing the negative impact of such demands upon the organisation For example, societies may pass laws that limit human resource decisions. (May 17, 2007, Shehzad)

Organisational objective. HRM is not an end in itself; it is only a means to assist the organisation with its primary objectives. To recognize that HRM exists to contribute to organisational effectiveness. Simply stated, the department exists to serve the rest of the organisation. (May 17, 2007, Shehzad)

Functional objective. Resources are wasted when HRM is more or less sophisticated than the organisation demands. To maintain the department's contribution at a level appropriate to the organisation's needs. A department's level of service must be appropriate for the organisation it serves. (May 17, 2007, Shehzad)

Personal objective. Personal objectives of employees must be met if workers are to be maintained, retained and motivated. To assist employees in achieving their personal goals, at least insofar as these goals enhance the individual's contribution to the organisation. Otherwise, employee performance and

satisfaction may decline, and employees may leave the organisation. (May 17, 2007, Shehzad)

1.3. Evaluate the contribution of HRM models to effective HRM in healthcare settings.

Every employee deserves the guarantee of health, security and safety. A Human Resources Management (HRM) program ensures positive welfare for workers so that they get the most out of their careers, which will, in turn, increase productivity and benefit the business. (Laura Schlereth, Issue Date: June 2009)

Effective HRM in Healthcare

To develop a mutually beneficial relationship, that a facility manager and HR should have routine meetings to discuss new developments, issues or concerns because what is needed now might be different from what was needed six months ago. As a facilities manager, explore all the ways an HRM plan can benefit you, especially in the following areas:

Hiring and recruiting:

This objective includes creating advertisements that attract the ideal candidates who meet requirements of both the HRM and FM. Together they define the required general and specific competencies of each FM employee's job description, according to physically demanding and potentially dangerous if not all qualifications are met. "It is important that HR and FMs synergize to recruit facility departmental human talent," says Rankin. (Laura Schlereth, Issue Date: June 2009

Outline policies:

Rankin believes that HR and the facilities Manager should collaborate on written safety policies or procedures that employees are expected to follow, which is usually included in the employee handbook. It's important that the facilities manager ensures that building safety matters or procedures addressing workplace hazards are included in the employee manual or other safety standard operating procedure. (Laura Schlereth, Issue Date: June 2009

Safety drills and training:

Routine drills are vital to the safety of the employees. Its imperative that facilities managers facilitate essential mock drills for fires, tornadoes, bomb threats, power outages, etc. at least annually, and the HRM can assist with employee training for these procedures. Without the FM & HRM relationship, important information can easily fall through the cracks. Goldner says that if proper training is given to employees on a consistent basis, crises have the best chance to be averted. "It becomes a proactive model instead of a reactive model," says Goldner. (Laura Schlereth, Issue Date: June 2009


Every employee can help with a building's upkeep, and that it is usually up to the facility manager to tell HR to notify employees of any maintenance responsibilities, such as keeping a kitchen clean.

"The best organizations have processes in place to do the specific tasks,"

The proper sanitation maintenance of a building will prevent cross-contamination and avoid having sick building syndrome (SBS). "HR can be instrumental in the dissemination of information to employees regarding standard practices to reduce the spread of germs," he says. (Laura Schlereth, Issue Date: June 2009


Most importantly, HR can serve FMs by acting as a mediator in the manager-employee relationship. For example, a facilities manager might ask an employee to lift a heavy object but the employee can't because of a disability. It is up to the employee to disclose any physical limitations to HR, and it is HR's responsibility to inform the facility manager of the employee's capabilities, while keeping personal information confidential. (Laura Schlereth, Issue Date: June 2009

Being resourceful:

The facility manager should reach out to HR to learn the best ways to communicate to the employees, and HR should reach out to the facility manager to understand the expectations of any employee, as well as notifying other employees of any facility issues. By acting as resources to each other, a facility manager and HR can help the company thrive. (Laura Schlereth, Issue Date: June 2009

Identify three HR planning and development methods used in healthcare management contexts.

In his book Human Resources Planning: Issues and Methods July 1993 describes that, HR planning and development methods relative to other areas of function of the health care organizations. This is may be for more need to provide HR support efficiently and effectively.(Riitta-Liisa Kolehmainen-Aitken, July 1993)

Ongoing HRH planning requires skilled staff and an organizational base from

which the HRH process can be influenced. Hall (1991) listed the diversity of

talents and expertise required for an HRH planning team. They include:

• Health and human resources planning;

• Economics, policy and statistics;

• Public health administration;

• Social sciences;

• Hospital and facility planning;

• Educational planning and training;

• Expertise in specific health disciplines, such a medicine, nursing, environmental

science, etc.

