How Science Is Used In The Organisations Commerce Essay

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In this unit I will be looking at around 15 to 20 different organisations and look at how science is used within them. I will see if the organisations use chemistry, biology, physics or a combination of them. I will then produce a table to show all the organisations I have found within a 20 mile radius of where I am and portray information that includes the organisation, the address, description of work, whether it's a service or manufacturer, the type of science used in the organisation and the size of the organisation. I will then pick one of the organisations to do an in depth study on.



Description of work

Service or Manufacturer

Type of science used

Size of organisation

Twycross Zoo


A large zoo that's main purpose is to conserve animals. They also run things such as captive breeding to prevent extinction of endangered animals. They also run educational talks for schools and universities to help them understand the importance of the animals and their surroundings.

Service: Animal attractions and information

Products: Souvenirs and food.

Physics: to build enclosures to contain the animals

Chemistry: cleaning products to keep the zoo clean and stop the spreading of bacteria

Biology: to look after the animals and understand them.

Single Practice

Glenfield Chemist

Glenfield, Leicester

Glenfield chemist sells and dispenses a large variety of medicines and medical related products.

Products: Medicines

Services: Information and helping the public's needs.

Chemistry: to create medicines and cleaning products to clean the chemist.

Single practice

Glenfield Surgery

Glenfield, Leicester

They offer a range of services from general checkups to vaccinations. They also provide information about topics such as quitting smoking to patients.

Service: medical care for patients.

Chemistry: for medication

Biology: to check patients bodies.

Single practice

Leicester Royal Infirmary - Radiology Department


This is a department within the hospital that provides x-rays and scans.

Service: Angiography/angioplasty, biliary drainage/stening, breast screening, ultrasounds, MRI scans, CT scans and x-rays.

Physics: to conduct scans

Biology: to know about the human body.

Single practice

BP Petrol


They create gas, petroleum, oil and lubricants to the nation.

Manufacturer: gas, petroleum, oil and lubricants.

Chemistry: They create all these things by using a variety of chemical processes.

National practice

Groby Community College - Science Department

Groby, Leicester

It is a department within a college that incorporates a scientific prep room and science specialists.

Service: education to the students attending lessons and preparing scientific equipment and chemicals.

Chemistry: Preparing chemicals and sterilising equipment.

Biology: to conduct experiments.

Physics: constructing equipment.

Single practice

Walkers Crisps


These are a company that create crisps, flavourings, drinks and general food products.

Manufacturer: of crisps, flavourings, drinks, nuts etc.

Chemistry: to create new flavouring and formulae.

Physics: maintaining the machinery and equipment.

National practice

National Space Centre


This offers information and scientific artefacts to the public who visit.

Service: education and conducting experiments.

Physics: they have conducted actual space experiments.

National practice

The Park Vets

Glenfield, Leicester

This is a vetinary clinic that looks after and helps animals when sick or have problems. They also sell medication for the animals.

Service: looks after and diagnoses animals when they are ill.

Manufacturer: create medication needed for the animals.

Biology: diagnosing animals when they are ill.

Single practice

Glenfield General Hospital - Pharmacy

Glenfield, Leicester

It is a pharmacy within the hospital that creates and dispenses a variety of different medication.

Service: dispensing medicine.

Manufacturer: creating the medication.

Chemistry: cleaning products to sterilise surfaces and creating new medicines.

Single practice

Groby Doctors

Groby, Leicester

They offer a range of services from general checkups to vaccinations. They also provide information about topics such as quitting smoking to patients.

Products: Medicines

Services: Information and helping the public's needs.

Chemistry: to create medicines and cleaning products to clean the chemist.

Single practice


Desford, Leicester

Caterpillar is the leading company in machinery and a leading supplier of agricultural equipment. The company makes construction, mining and logging machinery. They also make diesel and natural gas engines, industrial gas turbine and electrical power generation systems.

Manufacturer: general construction equipment.

Physics: to create the equipment.

Chemistry: to clean products.


Birstall Dental Practice

Birstall, Leicester

They offer a service for checking people's dental health and they also offer products to help with the hygiene of your teeth.

Service: dental care and dental hygiene.

Products: dental care products.

