Quality management depends on the volume of the organization. Different levels of management plays an important in building a successful organization and role association with chosen perfect leadership styles.
Management and leadership combinable needed as there is some basic task really makes difference in between.
The Ideas implemented by the managers without challenging them through some regularized activities and using resources according to limited rules and regulations where as leaders implement ideas to make it successful.
Planning, coordinating, organizing and control involves in leadership and management but from different point of view. Ongoing situation is focused by manager until leaders made them involve in new situation created as a result of competition in business. Leaders looking out the boundaries of the current environment rather stick in inner environment of organization.
Different executives take different decisions on management process and coordinate workplace activities. Instructions issued by managers to subordinates, motivate them to increased efforts and monitor their performances which is focused day by day. Leaders performs the same may be in huge philosophy and ideology. Due to present competition market managers need to be more focused which point to a communicative, convincing persuading, inspiring, and motivating personnel can see the big picture where the company is heading. The local organization managed by the managers might not be aware about the cross culture but a leaders concerns' about cultural diversity in respect of employees and customers from different cultures.
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This Report of mine is truly based on the primary research on organizational culture and leadership styles and secondary research on managing diversity and cross culture awareness of five stars hotel Marriot Bombay in India. During this study I find out what exactly is being focused for managing diversity and way of motivation thorough appropriate leadership style of the management. And the research is done through the internet interview of different department Team leaders and managers, on personal request.
Culture is the gained knowledge people use to like and interpret experience and generate acts and behavior (Spradley,) Culture encompasses a group's ideology, as well as its normative behaviors and its physical environment, artifacts and technology. As applied to business, the study of organizational culture offers insights into a firm's unique character. Organizational culture evolves as a group learns to solve problems and conduct business (Schein, 1985). Often initiated by a strong founder, a firm's culture perpetuates itself through the telling of company stories, daily rituals, hiring practices, training, rewards, and marketing decisions (Kotter and Heskett, 1992).
So it can be said that culture is the driving force of various cultural influences for a specific
Place across the time and region. Common heritage of humanity is cultural diversity. Customs and behavior are spread by different peoples coming from different place, adopt and adjust some different lifestyles. This movement and activities is diverse at situation they faced and took a shape of cultural diversity or known as multicultural.
Importance of culture.
According to Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1997) the path by which a community of individual solves problems and reconciles dilemma is called culture.
In organization culture is very important. Very important factor leading to the success or failure of a business.Â
In a fast pace world every little change is necessary. Effective media and new innovations made every people so curious to travel the whole world and to explore, share the change, express their ideas with different culture of people. From different countries people comes to visit the different taste of culture, for business, to taste the knowledge as well.
Culture is important to an organization, as it can increase or maintain the employee's loyalty and dedication to a company.Â In addition, culture can also affect the strategy that is implemented within the company.Â Sometimes strategies in a company changes and when they do, their culture must also change. Â If a company has a strong culture, they may gain a competitive advantage over their competitors. Â (Staw, pgs. 312-314)
Creating and Maintaining a Healthy Organizational Culture
Leader's influence plays an important role in an organizational culture. But in organizations with a strong set of culture it may be the culture controlling the leader. This can result in unfavorable end if the culture becomes unhealthy. These driving forces may include for example, "union behavior." (Shivers-Blackwell, 2006, p. 1) It's important that the leader does not end up being controlled by the existing organizational culture.
Relationships between Leadership and Organizational Culture
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
From (Rug man and Hogget's, 2000) point of view Organizational culture is which individual benefit to clarify knowledge and to create a social attitude. This is accord by group of individual associate, community, or assembly. Benefit and belief are being created through culture that gives an appearance to an individual and as well as in clump action. Culture can be learned through both erudition and exposure. Culture is transferable which can come off from one genesis to other, so it is endless. At the same time cultures constantly undergo change as people adapt to new environments.
