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Suraj Cotton Mills Limited was incorporated on December 18, 1984 and is listed on the Karachi and Lahore Stock Exchanges. The company is engaged in the manufacturing and sale of yarn and fabrics with combined capacity of 92,928 spindles and weaving unit of 208 looms, and end products are sold to international and national customers.
We are committed to becoming the premier manufacturing organization in the textile industry maintaining market leadership in the present business and diversifying into value added projects with the object of maximizing returns for all the stakeholders.
We are determined to convert our vision into reality by using innovation to create a market niche for our products and by investing in facilities, people, systems and new technology, diversification into value addition and improvements in productivity and service to customers.
We shall aggressively exploit new markets by drawing strength from our corporate image and by promoting a culture that encourages initiatives at all levels of decision-making.
We have made pioneering efforts in development of new products, which has enabled us to emerge as a market leader. This together with an innovative and professional management style has helped us to build a strong and financially sound base.
Values of the organization
We take pride in adhering to ethical business practices and in being a good corporate citizen.
We respect our people and endeavour to provide them opportunities to realize their full potential. We recognize our responsibility to our stakeholders and society
Since the quality standards become important every company has to full fil the requirement to get ISO to export their products. ISO stands for 'international standard organisation'. Suraj cotton Mills Limited had no any quality standards before year 2000 but management had decided to include ISO 9002 in year 2000 to achieve its long term strategic objectives and it is managed by the quality department which is most important to achieve the company vision and mission .
In this report first we discuss about the problems and then sort out the problem giving a specific solution and at the end we implement at Suraj cotton mills limited
LO 1. Understand how to apply solutions to organizational change
Identifying a range of organisational change models or frameworks
The model provides a clear state that the organization is being changed from one static state to another with a progression shift. This model is also known as unfreeze-change-refreeze because of its three stages which are mentioned below
Unfreeze: At this stage a changing condition is most important for change to occur, because it is possible that people are attached with the existing system and they feel uncomfortable even beneficial ones. That's why it's like a challenge to shift people from a freezing state towards a change.
Change: Change is middle stage where the confusion may arises at a typical psychological level because people knows that the existing system is being challenged and people may show reduction in efficiency because they don't know about the way where they are going, at this stage a typical leadership is required to improve the people moral by couching, consulting and psychological sport.
Refreeze: The most important stage of this model is 'refreeze' re-established the stability and increase the moral of the employee, and the people has entered a new environment which is familiar to them and they have entered a stage from less product to more productive.
Beckhard and Harris
It is base on three stages present, transition and future stage and it is necessary that the people enough dissatisfied with the present system and feel a real need for change. we can show this using a change equation:-
D x V x S Â» R
'D' stands for dissatisfaction
'V' stands for Vision
'S' Stands for first step towards change
'R' stands for resistance
Change is possible If the right hand side is greater than the left side of the equation it mean if people are dissatisfied and they have vision and they can take a step towards prosperity they can get change in the organisation.
Applying a range of creative problem solving techniques to address change challenges
Following are some problem solving techniques which are normally use to solve a particular problem. From these techniques we can use a single one or a combination of two as well.
Change path, Change start point, Change style, Change interventions, Change roles
Suraj cotton had chosen to apply some problem solving techniques to for the implementation they chosen the change path and change start point.
The change path option seems to be a simple one revolutionary or evolutionary.
And the management of Suraj had adopted the evolutionary one because the management has the enough time to accomplish the change and they were committed but the path was unclear and there was a need for more investigation
Change Start Point
Under the change start point the change can be handle either the top down strategy or a bottom up but it is totally depends on the availability of time, scope, position of the leader or manager and the readiness for a change
After a careful observation the management of Suraj cotton adopted the bottom up strategy due to following reasons
Time: they have enough time to implement of change
Readiness for change: there were a least deadliness for change or in other words the people were not willing for change because, before ISO they were no need for some procedures had to follow. The laborer were doing the things by their own
Position of quality control manager: just because of the above reason the manager needed a strategy to implement the things more effectively that's why the chose the bottom up thing
1.3 Identifying and justifying change solutions that link to organisatial on strategic plans
Strategic planning is a way to define an organisational direction and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue its strategy and different types of techniques are available for a strategic planning e.g. PESTLE analysis (Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal, and Environmental) , SWOT Analysis (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) The plan of Suraj cotton mills limited is to become the premier manufacture in the textile industry and keep their position as leader in the business and diversifying into values added projects with the object of maximizing returns for the all stakeholders. The employees are also very important stakeholders of the company. That's why the Suraj cotton made a quality department to improve organizational performance for the achievement of the organizational objective for which the company is committed.