Planning for HRH thus calls for a team approach. However, personnel with

many of the required areas of expertise are still in short supply in most developing

countries. This fact was recognized by Hornby et al. (1980) more than a

decade ago, when they stated, "One of the factors that has hindered the growth

of manpower planning is the lack of trained planners. Since manpower is needed

at all levels of the health services, there must be an awareness of the need of

planning, and there must be planning itself at all levels national, regional and

local although the details of planning will be different at each level."

personnel, and their staffs have been inadequately prepared for their professional

roles. Such a planning unit requires a permanent administrative nucleus whose

core is a HRH planner with full responsibility for the planning process and the

coordination of the planning team. Besides technical planning skills, the planner

needs interpersonal skills that allow him or her to function as a coordinator,

facilitator, sponsor, negotiator, and diplomat (Hall and Mejia, 1978).

(Riitta-Liisa Kolehmainen-Aitken, July 1993)

Developed Methods:

The WHO defines HRH planning as "the process of estimating the number of

persons and the kinds of knowledge, skills and attitudes they need to achieve

predetermined health targets and ultimately health status objectives." When

alternate projection methods are used, their different results make interpretation

difficult. For instance, in 1991 Khan and Sithole used three different methods to

project staff needs for oral health care in Zimbabwe. All three methods yielded

different results, but even the lowest projection was beyond the resources of

the country.

Few HRH plans have been integrated with a thorough economic analysis or have

critically assessed the productivity and efficiency of health staff. Most methodological

attention has been devoted to improving the techniques of assessing

HRH supply and requirements. Unfortunately, this focus has meant that analytic

methods for improving the efficiency, productivity, and distribution of human

resources or for calculating the cost implications of HRH development have

received much less attention despite the fact that internal inefficiency remains

one of the main problems in the health sector of developing countries (Akin et

al., 1986).

Many of the methods used for the appraisal of efficiency and productivity in

developed countries originated in health care organizational structures that are

substantially different from the prevalent modes in the developing world. These

methods are either too complex to be transported to developing countries or

have data requirements that exceed what is generally available. (See, for instance

Golladay et al., 1974; Hancock et al., 1987; Eastaugh, 1990; Ashby and

Altman, 1992). Most analyses of productivity that have so far been undertaken

in developing countries concentrate on measuring the quantitative supply of

16 (Riitta-Liisa Kolehmainen-Aitken, July 1993)

2.2 Evaluate critically the effectiveness of HR planning and development methods in supporting the achievement of organizational objectives.

The Critical Perspective on Human Resource Management argues that HRM has inherent contradictions derived from its foundation in two different US models that lead to a gap between rhetoric and reality. The gap is interpreted in two ways. Firstly, the Critical Perspective proposes that HRM has only been implemented in rhetoric making it ineffectual. Secondly it proposes that HRM is manipulative and uses soft rhetoric to disguise and gain employee commitment to a hard reality characterized by work intensification and job insecurity. Critiques of the Critical Perspective propose that HRM cannot be both ineffective and manipulative and that the Critical Perspective's view of Human Resource Management is derived from simplistic concepts of HRM and scant and possibly biased evidence. This critique proposes that the Critical Perspective is an academic debate that has had little impact on, or value for, Human Resource Management practitioners. The Critical Perspective on Human Resource Management argues that HRM has inherent contradictions derived from its foundation in two different US models that lead to a gap between rhetoric and reality. The gap is interpreted in two ways. Firstly, the Critical Perspective proposes that HRM has only been implemented in rhetoric making it ineffectual. Secondly it proposes that HRM is manipulative and uses soft rhetoric to disguise and gain employee commitment to a hard reality characterized by work intensification and job insecurity. Critiques of the Critical Perspective propose that HRM cannot be both ineffective and manipulative and that the Critical Perspective's view of Human Resource Management is derived from simplistic concepts of HRM and scant and possibly biased evidence. This critique proposes that the Critical Perspective is an academic debate that has had little impact on, or value for, Human Resource Management practitioners. (Carol Gill, Melbourne Business School, 2007)

Review critically how HR performance in healthcare settings identified and monitored.

The relationship between HRM and performance has received much attention in prior literature, while the employee perspective has been widely neglected in this research tradition. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: first, to identify and evaluate how performance and employee well-being are related, and, secondly, to evaluate the possibilities of HR policies and practices to impact on performance and employee well-being. The results indicate that the relationship performance and employee well-being is weak and difficult to grasp. And such is the direct link between HRM and employee well-being, which is better explained by typical work-related factors. Instead, HR practices are relatively good predictors performance. Key words: HR Practices, Longitudinal Design, Competitive Advantage, Organizational Commitment, Organizational Effectiveness, General Satisfaction, Emotional Exhaustion.