Biology: the structure of the tooth.

Chemistry: for the anaesthetic they give to patients.

Single practice

Everards Brewery


A 160 year old family business that provides quality ale.

Service: supplies ale for pubs.

Chemistry: to keep everywhere clean and to get recipes for their ale.


Druck Ltd.

Fir Tree Lane, Groby, Leicester

A leading manufacturer in pressure sensors and test/calibration equipment.

Service: flow measurement, level measurement, water quality measurement and data acquisition.

Physics: to test pressure.


Leicester Spire Hospital

Gartree road, Oadby, Leicester

A surgery that deals with patient's cosmetic surgery needs.

Service: provides private cosmetic care.

Biology: to perform surgical cosmetic treatments.

Chemistry: to perform non surgical treatments such as chemical peels and laser treatments. It also is used to sterilise surfaces to maintain a germ free environment.

Single practice

Police Headquarters

St Johns, Enderby, Leicester

They provide a service of safety to the community.

Service: to look after and maintain the safety of the community.

Biology, physics and Chemistry: forensics.

Single practice

The Castle Opticians

Main Street, Kirby Muxloe, Leicester

A surgery that provides eye care for the public.

Service: to look after and help customers with maintaining healthy eye site and giving advice and examinations on their eyes. They also sell glasses and products such as glasses cleaner etc.

Biology: eye examinations to check your vision.

Single practice

National Forest

Bath Yard, Moira, Swadlincote, Derbyshire

They grow and preserve forestry and also enhance wildlife and biodiversity.

Service: to grow and maintain trees.

Biology: to grow and preserve trees.


Research Methods

The internet was my main source to get the information I needed. I used this as my main source as it has a wide range of information available and it doesn't limit you. Using the internet as my main source it let me find out the organisations background, history, locations, sizes, if they are a manufacturer or services provider and what science is being used within these organisations.

List of websites I used: - I used this website to look into the sciences that are used within the organisations. - I used this website to look into depth about what goes on at Twycross Zoo and as there was a fair amount of information I will consider using this website to study in depth about Twycross Zoo later along the line.

Not only did I use the internet, I also used the yellow pages in order to gain telephone numbers, addresses, information on whether they were service providers or manufacturers.

I also visited Twycross Zoo in order to gain some insight into it, and I gathered information from around the zoo and spoke to employees of the zoo.

I also used the DETR booklet regarding the secretary of state standards of modern zoo practice, this allowed to me to read into the specific details and gain a deep insight into this law.

AS Applied Science: Unit 1

Twycross Zoo

Address: Twycross Zoo, East Midland Zoological Society, Burton Road, Atherstone, Warwickshire, CV9 3PX

Contact Number: 0844 474 1777


Twycross zoo is a large zoo located in Leicestershire. It was founded in 1963 by a woman named Molly Badham. The zoo attracts around 500,000 visitors a year. The zoo is located right next to the A453 and runs onto the M42. Being so close to the motorway, this could be very dangerous for the animals as the pollution and loud noises are not good for them. Although Twycross Zoo is located near the motorway, the zoo is actually in the country side. This is ideal for the animals and tourists as it creates a nice environment for everyone all round.

The zoo does a lot of things for the animals such as:

Captive breeding


Contribute to campaigns

Maintain animal welfare


Captive breeding: the process of breeding animals in human controlled environments with restricted settings, such as wildlife preserves, zoos and other conservation facilities; sometimes the process is construed to include release of individual organisms to the wild, when there is sufficient natural habitat to support new individuals or when the threat to the species in the wild is lessened.

Twycross maintain genetic diversity and maintain a healthy population.

Research: Twycross have a strong research department and support many projects every year at all levels from further education and undergraduate through to postdoctoral studies.

They welcome interest in the research in the following areas:

They contribute to in-situ conservation across the world.

They aim to operate as sustainably as they can, adopting novel green technologies wherever feasible.

They have a large site surrounded by farmland and aim to maintain, and potentially increase, the native biodiversity of the site.

Enclosure usage and activity budgets.

Behaviour and social interactions.


Communication and vocalisations.

Contributing to campaigns: Twycross Zoo is involved in many campaigns to do things such as working to save important creatures, investigating into ways of saving these creatures and into the lives and habitats of them.

