Hr Management In An Organisational Context Commerce Essay


In every organization, there are three major resources to be managed if the organization wants to achieve its objectives and goals. These resources are Humans, materials and financial resources. And out of these three, human resource management is the most important and difficult to manage. The reason being that every human being is born unique and therefore is bound to have different characteristics-- that is, the ways they think feel reason and act. Secondly, human beings control and coordinate the other resources. They constitute the workforce of an organization and are referred to as personnel. Since human nature plays a very major part in the overall success of an organization, it is therefore important to have an effective working relationship between the employee and the manager as this is essential for the success of the organization.

Human Resource Management, which involves the efficient and effective management within an organization, is one of the vital functions of Educational Administrators. This is because every administrator has a function to perform through his staff and his own abilities. Every university like other formal organizations needs human beings to execute its programmes and achieve educational goals and objectives. To be able to achieve this, the Registrar who is the 'chief of administration' has to ensure that personnel with whom he works knows what to do, when to do it and how to do it. Another name for human resource management is personnel management. No matter the name we chose to call it, its basic function is to deal with people who make up an organization. And these people have diverse interest, goals and values.

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Akpakwu (2003), regards personnel management as the proper utilization of the people in an organization towards achieving their needs and organizational goals. To this extent, it involves understanding the nature of people in an organization, their needs and aspiration and evolving the necessary strategies to accomplish these needs and aspirations. It also involves identifying the objectives of the organization and creating a conducive atmosphere towards leading staff to achieving the goals of the organization. Armstrong in Akpakwu (2003), sees personnel management as the process of obtaining, organizing and motivating the human resources needed in by an organization. He advocated for the creation of a very conducive and cordial environment in order to satisfy the needs of the workers and achieve organizational goals. Denga (1990), on the other hand, regards Human management as an exercise in human engineering. People have needs, problems, feelings temperament etc which they come along with to these institutions. What ever name it is called, human resource management is the responsibility of all those who manage people. The administrative manager must therefore find ways of satisfying these needs in such a way that the individual, organization and society's objectives are achieved.


The primary responsibility of a human resource manager is to ensure that human resources are utilized and managed as efficiently and effectively as possible. To this end, the university chief administrator is required meet the following objectives:

Recruitment and selection, developing the work place required by the organization.

Helping in creating a working environment that is conducive for his members of staff so as to promote maximum contentment thereby motivating them.

Ensuring that the abilities and skills of the workforce are used to the optimum in pursuance of the university's mission and mandate.

Ensuring a fair balance between the personal needs of staff and the needs of the Registry and the university in general.

The effectiveness and of any organization is dependent on the efficient use of its resources particularly the human resource.

Human resource functions can be generally classified into three basic functions namely:-

1.Personal utilization to meet organizational needs

2.Motivation of employees to meet their needs and organizational needs

3.Maintenance of human relationships.

Other human resource management functions include :-

1. Recruitment and Selection:- This involves searching for a suitable person to fill the vacant position. In the registry department, the least qualification for an administrative secretary is a bachelor's degree. The basic goal of staffing is to locate qualified applicant who will stay with the organization.

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2. Training and Education:- This involves developing staff to professional growth. In the Registry department, training involves induction of new employees, formal training of staff which may include on the job training.

3. Wages and salary Administration:- This refers to the financial benefits that are given to staff for the jobs they have performed. In the university administration, fixing of salaries is a continuous exercise as position and posts keep changing due to growth and functional advancement.

4. Staff Appraisals:- This is the continuous process of feed back to subordinates about how well they have performed on their jobs. In the registry department, members of staff are formally appraised annually by their immediate supervisors and the evaluation ratified by the Appointments and promotions committee.

5. Welfare:- In University administration, the main purpose of welfare is to provide assistance to members of staff and also encourage a positive relationship between staff and the university by providing extra security comforts.