This perspective model showing the main affair among leaders along with the organizational culture. "Functionalism perspective" is one of the initial of those. The basically reflection of functionalism perspective reveals that "a firm culture be based on a firm leader or a firm leader can establish a firm culture. Leaders hold appraisal and can create control over the firm by their actions or agreement." (Zhang, Tsui, Wang, Xin, n.d., p.5). So it can be said that functionalism perspective is believed that the leaders, who are in the top positions, have all the power in managing and changing an organization culture. There are numerous factors and the leader must know how to manage them.
Second one is the "attribution perspective."Â With the attribution perspective theorists "argue that the role of leadership is in the mind of the followers, who attribute a person the ability to lead and consider him/her to be the leader." (Zhang, Tsui, Wang, Xin, n.d., p.6) this idea of the attribution perspective gives very less of importance to the personal actions of the leader.
Third perspective is the "contingency perspective." The contingency perspective "suggests that it is the situation that makes the hero, allowing the leader to influence the organization in various domains, including performance and culture." (Zhang, Tsui, Wang, Xin, n.d., p.7) .So the leader is needed more in difficult situations requires leadership, while the remaining time the organization runs as usually.
Scheins Levels of Culture:
Three level of organizational culture divided by Scheins:
A. Artifacts is the first one. The "artifacts" are on the surface, those aspects which can be very easily discerned, but are hard to understand.
B. Espoused Values is the second one. Espoused values are right next to Artifacts which are acquainted aim action, and axiom.
C. Basic Assumptions and Values is on number third position. The meaning of this culture is denoting by the concealed basic prediction and assessment as they are hard for discern because they exist at a largely level of unconscious. Yet provide by the fundamental to conceive the reason of things happen in an exclusive fashion. So the common prediction designed around deeper extent of human entity such as the human's behavior, human bounding and activity, actuality and truth
Scheins in his classic book: "Organizational Culture and Leadership", said the particular culture of a association is a method of shared common belief that communities gain as it determine its trouble of apparent agreement and inner integration which has been worked good to be granted accurate and, so to be hard to forthcoming members as the accurate way to appreciate, assume and feel in context to those obstacles.
Schein (1992) also tell that, also apart from the dogmatic study, we can only make mention of an element of culture. Explanation of culture is not possible in its integrity. So sir Schein acclaim some appeal for searching about culture: accepted, impartial, and similar to a healing relationship between an analyst and a patient. So the acquainted accustom by Schein to culture stands adverse in to the way in that, culture is appraised in some of the famous magazines of management.
In 1996 Schein defined organizational culture as the indispensable implicit acceptance, on the fact of the universe is and concern to be that a associate of public are distributing and that decide their attention, anticipation, activity, and, their apparent behavior
Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture
Hofstede (1980, p. 21.) said that culture as "the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another".
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Individualism/Collectivism: In this dimension he defined that do people see their own image in depth like individual of an association or as a single individual or independent actor. Hofstede says, the association is natural ones such as friend and family, not just any group that happens sometimes. Also, it is important to realize that dimension is not indicating a few associate want to be in the association. This asking is for sake of human self-identity.
Uncertainty Avoidance: We do have need to look that there is no particular order in the dimensions, and they need to work altogether for defining culture. Although in Few cultures individual do like to have each and everything point out in detail because of some of them will be little, with any wonder. There are some cultures in which Uncertainty Avoidance is very few, individual expects more relaxatation despite they are not bother about few factors of a situation which are not open at everyone.
Power Distance: Its feature of most human being, but some cultures, the distance between higher and that of lower is deeper, in this class of society powerful gets more respect than the common people, and there is small hope of act between castes, classes or levels. Those cultures which are of low Power, individual aim to hope that those who are in power will get those , despite than gathering the power by generosity of their reference.
Trompenaars 7 Dimensions of Culture
Achievement vs. Ascription
Achievement-oriented cultures in which people derive their status from where they have accomplished and where as astrictive society, character derive their capacity from beginning, , effeminate, age and wealth.
Individualism vs. Communitarians
Individualistic culture people place the individual before the community. And in the Communitarian culture people the community is being placed before the individual.