Following were the important changes which made Suraj
Suraj Cotton Mills had changed its manual procedure into computer based
The management had implement introduced the ISO
Suraj Cotton Has brought about a big change with the help of HR department in the shape of Training of every employee to learn the changes
HR has started to conduct an interview before and after the training to test the skills before the training and to check the change after the training.
Suraj Cotton has changed its culture for the more stable and planned development.
Suraj Cotton has committed to becoming the premier manufacturing organization in the textile industry maintaining market leadership in the present business and diversifying into value added projects with the object of maximizing returns for all the stakeholders. It was not possible with the quality and customer satisfaction. The management of Suraj Cotton had need ISO to compete the market competition and get the satisfaction of their customer.
LO 2. Understand how to develop a change strategy using implementation models
2.1 Evaluating a range of change implementation models
A change model is a path for a specific change initiative. It provides a direction in right way towards your strategic objectives. There is different change model may use to bring about change in an organisation. These models are Kotter's 8 stage model, Action Research model, Beer et al six step model, Balance scorecard, EFQM, IIP, Normative-Reeducativ, and Business Process Reengineering etc
Now we can discuss some of them
Kotter's 8 Stage
I live in a world where change is happened very quickly due to new process, technologies, due to competition. Kotter's 8 stages model is help full during change initiatives. It based on following 8 steps
Stage 1: Establishing a Sense of Urgency
To bring about change it is important to develop a sense of urgency around the needs for change, discuss with the people about the marketplace and competition. Once we get involve many people to talk about the change, the urgency can be built its self.
Stage 2: Creating a Guiding coalition
A strong leadership is required to convince people for the change, we can find such people throughout the organisation to lead change. We should need to bring together as a team with their different influential traits including job title, expertise, and political importance.
As we successfully formed the change coalition, what we can do.
Stage 3: Create a vision for change
While thinking about change there is many great ideas float around. These ideas and solutions should be linked with the overall vision that people can easily get it and keep it in their minds. If they know about the vision of the company they can easily understand that why you are asking them for the change. Once people start thinking that what the management is trying to achieve then tell them the directions.
Stage 4: Communicate the vision
The success of the vision is depend on the action. We have to face a strong competition against our message from others but we need to communicate it powerfully. we don not need to arrange a special meeting for this purpose we can communicate it when we need a good chance and use it to make day to day decision and problem solving. When we successfully complete the task to keep everything fresh in everyone's mind then people remember it and respond in the right way
Stage 5: Remove Obstacles
At this stage might be or not to face a resistance by the employees. If the staff has understood everything it is ok, but if they don not then we need to tackle it tactfully. We need to put in the structure of change and continually check for obstacles to it. To remove the obstacles can allow power to people and It can help to change move forward.
Stage 6: generating short term wins.
At the start a short term plan should be implemented rather than a long one, the result of it will encourage the people for further wins and we don't need to face the critics
Stage 7: Build on the change.
This is a crucial stage for change once we get win form the starting point we need to keep focus on continues change. Earlier declaration of achievement can be dangers for change there is harm for pace. Each and every success gives an opportunity to build that what is going on track and what we can further improve.
Stage 8: anchor the changes in corporate culture
at this stage we gives the impact on the corporate culture due to this the value and vision must show in the daily work. With the continues effort it give change every aspect of the organisation and it gives a place in the organisational culture (Kotter ( 1995) , "Leading Change.")
2.2 Identifying the criteria to select a change implementation model that supports organisational change
Change implementation model for Suraj Cotton Mills Limited
Suraj Cotton has chosen Kottor's 8 stage model because it can be implemented in shorter time which was the key requirement of the change initiative
The implementation process is important for the effectiveness for the change initiative a comprehensive campaign was launched for the necessity of ISO certification to satisfy the customer need and to achieve the overall objectives of the organisation.