Twycross Zoo has funded campaigns such as:

The Mauritius Fody, Threats and Competition (Funding given to Lucy Garrett)

The Hoolock Gibbon Conservation Action Planning (Funding given to Sally Walker)

Carnivore Conservation - Rescue and Release of Carnivores in Namibia (Funding given to Africat)

Conserving Amphibians - Rescuing Amphibians in Panama (Funding given to Waza Amphibian Initiative)

Supporting third world zoos - Helping African Zoos be more effective (Funding given to Paazab)

Bornean Orang utan - Nyaru Menteng utan Reintroduction (Funding given to Borneo orang utan survival)

Maintaining Animal Welfare

Twycross maintain animal welfare by doing things such as:

Making sure the animals get the right food for nutrition, to do this they ensure the food is varied and they are getting enough of the food they need in order for them to stay healthy.

Making sure they are physically and mentally stable. For this they have people who work at the zoo who know all about things such as first aid and how to look after the animals.

Enrichment - making sure the animals have things such as toys to play with. The zoo does this to ensure animals perform natural behaviours; animals will be more active and avoid developing stereotypical behaviour.

They ensure that the animals have a suitable environment to live in for example, for monkeys and apes; they make sure the glass is thick so they can't break it or escape.


Twycross Zoo currently has over 200 species many of which are enrolled in captive breeding programmes and they contribute to conservation in the wild through their Conservation Welfare Fund.

Although Twycross take part in conservation they also have many issues as part of this.

Habitat Destruction - Animals rely on their habitats for survival but because the human population has grown, more land has been converted for agriculture, housing and profit. Huge areas have been destroyed making habitat destruction the biggest threat to the world's species today

Exploitation - Local communities have eaten wild animals in small numbers, for generations. There are now many hunters stripping areas of forest of wildlife so that they can sell it on the legal or illegal markets. No animal escapes capture from gazelle to chimpanzee.

Disease - During today's society humans and domesticated animals have become closer to wild animals so diseases can pass between them. An illness that may be relatively harmless to humans, like the common cold, can be fatal to wild animals.

Pollution - Pollution affects almost all habitats around the world. Direct pollution affects animals in many ways from poisoning to becoming entangled in litter.


Twycross Zoo has professional educational department which welcomes schools, universities and the general public. To make the zoo educational they do things such as giving talks, writing information packs and supervising research to designing and producing signs and graphics for the zoo.

The zoos purpose for this is to positively impact all people who take part in Twycross Zoo's experience with its influence. The zoo also would like to generate an appreciation of the natural world and to encourage people of all ages to respect living organisms and their environment.

Jobs within the Organisation

Education Officer: The education officer is the person who prepares the talks and presentations for the talks and tours around the zoo. The talks are directed at younger children but there are also talks for the elderly also. Because of this the education officer has to adapt his talks in a way that will grab the attention of all ages. The officer would also have to be well educated in ICT to make these presentations on things such as PowerPoint and have a good knowledge of zoological nature; this would involve handling the animals and knowing everything and be able to deal with each individual animal. They must have a degree in a biological or environmental science and a teaching qualification or experience in the field of informal education.

Section Head: The section head is the person that looks after all the animals, they help when food needs to be given out to them. They look at each section of animals very carefully and do things such as looking at the behaviour of the animals and seeing if there are any issues. They also check the animal's health and make sure if there are any health problems, there will be no spread of the diseases as this can be very crucial. The section head would need to have a good knowledge of zoological nature, a lot of knowledge of the zoo itself and ecology which is the study of interactions between living organisms.

Veterinary Nurse: The nurse is an essential job for the zoo. They look after the animals to make sure they are healthy and no diseases get spread to other animals if one already has a disease. The nurse also handles the problems when animal's fights as this may occur as gorillas and monkeys can behave in this way. They would also take care of any pregnancies and animals that are not well. The nurse must have a love for animals. Veterinary nurses usually train through the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS) Veterinary Nurse Training Scheme, which leads to NVQ at Levels 2 and 3.