Internal vs. External
Mainly this is about do the society control environment or is society controlled by environment.
Neutral vs. Emotional
Neutral cultures may think the louder signals of an emotional culture too excited, and over-emotional, as well as in neutral cultures, showing too much emotion may erode your power to interest people.
Specific vs. Diffuse
Specific cultures carry a very limited scope of secrecy which is apparently cleave from common life, while diffuse cultures are concerned with keeping people's face.
The time orientation capacity got couple appearance among which the approximate significance cultures give to the previous, former, and forthcoming and their way to compound time. Value of time can be composed in two different actions. So In this proposal time moves ahead on its fixed rule in a consecutive bar. And it is known as sequentialism.
Universalism vs. Particularize
This indicates how the community executes fundamental of message and belief. In the cosmopolitan humankind, rules and contracts are developed which can be assigned at any condition. Specific is depend coherence of the heart and mortal affection. Particularity judgments center of attraction is on the abnormal attributes of present situation.
Dimensions of culture of an organization:
Dimensions of culture of an organization focus on some issues featured below:
External Environments performs the following activities
Set a model of how belief, arise and persist.
Identifying issues the new groups faced from origin of group.
Growth and culture formation for new group are intertwined.
Develops consensus, reaching goals.
Measurement the height.
Correction of thinking.
Mission and strategy
Each individual new group must develop shared concept.
What is the function? Can it be multifunctional?
Culture exists if members share identity and mission.
For actualizing consensus on aims group need to share language and conclusion. Mission can be timeless but goals must end at a point Culture of an organization can be practiced by managing integral integration i.e. focus on some major internal issues which are being listed below:
1) Common Language
2) Distributing power and status
3) Developing norms of intimacy, friendship, and love
4) Rewards and punishments
5) Explaining the unexplainable: ideology and religion
To perform as group must have common language. Conflict starts when two parties think about the other without communicating. Creators create common language. Common understanding require with categories of action, gesture, and speech.
Power and Status distribution
The influence of power and authority allocation? All need to have some power limits who will be the person can grant power can be gained .
1) How the deal will be with authority and peer
2) We use family prototype in new situations
Coordinate benefit and amercement.
It should must consist the system of allowance for respecting and disrespecting rules.
Analyze the Incomprehensible.
1) Facing issues are not under control e.g. weather, natural disaster
2) Religion can provide information.
Leadership in organizations
Kouzes (2002) explained that "We can't grant Leadership as a place, nor as a position, and also it is not a classified code that cannot be analyzed by common people. So we can call Leadership as an apparent set of artistry and capability.
Jacobs (1970) whereby he explain and tried to say, Â Communication skills are more important in leadership, rather in command effort based either on power or on authority, reason for this is its attitude and it is the occurrence of a new kind of ability, conclusion, or approach in the goal of the dominion try, and In the current system the crucial judgment in the exercise of esteem through leadership is the assimilation that the esteem awardees has the option of adjudge for or against acquiescence with the leader's ambition, without drawing forced penalties.
According to Friday and Friday (2003) if diverse group of people can be managed effectively, potential benefits for the organization can be found. Conversely, if diversity is not managed effectively, potentially major problems can break out, such as poor communication, interpersonal conflict and high turnover. There are different types or styles of leadership and management that are on different views and theories. Styles of leadership chosen by organizations formed by a collection of their beliefs, values and preference with the organizational culture and norms as well, which will encourage some and discourage others.
(6) Quiet leader
(7) Servant leader
It is a rare skill
They are born not made
They are charismatic
They exists at the top of the organization
They control, direct, prod and manipulate.
It is very similar issue in respect of organization. Drastic change has been brought in organizational culture in competitive business organizations. It's a context for
Diversity management which refers to set of evolving philosophy and practices concerned with the utilization of the variety of human characteristics, orientations, and pursuit of business goals.
Kandola and Fullerton (1998: 9-12) says that "managing diversity is not simply about discrimination but ensuring that all individuals maximize their potential and contribution to the organization.