6. Trade Union Relations: - According to Akpakwu (2003), trade unions are "sounding boards" for policies and decisions affecting staff. In university administration, joint committees comprising management team and trade unions have proved to be effective in resolving conflicts. Trade Unions champion the problems and grievances of their members with the view of improving the welfare of their members.

The functions of chief administrative officer in the university are many. Generally though, he is to plan, organize, coordinate, direct and report activities in relation to staff under him.


All organizations including educational institutions are made up of people who chose to work in it primarily because it enables them to satisfy at least some of their personal needs. Virtually everybody works, plays or is educated in an organization. Attempt must be made to define what an organization is. Ede (2000), defines organization as a system of consciously coordinated activities which are deliberately structured for the purpose of realizing specific goals. Dale (1978), views organization thus: "Whenever several people are working together for a common end, there must be some form of organization: that is the task must be divided among them and the work of the group must be coordinated. Dividing the work and arranging for coordination make up the process of organization and once that is completed, the group may be described as an organization."

According to Unachukwu (1997), the more complex an organization is, the more difficult it is to coordinate activities, predict events or phenomena and attain set objectives maximally. We can therefore view organizational behaviour as the systematic study of the nature of organizations; how they begin, how they develop and their effects on individual members. It is also a systematic attempt to understand the behaviour of people in an organization; not just human behaviour but structural behaviour, elements behaviour, systems behaviour and even policy behaviour. Thus for staff in the registry department of the university to function efficiently and effectively, the Registrar must understand the nature of people he is working with and be able to interpret their behaviours. Organizational behaviour follows the principle of human behaviour: People in an organization are governed by the same psychological mechanisms both on the job and outside the job. Organizational behaviour is human behaviour in a particular setting. The behaviour of an individual in an organization is determined to some extent by internal and external factors. These include learning ability, motivation, perception, attitude, emotions, frustration etc. while the external factors include stress, reward system, degree of trust, group cohesiveness, social factors, office policies etc. Organizational behaviour can also be situational. An individual's behaviour cannot be disassociated from the situation he finds himself. For example, a normally calm individual is forced into constant close physical aggressiveness with some other people. The behaviour of that individual is therefore a function of interaction between his characteristics and other environmental variables. Organizations are seen as complex systems consisting of interrelated subsistence. Changes or alteration in any part of the system have consequences on other part of the system. Modification in the system leads to desired positive changes called functions. Negative consequences in response to alteration or change in the system are called dysfunction. Therefore the behaviour of an individual is borne out of the decisions that have been taken in an organization.

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Organizations represent constant interaction between structure and process. To get an assignment accomplished in an organization, we need to define who does what. Structures refer to organizational shapes, definitions and rules. It is what binds an organization together. Process is the sequence of activity in the system. Decision Making, Communication, Leadership and Conflict are few examples of the many processes that take place within an organization. Ocho (1997), aptly suggests that human beings in an organization need to be constantly motivated for adequate production and commitment. Consequently, the primary responsibility of the Registrar is to ensure that human resources are utilized and managed effectively and efficiently to meet the university goals.


Good human relations in an organization, for it to function effectively and efficiently cannot be over-emphasized. It provides knowledge on how people interact and respond in different organizational situations in an effort to satisfy their needs and in the process meet organizational goals. The chief administrator's ability to understand his staff and their problems, and his belief in and the practice of democratic leadership will go a long way to make him succeed in his supervisory and administrative task. The effective operation of any organization depends on the Human Resources in that organization. Unachukwu (1997), implicitly states that Educational Administration is concerned with the mobilization of the efforts of people for the achievement of educational objectives. It is therefore imperative that the Registrar cultivates the habits of Human Relations in his odious administrative task. Edem (1987), observed that the difference between the ideas of the Efficiency movement and those of the Human Relations movement was that of the former emphasizing getting most out of the worker, even to the extent of requiring him to subordinate his interest and needs of those in the organization, while the latter emphasized the humanitarian aspects which sought to satisfy the needs of the worker, minimize his frustrations and increase the level of job satisfaction.