Plumber: The plumber has many responsibilities around the zoo. The plumber maintains all the pipes surrounding the zoo; they do the concreting and any other manual jobs that may need doing such as painting. The plumber would need a good knowledge of physics for doing things such as fixing pipes and any other water problem around the zoo. They will need to complete both the NVQ and the underpinning knowledge. They need City and Guilds 6129 Certificate in Basic Plumbing Level 2, City and Guilds 6129 Certificate in Domestic Plumbing Level 3, City and Guilds 6089 NVQ Level 3 or EAL NVQ Level 3.

Animals Records Registrar: The zoo needs a register for the animals to keep a good record of things such as breeding. The records need to be kept up to date so when things such as animals are sent to different places happen then they have solid proof when this has been done. The records also need to be used when animals die and born as checks need to be done on them. Birth and death rates need to be recorded as well so the world knows the population of the animals. The registrar needs a good knowledge of zoology and will have to have a good knowledge of biology as this will occur on a day to day basis.

Admission and Finance: It is important that the zoo have this within their organisation as the head of this department will be monitoring the money coming in and out of the zoo and also profits and loss of money. For this job they would need a high level of maths and biology.

Senior Curator: The senior curator promotes the zoo, this involves showing off what the zoo has to offer and the wide range of exciting animals to see. They also provide articles for the zoo to show visitors what is happening around it. The person doing this job must have a good understanding of all animals and what goes on around the zoo to help them write the articles and promote. They must also have a good knowledge of biology and know the history of the animals. They must have a degree in a biological science and relevant experience in a zoo or conservation field.

Catering Assistant: Catering assistants are there to make sure everywhere is safe and pleasant for visitors. They prepare food and serve it to customers on a day to day basis. They also have to make sure everywhere is clean and healthy for people so diseases do not spread and things such as food poisoning does not occur. They need to be cheerful and welcoming towards their customers.

Rangers: Rangers are all around the zoo. They have many different roles such as; advising visitors so if any questions are ask they are there to help and to help people make their way around the park okay. They also need to be prepared if anything goes wrong around the park so they will be able to solve it. The rangers will be at different places around the park within the day depending on what they have been asked to do. They need to have a vibrant personality and to be welcoming towards visitors as they are seen everywhere everyday by visitors. They need a good understanding of botany which is the study of plants and gardening as they would have to take care of plants and the environment. The qualifications needed range from institutions, the attainment of VCE, HSC or its equivalent is often a minimum requirement, and applicants are usually expected to hold a current drivers license. Generally the most important prerequisite for gaining employment as a Zoo Keeper is experience in some kind of animal-related area.

Gardener and Maintenance Operative: Maintenance of the zoo is very important as visitors expect a nice environment when walking around looking at the animals. Gardeners do things such as, plant flowers, cut the grass and make sure everywhere is looking tidy generally. As it is quite a manual role, they need to be physically capable of doing all these jobs so their fitness needs to be up to standard. The gardener will also need a good understanding of plants the nature of biology, which is known as botany.

Retail Supervisor: The retail supervisor will be located in a place such as the gift shop. They need to be friendly as they will be dealing with many customers and their needs. They do things such as, operating tills and making sure everything is up to date such as the prices of what is being sold. They will do stock checks and stock rotation on a regular basis to make sure everything is up to date. To get this job, they do not often look for specific qualifications but some require two to four GCSEs (A-C)/three to five S grades (1-3). NVQ/SVQs in Administration Levels 1 to 3, Customer Service Levels 2 and 3, or other subjects relevant to the type of business, may also be useful in getting a job.

Veterinarian: The vet would take care and treat all the different types of animals within the zoo. They usually specialize in the treatment and care of one category of animal such as, small or large birds, reptiles, birds, zoo animals and even animals in the wild. All the animals will need different type of care therefore, specialization is important for effective treatment and diagnosis. The vet would complete routine vaccinations and examinations and surgical procedures on animals within the zoo. They would also be there for emergency help when needed. To get this job, they will look for you to have 5 GCSE's C or above and English Language and two passes in a physical or biological science such as Physics, Chemistry or Biology or mathematics. Or BTEC National Diploma or Certificate in Animal Care equates to the entry requirement provided that merits or distinctions are achieved in specified modules. Would need a veterinary degree as well!