Effective diversity management differs from equal opportunity strategies, hence than group approaches which tend to rely on affirmative action approaches
Thus several approaches for managing diversity are in circulation but all of those have some common base
Particular differences and human diversity when managed effectively should add value to the organization. The word diversity includes all ways in which people differs, even if these differences are not immediately visible.
Achieving diversity, the primary focus of attention in organizational culture and environment. Kandola and Fullerton (1998).
Successful implementations of diversity management in an organization:
Successful outcomes of a business for managing diversity require some certain cultural, structural and organizational principles. Principles below help to increase the prospects of success for applied and inspirational diversity. Stranger
Firstly, corporate culture must be clearly examined. Managing diversity can achieve success if the most of the majority of managers setup their minds to include more diversity. A suitable conflict-free environment is an indispensable requirement for managing diversity.
Jablonski Ford diversity manager said that managing diversity is neither a programmed nor an initiative, but an integrated approach Diversity is an on-going process which has to tie up with organization's rules of procedures. Managing diversity must constantly identified and steer clear of competitive pressure of existing management, communication difficulties.
Global corporations CEO enjoy a tradition of diversity as they have numerous companies in various countries. Management rotation programmers ensure that mangers work with staff that has different native languages and culture. The internationally operating companies are only really global if their senior management is also international.
A systematic detailed analysis can be done if the diversity management is not a nominative end in itself. The analysis will include knowing how various groups of employees are represented at individual levels of management as well as the fluctuation, promotion, assessment or remuneration of groups.
hotel exterior at night
Marriot hotel Bombay is one of the biggest hospitality organization which was established in 1991 in Bombay serve the customers of different part of the world. This organization has collection of Superior guest rooms, banqueting halls, 5 star restaurants, spa, health club and many more activities
Design and interiors of the hotel are bright, attractive, and free of clutter however this hotel in Bombay looks different from other mar riots. In its design stage, 5 star hotel individual qualities are taken into account. As is the community that it will serve-for example some are more cosmopolitan, others more female friendly. This hotel resulted in unique and superior designed to create a feeling of a home from home.
Hotel Marriott and its team have been awarded since 1993-2008 in different categories.
In yearly review of Newspapers, hotel guide has achieved quite a lot in last few years of history.
They are awarded as the fortune 100 best company 2009 to work for.
Philosophy of Marriott:
Hotel Marriott is dedicated to the traditional idea of resurrecting the hotel nicely.
Concern for each employee, strong hands on management, and an unrelenting commitment to meeting customer needs in deed through very good service, quality and hospitality. CEO of the company says "We run the hotel with exceptional customer service, drink and food. This is not only hotel this is also home for all our customers. We take the basic features of a hotel and make them more advance so that anyone from the person staying in deluxe room and the person staying in semi deluxe rooms feels the same.
He want to run a hotel that makes money, work with people I get on with, and have fun." We can deliver these objectives!
To summaries Marriott Bombay is all about-Profit, People, Product, and passion.
Culture: This research of mine has been done during my work in this hotel as banqueting staff. This organization maintains good cultural traditions which can be consider as their company goodwill. Also people from different culture works in this company in different levels are very committed in respect of company's interest.
Presentation of the hotel: this hotel always been the centre of the attraction and this is absolute goal. This hotel is in absolute heart of the city. Company like to use local suppliers weather it is the butcher, the baker, the garden designer the artist, or the painter.
Investment in hotel- this is the busiest hotel in Bombay so they always invest more and more to upgrade the hotel.
Warmth and comfort: this hotel always welcome whether they empty or full. The interiors and exteriors will remain timeless.
Guest service: this hotel gives excellent customer service and by the end of the day the customers go back happily.
Respect the locality-
Marriot Bombay always makes attempt to look at every way to reduce the impact on the environment and to make good relation with their neighborhood. The hotel does respect their neighbors every time.
Managers and staffs:
This hotel would never have been so successful without a core of fabulous management team and other staff as well. They always work as a team, work hard, and the turnover of our tribe is very low.