According to Mary Follet,(1964), a prominent pioneer of the Human Relations movement in the National Society For The Study of Education, she stated that the real service for business men is no t just the production and distribution of manufactured articles, but to give an opportunity for individual development and self-actualization through better organization of human relationships. The process of production is as important for the welfare of society as the product of production. Follet perceives administration as a shared responsibility, asserting that organizational structures should permit a free interplay of ideas in order to minimize the rigidity of hierarchical structures; but warned that shared responsibility should not be construed as being synonymous with laissez-faire and absence of focal points of reference.

Unachukwu (1997), itemized the human relations movement stress as thus:

1. Human relations focus on workers as human beings rather than as


11. It focuses on the development of morale and individual.

111. Human relations emphasize paying attention to workers as human

beings in an informal associations within an organization.

1V. Human Relations led to the policy of consultation of participation by


V. Human Relations approach led to the diffusion of authority which led to

a wider participation in decision making. It led to a decentralized

approach to organization rather than centralization. This explains why

committees are used as tools for decision making.


Without human resource, there can be no organization. These human resources are in two categories: Management and Subordinates.

Okonkwo (1997), is of the view that workers and their needs should be uppermost in the minds of the leadership of any organization. In other words, poor management of human resources in an organization will lead to ineffectiveness or collapse of the organization. Edem (1998), states that the Barnard-Simon theory of motivation recognizes the relationship between the satisfaction by organizations of the needs of workers and the workers productivity. The theory assumes that workers will perform satisfactorily well if their needs are met. Nwankwo (1982), opines that the more the needs of workers are satisfied within the organization, the more they are motivated to work and thus satisfy the needs of the organization. To motivate a worker therefore is to propel, impel and energize him into action that will lead eventually to the achievement of organizational goals. Thus motivation is primarily concerned with spending effort towards a goal.

Leavitt (1972), provided motivation model from three basic premises:-

Behaviour is caused: The things we do, do not just happen. There

always underlying factors

Behaviour is directed: In the ultimate sense, there aimless behaviour.

Behaviour is motivated: Underlying what we do are motives and

drives which provide us with the energy to attain goals or at least to

move in the direction of goals.

These three premises help a lot in understanding the behaviour of workers in an organization. When Adam Smith conceptualized the economic basis of human motivation, it was his opinion that people work primarily for money and are unconcerned about social feelings, and are motivated to do only that which provides them with them with the greatest reward. This approach has been criticized because its view of man is dehumanizing. Money may not be the only primary source of rewarding behaviour in an organization as there is limit to which money can be used in motivating workers. According to Argyle (1972), People can become committed to the goals of the organization as a result of participating in decision making in their work place or co-partnership schemes or through their relationships with groups or supervisors. Commitment could also come through the job itself. For example through ones achievements, recognition, responsibility and professional growth. All these are motivators that would energize human resources to meet organizational goals and objectives. The ability of the educational manager to therefore plan and organize human resources effectively, motivate and control the staff is crucial to the effective and efficient management of the university. This is because good human resource management practice not only helps in attracting and retaining the best of staff, but also motivating them to outstanding work performance. Lack of motivation in work situations has serious effect on job satisfaction and when job satisfaction is absent, the worker might soon leave the organization. Saiyadanin (1999), supporting states that advancement or changing one's status reflects when this growth is not experienced, the staff member becomes frustrated and dissatisfied.