How Science Is Used

Employees use a range of science related skills. Biology is one of the main sciences used in the zoo. It is used in the smaller jobs in the zoo to the bigger jobs in the zoo which all relate to the well being of the animals.

The uses:

Physiology looks at how living organisms function.

Ecology relates to the environment the animals live in and it is used to make the space that the animals live in look as close as their natural habitat as possible.

Taxonomy is used to classify organisms. This helps the staff understand the animals better and keeping things in order.

Botany is used when it comes to the plants all around the zoo. It is important that the staff check the plants aren't poisonous or harmful to both animals and visitors around the zoo. The plants are important as they relate to the animals and enrichment. They also have to make sure that the plants are similar to the ones in the animals natural habitat to make them feel comfortable and this also will make things easier for the animals if ever released back into wild.

Ethnology is used to study the animals behaviour and to see how they react in their surroundings and towards different animals.

Anatomy is used to look at the form and function of the animals and plants in the zoo.

Zoology is used in the zoo to look at the animals behaviours and the physiology of the animals. This is very important as the staff need to know all possible elements of the animals and their behaviour and surroundings because this can avoid possible negative behaviour occurring or hazardous events.

The uses of chemistry:

Chemistry is used for things such as cleaning products as the zoo has to be kept clean to a certain extent so there is no spread of disease or germs as they could be very fatal to the animals. It is used as the cleaning products cannot be poisonous or harmful towards the animals and their habitats. Also vaccinations and medication may have to be given to certain animals and they would have to be checked to make sure they are not harmful to animals in any way. Not only is chemistry used when it comes to the animals but for the cooking in the cafeteria and making drinks and the cleaning of these environments, this is human chemistry.

The uses of physics:

Physics is used to build all the enclosures. This is important as the materials used to build the enclosures have to be strong and safe and due to each animal having different needs, the materials used have to meet those needs of the designs specific for the animals.

ICT Used In The Company

ICT is used a lot for many different jobs throughout the company. One of the main reasons for the use of ICT is for the records kept in the zoo, they keep records for things such as, the date of birth of all the animals and the parents of the animals to ensure inbreeding does not happen, feeding, medication and illness and breeding. It is very important to keep a good record of medication and illness as this can stop avoid any more illnesses or problems and breeding is also important to keep straight records of because this data helps with the captive breeding programmes. It is important to keep these documents because then if anything happens the staff can quickly refer back to them and go over everything and hopefully come up with a solution by using the information they have stored before. They will also keep records of the animals that come in and out of the zoo and for this the staff will need the use of ICT as all animals will be put onto a system. The vet also needs to log any medication or drugs given to the animals for safety of the animals and so if any problems occur, the staff can access the data straight away.

ICT is also used for the all brochures and leaflets produced to advertise the zoo or to give information about the zoo to visitors. The zoo also has a website which explains everything that goes on in the zoo on a day to day basis, all the animals in the zoo and things such as, events and functions, education, research, conservation and jobs and volunteers. The educational presentations the zoo do for schools are also ICT based on Microsoft PowerPoint, these come in very handy as they are a visual way of presenting information to the audience in a quick and easy way. They also keep records for the purpose of keeping the company running smoothly by recording stuff like staff details and things to do with communication such as emails, letters and faxes. Like many of the data stored, this is so if there are any problems they can look back at it all.

ICT is very important for such a big company like Twycross Zoo as by keeping records there is always something for the staff to refer back to if anything was to happen with animals. This way they can evaluate the problem if any was to occur and try and work out how to solve the problem a lot quicker and efficiently.

Changing Scientific Ideas

Wild animals have been kept in captivity for thousands of years, often as symbols of power or religious significance. However, what we see now as modern zoos were developed in the 19th century and were proved very popular and millions of people came from everywhere to see exotic, unusual animals from all around the world.

