Hr Behaviour Within An Organisation Commerce Essay

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We are all planners. As individuals, we put together menus, make shopping lists, set out essays and revise for examinations, schedule our holidays and arrange for our retirement. With friends, we discuss where to go and what to do. We hope that someone has a sense of direction, and another a sense of time if there is a deadline. Often plans are informal, including many in business. Whether formalised or not they give shape and purpose to our lives and enable us to gather resources and co-operate with others in achievement of ends. In larger organisations, plans are usually formal. A plan is an explicit statement of intention that identifies both objectives and the actions needed to achieve them.

How the two aspects of this statement, objectives and action, must be integrate. The most creative, visionary strategic planning is useless if it is not translate in to action. The opposite action without planning, matches many entrepreneurs, exploiting opportunities as they arise and planning intuitively, if at all. Large organisations cannot work like this.

The term objective presents some difficulty for the management. Because it is frequently mixed with terms such as goal, aim and so on. Some authors offer shades of meaning while others, along with many managers, are less formal. At this stage, we shall stick to one term, objective. It is a statement of the future that the organisation wants or will achieve. Good objectives identify both the state and the time when it is to be reaching. Planning is the process of setting the objectives of an organisation and the means for their achievement.

While some suggest that planning is the primary management function from which all activities follow, it is dependent on other managerial activities. For example, it goes hand in hand with control. The former sets the direction and points the organisation along its route; the latter ensures that the direction is maintain or, if that proves impossible, it warns of the need to choose a new direction. Together, planning and control form a cycle with four elements. While in practice it represents a continuous loop, we can start to read the diagram in a clock-wise direction starting from formulate plans. The planning process involves this stage and initiates the next- carry out plans. Then follow control, with two elements- comparison and correction.

Comparison requires observation of the out-comes of the action stage to discover how closely its results match the plan. The last stage, take corrective action, depends on the mismatches between the plan and its achievement. Changes can be made to the way the plan is being carried out {Review implementation}. Alternatively, if the gap is such that the plan itself needs review then it can be adapted {review future plans}. This idea of a cycle of planning and control is a widespread, recurring one in management.

B. 3, 1 Motivation

Managers who can successfully motivate their employees are generally rewarded by their high performance. However, that is not so easy to accomplish. If it were, every employee would be an outstanding performer. One major obstacle is that conditions beyond a manager or company's control can affect employee motivation. Furthermore, these conditions keep changing. The state of economy for instance constantly fluctuates and this can influence the motivation level of many employees. In addition, family and other personal circumstances can sometimes acutely affect their attitudes and level of effort.

When we use the term of motivation, regardless of the setting, what does mean? Motivation can thought of as the set of force that energies direct and sustain behavior. These forces can come from the person, the so-call <push> of internal forces, or they can come from the environment that surrounds the person, the so-called <pull> of external force. It is therefore essential for managers to recognize the importance of both sets of factors when they are analyzing motivational causes of behavior.

3, 2 Sources of Motivation

There are three basic categories of variables that determine motivation in the work setting.

1. The characteristics of the individual

2. The characteristics of the job

3. The characteristics of the work situation

The first category, the individual's characteristics is the source of internal or pushes force of motivation. This is what employee brings to the work setting. Three variables contribute to an individual's push forces. The person's {A} needs such as the need for security, self-esteem, achievement or power. {B} attitudes toward self, a job, supervisor, or the organisation. And {C} goals such as task completion, accomplishment of a certain level of performance and career advancement.

The second category of motivation forces that relates to the external or pulls force, focuses on characteristics of a person's job, what the person does in the work setting. These characteristics include how much direct feedback the person receives, the person workload, the variety and scope of the tasks that make up the job, and the degree of control the person has in terms of how he or she does the job.

The third category of motivation force also consists of external pull force. It relates to the characteristics of the work situation, what happens to the individual. This category has two sets of variables. The immediate social environment composed of the person's supervisor's, work group members, and subordinates. Various types of organisation actions such as firm's reward and compensation practices, the availability of training and development, and the amount of pressure applied to achieve high level of output.

Theories address the issue of what needs a person is trying to satisfy and what feature of the work environment seem to satisfy those needs. Such theories try to explain motivation by identifying both {a} internal factors that is particular needs, and {b} external factors particular job and work situation characteristics that are presumed to cause behavior. Two content theories need hierarchy and acquired needs theories, focus on identifying internal factors. A third theory, the two-factor theory focus on identifying external factors.

3, 3 Abraham Maslow's Theory

The most prominent need hierarchy theory was developed many years a go by psychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslws theory appealed to managers because it was easy to remember. It contains five types of needs that are arranged in a hierarchy of strength and influence, starting with the most essential.

Physiological Needs: the need for the basic essentials of life, such as water, food, shelter and so on.

Security Needs: the need to feel safe and secure.

Social {belongingness} Need: the need to be loved and accepted by other people.

Esteem Needs: the need for self-respect and respect from other people.

Self-actualisation Needs: the need to be personally fulfill, to feel a sense of achievement and accomplishment, and especially to develop one's own unique talents to their highest possible levels.