The Health Care Financing Administration's Human Resources Management

Strategic Plan:

The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) has developed a very noteworthy approach to aligning human resources management with mission accomplish-ment. HCFA's Human Resources Management Group (HRMG), Learning Resources Group (LRG), and Office of Equal Opportunity and Civil Rights (OEOCR) collaborated to develop a draft Human Resources Strategic Plan that goes beyond each of these individual organi-zation's human resources responsibilities and instead addresses the entire sub-component's human resources management responsibilities. It assigns accountability for specific HRM goals to HRMG, LRG, OEOCR, senior leadership, line managers, employees, the union, and/or other non-HR stakeholders. The HRMG, LRG, and OEOCR worked very closely with the HCFA strategic planning and evaluation

office to tie the plan to HCFA's strategic plan. Specifically, the plan includes challenges that HCFA will face in the future, HRM goals that will support HCFA in meeting those challenges, potential performance indicators and strategies for each goal, the roles and responsibilities of HRMG, LRG, OEOCR, managers, employees, and other stakeholders, and finally how to implement and assess its results.


In the end, HR can only determine its value to the organization by measuring it. Earlier in this report, we saw that most agencies had at least defined HR output measures in agency strategic plans, annual performance plans, and/or HR strategic plans. This is an encouraging trend, but we need to look further at whether these measures are actually being tracked and used for decision making. The best measures in the world are meaningless if not used. HRM measures in the strategic and annual performance plans are usually tracked by the HR office and forwarded to the planning office for distribution and sharing of the information. A few agencies, such as NASA, SSA, and Education, report actually using the information for decision making and tracking whether goals are being met. NASA even posts the information on its web page. However, we found that most agencies look at available data without really evaluating how

the information can be used to enhance goal attainment. HR staffs find that measures from HR strategic plans tend to be more useful than those in the agency strategic or annual plans, at least at the functional level. As discussed earlier, HR strategic plan measures tend to focus on internal HR programs, policies, and processes, and can therefore point to deficiencies in these areas. HR officials can then use this information to make improvements to the problem areas. From an organizational perspective, however, the measures are generally not very helpful in determining achievement of HR goals because they are process rather than outcome oriented. Few agencies have implemented elaborate systems to track HRM goals and measures. Nonetheless, there are quite a few interesting approaches some agencies are using to measure their HRM performance.

Benchmarking is a systematic process of measuring an organization's products, services, and practices against those of a like organization that is a recognized leader in the studied area. Many Federal HR offices are using this practice to identify ways to improve service and align with business results. The most common benchmarking effort Federal HR offices have participated in is the National Academy of Public Administration-Hackett Group HR Benchmarking Study. There are at least 19 Government agencies involved in the benchmarking of 22 HR processes within four areas: administration, risk management, employee development, and decision support. The study also helps to gauge HR alignment through decision support categories such as resource planning, organizational planning, and strategic HR planning. Most participating agencies see the value in the information but have not devised strategies for how to use it.


There are numerous, major methods and movements to regularly increase the performance of organizations. Each includes regular recurring activities to establish organizational goals, monitor progress toward the goals, and make adjustments to achieve those goals more effectively and efficiently. Typically, these become integrated into the overall recurring management systems in the organization.

Any or all of the following approaches will improve organizational performance depending on if they are implemented comprehensively and remain focused on organizational results. Some of the following, e.g., organizational learning and knowledge management, might be interpreted more as movements than organization performance strategies because there are wide interpretations of the concepts, not all of which include focusing on achieving top-level organizational results. However, if these two concepts are instilled across the organization and focus on organizational results, they contribute strongly to organizational performance. On the other hand, the Balanced Scorecard, which is deliberately designed to be comprehensive and focused on organizational results, will not improve performance if not implemented from a strong design.

The following descriptions are general and brief. Follow the link to get more information about each of the approaches.

NOTE: There certainly are other approaches than those listed below for a planned, comprehensive approach to increasing organizational performance. It may very well be that the vast majority of approaches used in organizations are highly customized to the nature of the organizations, and therefore not publicized or formalized in management literature.