The zoos were simply used just to display animals and some times the zoos looked at the study of zoology. However, zoos have changed a lot over the decades. There was a time when animals were placed in small cages and their primary purpose was to be placed on display for the general public. Thankfully people started rethinking things as more and more species of animals became extinct or endangered. Zoos soon became the only habitat for some creatures. Good zoos now have come to realise that there is a huge decline in wildlife which is driven mostly by loss of habitat, so they have now changed their main focus from not having the animals for just an entertainment purpose but to save them. Zoos now have been finding ways to conserve animals and their habitats and the animals in zoos now fulfil a number of roles, from education to ambassadors for their species. Some of the animals that are currently in zoos would have been completely extinct in the wild if it wasn't for the zoos. Years ago, they would not have had the same equipment we have now in modern zoos. Therefore could not provide the same medicine and health care for the animals or health and safety for the zoo either. Modern zoos now have specialists in many different disciplines including animal husbandry, health, nutrition, behaviour and records keeping which are all essential for a zoo now a days.

Rules And Regulations

The zoo has to comply to rules and regulations just like any other business would have to. They have to comply to a variety of them such as, council regulations, employment laws, competition law and health and safety.

The law gives employees rights in relation to how they are disciplined and dismissed, how their grievances are handled, wages, absence from work and sickness, holidays and work breaks, workings hours, time off for family emergencies, maternity and paternity leave, the right to apply for flexible working and redundancy and retirement. All workers also have the right not to be discriminated against in any relation to their gender or orientation, race, age, if they have any disabilities or religion and beliefs. Staff who feel like they have be denied their rights can take their employers to an 'employment tribunal'.

The zoo will also have to comply with the health and safety act (H&S 1974). This is an act for securing the health, safety and welfare of the people at work and to protect others against risks to health or safety in connection with the activities of the people at work. This is to control the keeping and use and preventing the unlawful acquisition and possession of dangerous substances.

Duties of the employer:

Provide all necessary information, instruction, training and supervision to enable individuals to be safe. For example, the person who deals with letting out the leopards would have to be trained on how to deal with them and how to work the gates etc.

Provide and maintain a safe place of work with safe entry and exit. The person who handles this would have to make sure there are no hazards or any possible risks to visitors.

Provide and maintain a working environment that is safe and without risk to health. For example, making sure the gates and barriers are in good working order and that the building is safe and that there are fire exits and procedures for this.

Provide and maintain systems of work that are safe.

Arrange for the safe use, handling, storage and transport of articles and substances.

Co-operation between employees. For example, making sure everyone is getting along and knows what is going on by things such as good communication or there could be major problems.

Duties of the employees:

Take reasonable care of the health and safety of themselves and of others who may be affected by what they do or do not do.

Co-operate with the employer on health and safety matters. For example, they should listen to the employers rules, so there are no safety problems.

Do not misuse any equipment that is provided for safety purposes (e.g. fire extinguishers or safety goggles)

Follow instructions from the employer on health and safety matters and attend relevant health and safety training.

Report hazards and defects observed in the workplace.

Twycross Zoo has to adhere with the 'secretary of state's standards of modern zoo practice' which relate to the provision of food and water, the provision of suitable environment and the provision on animal health care.

Provision of food and water:

Food must be presented in an appropriate manner and must have nutritious value, valid quantity, and high quality and also a variety for the species of animal. The water should be fresh, clean, accessible and available to the animal at all times, the supplies of food should be prepared and stored in hygienic conditions. The methods of feeding used by the staff must be safe for not only themselves but also the animal too; they must take extra care when live prey is being used. Containers where food and drink are stored must be cleaned regularly and water should be checked at least twice a day.

Provision of suitable environment:

Temperature, lighting, noise levels, and ventilation must be suitable for each species of animals at all times. Staff must be highly considerate of animals whom are young, pregnant, aquatic animals, or new comers to the zoo. Animals in indoor housing must be protected from extreme sunlight, heat, draught and the cold. Outdoor enclosures must have adequate shelter for their comfort; also nervous animals must be able to escape from the gaze of the public. All plants and fixed equipment must be fitted in away that is not hazardous to the animal, they must also have a back up plan in the case of failure. They must also be able to drain all enclosures to remove any excess water and all drains must be outside of the enclosures.

Provision of animal health care:

Routine and Observation

The condition, health and behaviour of the animals should be assessed at least twice a day by the member of staff in charge; any concerns that may arise must be assessed thoroughly. As these observations are taking place, a daily record must be kept of each individual animal.