The essence of Maslow's need hierarch theory is that an individual is motivated to satisfy the most basic needs first such as {physiological needs} and then, if those are satisfied move to the next level. According to this theory, only when their most basic needs have been met will people be able to concentrate on satisfying higher-level needs. However if the persons basic physiological and security needs should become threatened, they would then be likely to revert to focusing on those lower- order needs. They would decrease their efforts to satisfy social, esteem and achievement needs until or unless the threat has passed.

3, 4 Clay Alderfer's Theory

Alderfer.s alternative version, labeled ERG theory for Existence, Relatedness and Growth, collapsed Maslw's five levels in to three and provides a more straightforward way of thinking about need hierarchies. ERG the theory differs from Maslo's theory in some respects. For example, it presumes that different levels of needs can be active at the same time. Thus, lower level doses not have to be completely or even mostly satisfied before higher level needs can emerge. Also Alderfer's version suggests that even though a lower level need if he or she gets frustrated trying to satisfied a higher level need.

ERG theory presents an interesting alternative to Maslow's earlier, more complicated version, but the key point is that both theories focus on people's attempts to satisfy particular needs and on how that can affect the amount and direction of motivation.

3, 5 David McClelland Theory

This acquired needs theory focuses on learning, or acquired, needs that become, <enduring predispositions> or tendencies of individuals, almost like personality traits, that can be activated by appropriate cues in the environment. McClelland considered three of the needs to be especially important affiliation, power and achievement. However most McClellan's research has concentrated on the need for achievement.

According to McClelland's theory, a person who has a high need for achievement is someone who habitually strives for success or goal attainment in task situations {though not necessarily in other types of settings}. The research data collected by McClelland and his associates indicate that high need-achievement individuals prefer to-

Work on tasks of moderate difficulty.

Take moderate risks.

Take personal responsibility for their actions.

Receive specific and concrete feedback on their performance.

In other words, high need achievers want challenge, but realistic challenges not impossible ones? Especially important from a managerial perspective, McClelland's theory suggests that <appropriate> training, that is showing people how to recognise and respond to relevant achievement cues, can increase the need for achievement. However, this feature of the theory is controversial. Many experts doubt the extent to which permanent changes in the need for achievement can be brought about by such training.

3, 6 Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory

In the early 1960s, Frederick Herzberg, an American psychologist, proposed a motivation theory that came to be called the <two-Factor Theory>. This theory focused on the distinction between factors that can increase job satisfaction<motivators> versus those that can prevent dissatisfaction but cannot increase satisfaction. <Hygiene factors> motivators are intrinsic factors directly related to the doing of a job, such as the nature of the work itself, responsibility level, personal growth opportunities, and the sense of achievement and recognition directly received by performing the work. The other factors, <hygiene factors> are extrinsic to directly performing the job. They instead are associated with conditions surrounding the job. Hygiene factors include supervision, relations with coworkers, working conditions, and company policies and practices related to benefits and compensation.

C. Training and Development

Tesco Ireland is one of Ireland's top ten private sector employers, with some 12,000 people employed in stores, offices and distribution centers. As an innovative and energetic company in the highly competitive retail environment, learning and progression from within the company is core to the operation.

The company support's employee to achieve their potential through access to specially- tailored training programmers, and core skills workshops including effective meeting management, presentation skills, influencing, root case analysis, personal efficiency and communication skills.

All staff has regular performance reviews with their managers and agree personal development plan, setting clear personal performance objectives. This ensures that all staff has the right skills to do the jobs.

Tesco Ireland recently launched a new way of helping people develop their careers called <Talent Spotting> on annual basis, each individual has a career discussion with his or her manager to plan career progression.

Chapter 4 Conclusion

A plan is an explicit statement of intention that identifies both objectives and the actions needed to achieve them and planning is the process of setting the objectives of individual, group or an organisation and the means for their achievement.

Maslow's five levels of needs arranged in a hierarchy people not conscious of needs but normal people proceed to make predictable climb from bottom to top: physiological +safety +affection +esteem and self-actualisation. Alderfer has condensed Maslow's list into three levels-existence, relatedness and growth. Suggested a continuous rather than a strict step-by-step progress. Frustration at one level may lead to regression to the next one down.

Herzberg's two different factors affect motivation at work. Hygiene factors prevent dissatisfaction but do not promote more satisfaction even if provided in abundance. Motivators or growth factors push the individual to greater performance. McClelland's proposed that some important needs are not inherited but are learned. Most frequently studied are the needs for achievement, affiliation and power. People with strong needs in these categories are often found in the roles of entrepreneur, team co-ordinators and top managers of large hierarchies.

However, it is important to note that American behavioural scientists developed almost all these theories. Thus, an obvious question is, do these theories apply only in the context of American culture and society, or can the theories be used to analysis motivation in other society and cultures? Based on the available evidence, the best answer is that some of the theories can be apply widely across the world whereas others cannot.

Chapter 5 Recommendations

As every one knows, training forms an important part of staff and personal development, focussing on key issue and business priority always improving company growth and service to customers. However, Tesco Ireland management is specialised on this sector and always the company's annual growth are improving even in the recession time.