Balanced Scorecard:

Focuses on four indicators, including customer perspective, internal-business processes, learning and growth and financials, to monitor progress toward organization's strategic goals


Using standard measurements in a service or industry for comparison to other organizations in order to gain perspective on organizational performance. For example, there are emerging standard benchmarks for universities, hospitals, etc. In and of itself, this is not an overall comprehensive process assured to improve performance, rather the results from benchmark comparisons can be used in more overall processes. Benchmarking is often perceived as a quality initiative.

Business Process Reengineering:

Aims to increase performance by radically re-designing the organization's structures and processes, including by starting over from the ground up.

Continuous Improvement:

Focuses on improving customer satisfaction through continuous and incremental improvements to processes, including by removing unnecessary activities and variations. Continuous improvement is often perceived as a quality initiative.

Cultural Change:

Cultural change is a form of organizational transformation, that is, radical and fundamental form of change. Cultural change involves changing the basic values, norms, beliefs, etc., among members of the organization.


Is an internationally recognized standard of quality, and includes guidelines to accomplish the ISO9000 standard. Organizations can be optionally audited to earn ISO9000 certification.

Baldridge Award.

ISO9000 is a quality initiative.

Knowledge Management:

Focuses on collection and management of critical knowledge in an organization to increase its capacity for achieving results. Knowledge management often includes extensive use of computer technology. In and of it self , this is not an overall comprehensive process assured to improve performance. Its effectiveness toward reaching overall results for the organization depends on how well the enhanced, critical knowledge is applied in the organization.

Learning Organization:

Focuses on enhancing organizations systems (including people) to increase an organization's capacity for performance. Includes extensive use of principles of systems theory. In and of itself, this is not an overall comprehensive process assured to improve performance. Its effectiveness toward reaching overall results for the organization depends on how well the enhanced ability to learn is applied in the organization.


The workplace is a source of stress for many employees. Pressure from the boss and colleagues can debilitate and increase the stress you already feel simply by coping with the trials of daily life. Taking the time to relieve stress at work is difficult if your moments are counted by a supervisor but the effort to make the time will be rewarded by better performance and a better attitude overall. These are the strategies to follow..

Things should be Need:

Water bottle

Healthy snacks

Balanced lunch

Step 1

Ensure that your water bottle is full at the start of everyday. Make a goal for yourself; how many times will you fill the bottle today? Staying hydrated is critical. The consumption of water helps with headaches, fatigue and other symptoms of stress.

Step 2

Take care not to take on more tasks than you can handle. Juggling too many ideas and plans can be overwhelming. If you are not permitted to speak up when being assigned tasks, simply prioritize and use lists throughout the day to stay organized.

Step 3

Eat healthy snacks and a balanced lunch mindfully, instead of in a few hurried gulps at the computer or vending machine. Taking a few minutes to enjoy the flavors and the textures can provide a much-needed break from the pressures of the day.

Step 4

Do airplane stretches and neck rolls while seated at your desk. Ankle rotations and heel lifts also ease the tension of sitting in one position for too long and improve circulation.

Step 5

When necessary, ease eye strain or a headache located right behind the eyes with this simple self-massage technique. Place right front finger on right side of the bridge of your nose, and left front finger on the left side. Apply gently pressure for seven to 10 seconds and release. Repeat.

Step 6

If possible, find a secluded place in your building or nearby. If your workplace has a courtyard, reserve a spot for yourself and give yourself a break daily. Associate this secluded place with relief and an absence of stress and intentionally arrive there with a plan to relax for a short time.


There are many advantages of human resource in an organization some of them include:

Human resource helps in employee management:

There are many advantages that human resource provides in an organization but the foremost advantage of human resource in an organization is the assistance it provides in Recruiting staff and in training employee. The human resource department is mostly responsible to develop the systematic plan according to which they hire the staff and help to build a professional work team.