Stage 1: Establishing a Sense of Urgency
Suraj cotton has establish a sense of urgency to involve the people to tell them the need for ISO Certification that it is basic requirement for the export and in side the country to satisfy the customer.
What we can do
Identify the future threats
Examine opportunity that could be exploited
Discuss with people and give some convincing reason to get them talking and thinking.
Involve important stakeholders to strength the argument
Stage 2: Creating a Guiding coalition
After a successful establishment a sense of urgency the next big and important task for the Management of Suraj Cotton was together people and build up leadership with different traits to convince people for the initiate change for ISO. As we successfully formed the change coalition what we can do.
Find out the true leader with in the organisation
Let them allow to describe their commitments
Build up the team within the change coalition
Keep eye on the companies' weak area and mix up the different department to over come these weaknesses.
Stage 3: Create a vision for change
Vision is considered a very important part of the change it give a right direction to Suraj Cotton. The management has successfully realized to its employee about the vision of the organisation for which we need ISO Certification. Once people start thinking that what the management of Suraj Cotton is trying to achieve then tell them the directions.
What we can do
Suraj Cotton focus on the values which is centre to the change
Suraj Cotton determine the future of the organisation to develop a short summery.
Devise a strategy for the execution of the vision
Stage 4: Communicate the vision
Once Suraj Cotton creates a vision for the change for ISO, then the most important stage is to communicate with the employees to realize them for the importance of vision for the change. The management always gets help from vision during daily task and to resolve the problems Managers normally meet with the employees at break time and do lunch together and discuss the things about the vision and change for ISO, it helps the management to keep everything fresh in everyone's mind then people remember it and respond in the right way
What we do:
Talk as much as we can about vision
Talk openly with the people about the organisational concerns
Apply vision in every aspect of the change and problem solving
Link every thing with the vision
Explain every thing with help of examples which can be easily understand
Stage 5: Remove Obstacles
Before to go for anything new we have to face resistance form even a single person. Management of Suraj Cotton has got involve the HR department to know about the human behaviors and attitude during change process. The management found out the people who does not show their interest in the change, talk to them and with the long discussion they has resolved the problems. The management has established a process to check the change process of ISO on continues bases.
What Suraj Cotton has done
To search out the leader with in the organisation who can deliver the change to the all.
To evaluate the organisational structure, employee's performance and job description is align with the vision
Help to those people who are resisting the change to make understand the effects of the change
Take quick action to resolve the problems
Stage 6: Generating Short Term Wins.
Suraj cotton has decided to divide the whole project into small part rather than one but to link with the vision of the organisation. It is easier to the start very initial part of the project and tests the result and move further. After every part Suraj cotton was able to move forward and get results on least cost. On the one hand it is a safe play, other hand an economic way.
What we can do:
Emphasis on those projects to whom we can implement without any change critics.
Don't choose any expensive target and we will be able to justify the investment of each project
To analysis each and every part of the target because we can spoil the whole change if we can not achieve the desire results from earlier goals
Stage seven: Build on the change.
Suraj cotton wants to achieve the overall objectives of the organisation the management don't want to break their pace for the change because each and every success gives an opportunity to build that what is going on track and what we can further improve.
What we can do
Set goals after analyzing the previous wins
Keep continues improvement
Recognize people for reward in true sense
Stage 8: Anchor the changes in corporate culture
ISO has a great impact at the corporate culture of Suraj Cotton due to this the value and vision has reflected in the daily work. With the continues effort ISO has changed every aspect of the organisation and it gives a place in the organisational culture
What we can do
Talk about the progress and success
Tell to people about change while hiring and training staff.
Recognize the key people to appreciate them
LO 3. Be able to analyze an organizational response to change
3.1 Demonstrating the use of analytical tools to monitor the progress and the effect of change
To bring about change is hard job and accept change is harder than change. The change affects most on the employees both negatively and positively. The effect of Change in Suraj Cotton has recorded a change in experience and behavior.
Change in experience:
Management of Suraj cotton has a big change in the experience with the ISO certification the have entered into an international market and international competition. They have to think about a step ahead for the forecast of forthcoming change. Suraj cotton needs to take some solid steps to deals with such changes with their experiences
Change in Behavior:
Change in behavior is an important change of the every project, change of behavior is important to accept change it can be achieved with the help of motivational theories, motivated employees can be helpful to bring about change.