The enclosures must be designed so they are of a size and design to avoid animals being dominated by individuals, this is too avoid any conflicts and to make sure enclosures are not over burdened and also to avoid enclosures from becoming built up with parasites. Trees must also be inspected on a regular basis to avoid accidents with the animals and distance barriers to minimize transmission of disease and potential pathogens.

Veterinary Care

The vet must make arrangements to meet ethical responsibilities of the veterinary cover; they are also responsible for routine inspections, carrying out treatments, administrating vaccines, worming and any other medication needed. They must monitor the animals' health for lab examinations, safe collection and dispatching of any animals, this is along with training any other individuals to do so. They must keep records of all medication, surgeries or illnesses which the animal has had and also any pathological findings. Any animals that may die must be handled in a manner where there will be no risk of transmission or infection or bacteria.

Isolation and Containment

All facilities should be available for hand rearing and nursing animals, newly arrived animals should be kept isolated for as long as necessary. Staff must use protective clothing and utensils; they should be cleaned and stored within the designated areas only.

Sanitation and Control of Disease - health risks must be minimised, staff must be instructed to report in confidence any medical conditions or disabilities which may affect their work. A safe and effective programme for the control of pests and vermin must be established and maintained throughout the zoo.

Routine and observation

The condition, health and behaviour of all animals should be checked at least twice a day by the person or persons in direct charge of their care. Any animals which give cause for concern must be thoroughly assessed as to whether they are unduly distressed, sick or injured. Where necessary they must receive immediate attention and treatment. A daily record must be kept by the person or persons in direct charge of the animals, indicating changes to the prescribed diet, health checks carried out, any unusual behaviour or activity or other problems, and remedial actions taken.

Sanitation and Control of Disease

Health risks must be minimised, staff must be instructed to report in confidence any medical conditions or disabilities which may affect their work. A safe and effective programme for the control of pests and vermin must be established and maintained throughout the zoo.

Provision of opportunity to express most normal behaviour:

Captive breeding, wherever appropriate, should be encouraged also controlled measures should be put into place to prevent over population. Animals of different taxa should not be allowed to inter-breed. Accommodation should meet the animals' psychological and physiological needs, they should also be equipped so it meets the needs of the animals, e.g. bedding, pools, burrows and vegetation. Animals of social species should be kept in the compatible social groups and should also be kept in compatible social groups.

Provision or protection from fear and distress:

Animal handling must be done by or under the supervision of qualified/experienced staff. The handling must be done under care to prevent the animal from stress, discomfort and harm. Animals should not be provided for the benefit of the viewing public, also smoking by staff and the public should only be in designated areas. Casualty animals must be on display as they may cause distress the animal or compromise their release.

Twycross is also a member of many other organisations including the following:

Wildlife Information Network (WIN) - this is a science based charity which provides information on health and management of free ranging and captive animals.

British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums (BIAZA) - founded in 1966, it is the conservation, education and scientific wildlife charity. This is not the professional organisation representing the zoo and aquarium community, it aims to help and inspire people to help conserve the natural world by using high standards of animal care. In order to become a member you need to provide an inspection report along with two recommendations from existing members and have been granted full membership standards within the previous 3 years.

European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) - To become a member of EAZA you must undergo an inspection and exceed the standards in animal welfare, conservation and education.

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) - provides solutions for the most development challenges and pressing environments, by supporting scientific research and projects all over the world it has now become the largest professional global conservation network.

WWF - "WWF's ultimate goal is to build a future where people live in harmony with nature.' WWF aim to safe guard the natural world and tackle the global threat of climate change. They do this by campaigning to get the attention in which they deserve.

International Primate Protection League (IPPL) - working with other organisations IPPL aim to protect wild populations and habitats along with rescuing primates. They support worldwide primate sanctuaries, they monitor primates, they help carry out research and rescue and re-home neglected and abused primates in the UK and abroad.

Use Of Health And Safety

With such a big business as Twycross Zoo, they have to adhere with the health and safety law. The health and safety is very important not to just the animals but the zoo have to take the health and safety the staff and visitors into consideration also. Being a zoo in the open doors, there could be a lot of hazardous situations that could occur so in order to avoid these, precautions have to be taken.