There are series of strategies that the human resource system implements in employment appointing which includes:

Allocated training sessions for employees

Develop test plans for employee

To manage and analyze employee interviews

To create internship opportunities

Human resource provides consultancy:

There are many issues that the employee or work-team of an organization faces. The advantage of human resource is that it's a medium which provide all the consulting that a employee needs and also answer general queries. Human resource is very effective in an organization to settle down any managerial dispute or employee problem in a professional and proficient manner.

Building business plan:

On more advantage of human resource is that these departments actively participate in business and marketing decision. The human resource system comprises of highly dedicated professionals who have the ability to devise new plan and implement marketing strategies that would bring more business and capital to the organization.

Forethought of business:

Human resource also deals with the long-term management of the business. This department evaluates the future scope of the business and devises strategies which would be profitable to the organization in the longer run and bring in stability to the business and provide it an established medium to stand on in the future.

Building public relations:

Human resource also helps the business and commerce to make public relations and built a proper referral system. It is very necessary that the business develops an association with other businesses in the market so it could propel its earning through collaboration with other business sectors. The human resource department arranges seminars, business meetings and official gathering for the company so that it gets acquainted with the market and other businesses.

These advantages therefore clearly illustrate how important the human resource is for an organization. Whether the business is small or it's a big budget industry, building and maintaining a high profile human resource system is very necessary if the business wants to avoid disputes and problems in the longer run. The human resource can be deployed in a small organization at a low scale by hiring minimal staff and growing it gradually as the business progress.

Some more..

Taking a position in an HR department will finally allow you to get your foot in the door. It's a chance to show your HR colleagues you have what it takes to be one of them. The staff will get to know you and your skills, and you will have the inside track on upcoming openings.

Because most temporary positions are fairly low-level, you will have the opportunity to learn HR from the ground up. You will get a good sense of the basics, which will be invaluable as you build your career. And you'll gain valuable experience that you can cite when applying for permanent positions.

You can begin to build your HR network. As you move from job to job, you will meet HR people along the way. Try to stay in touch with these people and network whenever possible. They are in the best position to hear about openings for someone with your skills. If you contact them on a regular basis, they'll be certain to think of you when there are openings in their departments.

And here's the biggest advantage: Temping is a great way to try out different areas of HR without making a long-term commitment. Exposure to different areas of HR will help you narrow down what you truly want to do.


Most positions are very clerical in nature. You may find you are not as challenged as you would like to be, and your work may suffer. If that happens and you are not working at your best, your temporary employer is unlikely to ask you to join its HR team permanently. So stay sharp and do your best, whether you're answering phones or proofreading policy manuals. Remember that this job is not forever -- that's why it's called temporary.

It can be difficult to overcome the stigma associated with temping. You sit in the office answering phones and clutching your MBA, watching less-qualified people interview for HR positions. Regardless of your qualifications, your colleagues may come to view you as just a "temp." And if the company does hire you on a permanent basis, there will always be one or two people who remember you that way. It can be challenging to convince your co-workers you are a qualified professional.

Placement agencies often charge a substantial fee if a client hires a temporary worker within a certain time period after initiating a contract. These fees can run as high as 30 percent of your salary. Needless to say, many companies would rather hire from the abundant pool of entry-level HR candidates than pay for the privilege of giving someone a position.

And here's the biggest disadvantage: If you take these assignments, you may get lazy about your job search. It is very easy to get comfortable in your temporary environment, and it's very hard to spend hours after work searching job sites and polishing your CV. Avoid this trap by remaining constantly aware that this is a temporary situation, not a permanent solution to your quest for a satisfying HR career.


People and risk are as integral to farming as are weather, prices. and technology. Human resources must have careful attention if managers are to have a full understanding of their sources of risks and their alternatives for handling risk.

Managers' paradigms, understanding of human resource management, and human resource skills determine the success they will have with people. Like the rest of risk management, blaming others for management shortcomings neither solves problems nor provides escape from the problems.

The good news is that managers can make human resource management one of their strengths. The result will be better risk management, more effective management, and greater satisfaction from working with people.