(Sinikka Vanhala, Helsinki School of Economics, April 27, 2006)

The impact of HRM or HR practices on performance has received much attention in prior literature (Huselid 1995; Becker/Gerhart 1996; Guest 1997; Guest et al. 2003; Stravrou/Brewster, 2005). In this tradition human resources are viewed as an integral part of the organizational `architecture' thus having an impact on organizational effectiveness (Cuthrie et al. 2004). The concepts, HRM and performance, are problematic to define and measure. There is a vast literature on `best HR practices', so-called `High Performance Work Practices' (HPWPs), and `bundles' of HR practices representing different views of the role of HRM on performance. Similarly, performance has received much attention representing a multi-level and multidiscipline concept measured at individual, , and financial level. Prior research on the link between HR practices and business performance is generally focused on a limited number of generic human resource activities, such as recruitment and selection, training and development, without specifying what constitutes the `best practice' (Brewster/Larsen 1992; Terpstra/Rozell 1993). More recently, HR bundles and configuration of bundles are applied (MacDuffie 1995; Lahteenmaki et al. 1998; Ichnionovski et al. 1997; Stavrou/Brewster, 2005). However, there seems to be no unanimity of the number or the nature of such practices included in the list .

(management revue, vol 17, issue 3, 2006) (Management Revue, 2006 by Sinikka Vanhala, Kaija Tuomi)

performance has been approached, e.g., from economic, psychological or productivity point of view (Guest 1997). There is no one single definition of performance in relation to HRM. It may refer to several things, e.g., improvements in organizational effectiveness without specifying what they might be (Tichy et al. 1982; Devanna et al. 1984), business turnover or other financial measures (ROA and ROE; Delery & Doty 1996), or a list of short-term and long-term outcomes at the individual and organizational level, e.g., increased commitment and competence, costeffectiveness, and individual well-being and organizational effectiveness (Truss/Gratton 1994; Truss 2001). The `High Performance Work Practices' (HPWPs) debate has increased the range of performance measures along with the lines of the balanced scorecard (Kaplan/Norton 1992, 1993; Guest 1997; Ulrich 1997). In this tradition, the link is tried to establish between HPWPs and a range of individual and organizational-level outcome variables. Such individual-level outcome variables are, e.g., improved employee abilities, knowledge and skills, increased motivation and commitment. Sustained competitive advantage and productivity are organizational level outcomes, and profits and market value are examples of financial outcomes (Guthrie et al. 2004; Gerhart 2005). Generally speaking, the positive relationship between HRM or HR practices and organizational performance is widely documented (Huselid 1995; Huselid et al. 1997; Guthrie et al. 2004; Wright et al. 2005).

3.2 Recommend methods of improving HR management in healthcare contexts.

Human resource approaches to organizational improvement-strategies for investing in people that make organizations better and more productive places to work. Six basic human resource strategies and a set of practices for implementing each. Some methods of improving hr management in health care contexts are given below:

Gain-sharing plan: Plan that gives workers an incentive to reduce costs and improve efficiency by offering them a share of any gains realized from cost reductions and efficiency improvements. (Annomas, 2003)

Profit-sharing plan: Plan by which employees receive a bonus commensurate with the firm's overall profitability or that of their local unit. (Annomas, 2003)

Open-book management: A management philosophy espousing the ideas that all employees (1) should see and learn to understand the company's financial and performance measures; (2) should be encouraged think like owners, and (3) should have a stake in the company's financial success. (Annomas, 2003)

Participation: A general term for management programs that give workers more opportunity to influence decisions about their work and working conditions. (Annomas, 2003)

Motivator: Herzberg's term for a work feature that produces worker satisfaction motivators include achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, and learning. (Annomas, 2003)

Hygiene factor: Herzberg's term for a work feature that produces worker dissatisfaction when below a certain threshold; hygiene factors include policies, supervision practices, and working conditions. (Annomas, 2003)

Job enrichment: According to Herzberg, changing jobs to give workers more freedom and authority, more feedback, and greater challenges while making them more accountable and letting them use more skills. (Annomas, 2003)

Total quality management: A management approach aimed at improving customer satisfaction and hence long-term success through improvements in quality and productivity. Total quality management involves a comprehensive strategy emphasizing workforce involvement, participation, and teaming. (Annomas, 2003)

Sensitivity training: Management training to develop human relations skills through increased awareness of one's own feelings and the feelings of others. (Annomas, 2003)

T group: Small group, led by a trainer, in which sensitivity training is carried out. (Annomas, 2003)

Organization development (OD): A discipline aimed at improving organizations' functioning through means based on human resource assumptions. (Annomas, 2003)