Some analytic tools can be used to monitor the progress change like interviews and meeting with staff. Suraj cotton arranged some meetings to monitor the progress of the employees. But they need some sort of interviews as well on the managerial level by the senior managers.
Recovery and Change:
Recovery is necessary for change for this Suraj cotton has arranged monthly seminar during these seminar people shows their enthusiasm as they were focused to lern the new procedure of ISO.
Assessing monitoring and measurement techniques to change within an organization
Either something wrong or need to be change and problem to be fix Suraj cotton need hard work to create a reliable vision for the future. But it is not 100% sure that we will get same results every time for that purpose we can use pilot techniques and if pilot doesn't the desire result we can emend it rectify. Most popular tool for doing it is Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle which the Suraj cotton has adopted, it based on four phases
Suraj cotton has identified the specific problems during the project and then analyzes them for the purpose of fixing by using the drill down and cause and effect diagrams.
After identification and analysis Suraj cotton develop the process with the help of vision and test them as a potential solution using techniques like impact analysis.
With the development and testing of the solution it is necessary to Suraj Cotton to check the effectiveness of the test solution using pilot and need to analyze whether it could be improved or not if it did then fine otherwise Suraj Cotton need to again plan, do, and check it for the purpose
When Suraj Cotton Fully satisfied with the all things like Plan-Do-Check then management will be able to implement the improved solution fully. It is not a last stage management has to finish it and should go for further problems.
Analysing strategies to minimise adverse effects of change
To bring about change wasn't the challenge for Suraj cotton to overcome the resistance was a challenge. Management has used six techniques of Kottor and Schlesinger.
Suraj cotton can be Education and Communication to understand people to learn about the change. Management needs a mutual trust for this as well
Participation is and involvement is a tool trough which people like change if management involve them into formulation and design
Suraj cotton can Facilitate and control them by the training and counseling but it is not a guarantee to overcome the resistance.
Negotiation and agreement is a good technique in the shape of rewards it can be used where the resistance force is powerful.
Manipulation and co-optation is personal rewards and status technique which is not ethically good Suraj cotton didn't use such techniques
Explicit and implicit coercion, technique is based on threats, but doesn't work on long time.
LO 4. Understand how to evaluate the impact of change strategies
4.1 Identifying the processes to review the impact of the change
Strategic evaluation is concerning about the desired result of the change and strategic goals of Suraj cotton. Management formulate the proposition for the strategic evaluation and thinks about the basic things like change could be achieve the strategic ambitions of the organisation and the change itself has some impact on the organisation. On the other hand the operational evaluation is concerned about the strategic change process and design for the desired result delivered.
The outcome evaluation concerned about the Suraj Cotton's effectiveness of the actual change (ISO) and Outcomes from that change. With the implementation of ISO the overall operation has changed and the people have learnt the new techniques of the work and with the help of training and development they have improved its product quality. Now they are able to satisfy their customer need and want and can achieve their strategic ambitions to become a market leader in the local market and international market as well to get the ISO 9002 and they are able now to export and sell their product in the international market.
4.2 Analysing the results of the impact review
There is two approaches to analyze the results of the impact review one is quantitative approach and other is qualitative approach. Qualitative is more personal and for this we use various techniques like interviews, various forms etc. but the quantitative is based on the numbers and also it is easy way.
Suraj cotton has adopted the qualitative approach for the analysis. It is used to check the effectiveness of the change for new Processes with the old one. Management has conducted survey and some temples as a rating scale to gather data from employees. It compared with the previous figures of sale and profit it has increased by 20% with in the first quarter.
4.3 Presenting the findings of the change analysis
The quantitative findings show Suraj cotton has achieved a 20% increase in sale and all concerning department has completed their respective trainings. Qualitative findings shows the management has achieved the values and goals and values of the stake holders, some of them were not happy with to much expenditures on the training and development program but the management has resolve the issue using the effective techniques of the resistance.
The organisational change theory given help to Suraj cotton to implement change lewin's three stage model was providing the guide line to Suraj cotton at every stage of the change initiative. The Kottor's 8 stage model has successfully implemented at Suraj cotton and was very helpful for the change process. The organisational change literature and resistance theories is considered a helpful for the whole plan