The zoo has things such as signs and posters around it so that it brings caution to the visitors and also the staff that there may possibly be a hazard or problem. There are signs which warn visitors to do things such as not lean or tap on the glass or do not put your hands near the animals as this could lead to problems with the animals reacting. They also have things like moats and thick glass so animals can't get to anyone to prevent any harm to visitors by the animals. The zoo also has hand washing dispensers all around which are easy to get to stop bacteria and the spread of germs.

Like in all businesses, risk assessments take place. Twycross Zoo has to carry out different risk assessments so they can avoid anything happening to staff or visitors. Not only will they assess this, they will also assess animals and then place them into categories of how dangerous they are. Category one animals are seen as the most dangerous and as you go up the numbers, the less dangerous the animal will be. Staff have to also undergo risk assessments so they can deal with any risks that occur. Staff use a rating system to analyze the risks of a particular hazard occurring. The zoo has to think about things happening such as fires. The staff are trained to deal with this type of situation and they have regular fire drills to keep staff well prepared if anything like this was to happen.

The Kite Mark

The mark of the kite stands for the service of very good safety so the mark stands there to tell the public that it is a secure and trusted item. The kite mark symbol is to give customers assurance that the product they have purchased is appropriate and up to the British standards so therefore should be safe and reliable. Twycross Zoo do not produce their own products so therefore do not need kite mark standard but do sell products that would have the kite mark on.

Impact On The Local Community

The extra traffic in the local area has many negative and positive effects on the local community. One of the main benefits would be the contributions to the local economy and community involvement. However there are a lot of negative effects also, for example, pollution, noise and energy consumption.

One of the main causes of impact in the local community is transport. The more the zoo gets noticed the more visitors the zoo gets and as the zoo is located near motorways, most visitors would come by car or coaches. This leads to excessive amounts of noise and pollution. As roads leading to the zoo go through many small villages and have small bendy roads, during peak times, for example summer time, this can lead to a build up of traffic and reduced safety of the local community. As there are no pavements along some of the roads, pedestrians may walk on the road as they are usually quiet, however visitors may not be aware of this fact as they may not be from around the area so this could potentially lead to accidents. Also, due to the style of the roads could lead to care accidents as well. With the extra traffic the roads need to be well maintained more often than expected, this will incur more costs on the local community.

The management of waste materials could also play a major factor in the impact on the local community as it will incur extra noise in the otherwise quiet surroundings. They will also need extra vehicles to remove waste and this will lead to more pollution and road ware. Twycross do try to avoid these negative impacts by using other renewable ways, for example, they recycle water used through out the zoo through a pump system. They also compost as much of the animal facieses and bedding as possible to avoid extra waste. Twycross Zoo are proud of there Green initiative.

Twycross are one of the main employers in the local area. They employ many people from the local area which helps contribute to the local economy. Visitors to the zoo also spend money in the local area being passing trade. They also draw attention to the area and bring in more visitors at other times. This all helps contribute to their local economy. The zoo tries to involve the community as much as possible by using free days and a variety of offers to the local community to incorporate them as much as they can. They are also major resources for local schools because they offer huge amounts of educational information and go to visit schools with information. They also involve the local community through jobs.

The zoo is a major source of information and offer a massive amount of information to local schools. They offer a variety of information varying from different levels, from primary schools to degree level. Twycross offer regular talks at local schools which benefit's the younger generation in the local community. This brings a large variety of people to the zoo from various establishments and areas. Twycross offer their educational resources in a variety of information in many different ways. For example, they do presentations, talks, lectures and pamphlets. This brings lots of visitors through the local area and will benefit local businesses.

At Twycross they contribute to the in-situ conservation across the world. They also operate as sustainably, adopting novel green technologies wherever possible. They are surrounded by farm land and they try to maintain and possibly increase the native biodiversity of the site. They are looking into positioning a wind turbine on the side to reduce the use of non-renewable resources on site. They also filter the water through the site as much as possible by a private water system located on site. In order to reduce their consumption of electricity they use energy sufficient light bulbs in all animal enclosures and double glazing to reduce heat loss and increase efficiency. As heating is highly insufficient when conducted by a radiator, they use under floor heating in all the animal enclosures where ever necessary.