Rajesh Bhatt the general manager of this hotel is the key to success and he demands,
Staffs vision is to reach in success riding the waves of own culture. Hotel Marriott culture is oriented with superb customer service; their co-ordinates are promised to their great leaders in this organization. They promised to look after their employees, their problems ensure their advantages and disadvantages, help them in all aspects. They are always ready to welcome global workforce, guests from around the world serve them the traditional environment, food and drink and more.
In a public conference some journalist faced an assistant manager of this hotel to do a research and asked him his vision for the group's works in this hotel. The question was what type of leadership he believes.
In reply the assistant manager told that he follows democratic styles of leaderships. They are friendly, like to have decision from the group of staffs or individuals. They really motivate the staffs to build confidence, be skilled facing the situation handling the problems. This effort is to build a good team, make an individual a part of it, to maintain the standards of organization.
At the same time they have noticed the Chief of hotel is benevolent authoritative. He has got superficial trust on his decisions and He has got a little believe in delegation. The subordinates of his occasionally involved in solving the problems. He motivates the staff by reward, threats and punishment.
Marriot Bombay has wide range of equal opportunities and with a commitment to the principle of equality regardless of race, color, ethnical background or national origin, religion, political view or affiliation, every individuals marital status, sexual orientation, gender and gender reassignment, age, disability For managing a huge number of cultural differences this hotel has a basic training when new employee is recruited. The training is about the rules and regulations of the company, to understand the company needs, to understand the colleagues to adapt the working environment.
1) Has safeguard training programmer obligatory to all when appointed in company includes:
Rights to search
Virus protection procedures.
2) Ensures health, safety, welfare and hygienic environment for the employee
And the customer includes:
Alcohol and drug policy.
Hygiene for food handlers
Serving food and drink maintaining high standards of safety.
All the managers and employees of the hotel are proficiently trained about personal harassment policies and Procedure. These programmed is specially designed according to Indians employee rules and regulations for business and standards.
Marriot always welcome skilled person on specific areas of job or the person who is hardworking, has got high responsibilities, does not matter where he/she comes from.
Manage Customer diversity through organizational approach:
Customer does stay long time as this organization liked by the customer. Customer is happy to stay maximum time because of the service they get from this hotel.
In Marriott Bombay employees are trained NVQ level 2, customer care and service programmer. To accurately understand customer needs, the best way to serve customer, to behave with different natures of customer.
Different regions of the world habituated with different styles of food items. Some people like little variance on the same food they have in their home. Marriot Bombay has an integral approach regarding this matter though Chef's are very busy, Managers and staff's never says no to any request of the customer. Bombay is a city of multicultural influences; Marriott Bombay is an Indian based hospitality organization so they try to do the best to save their tradition in respect of customer diversity as well as employee diversity.
Staff motivational task:
To motivate the staffs, Staff meeting held every month in this hotel.
Discussions on customer's feedback, mystery dinner report, a comprehensive task training circulation is mandatory for the managers to be done.
Staff assessment, reward and recognition for best sell of food and drink and new offers to employees for joining the customers in Marriott.
Marriot reward strategy takes into account base pay, incentives, benefits, and holiday tour.
Managers always motivate the group at work, help and teach to do the job, Encourages the staff every time, always have fun, gives good smile and ready to consider the problem arise.
During this critical research, I founded Marriott as a well managed organization for diversity. For the global visionary of its CEO's and board of directors they need to be more efficient about their leadership capability.
Cross cultural awareness can be developed. Cross cultural awareness training is an easy, cost effective and long term solution for the companies. This type of training is more general overview for the importance of cultural skills. Developing cultural competence is about widening horizons, implementing self-awareness, flexibility, open mildness and cultural knowledge which can be applied through across cultures.
Management, PR, advertising, and negotiations can eventually lead to damaging consequences if such departments have poor understanding of cross cultural differences.
Success or failure, venture, merger or acquisition is essentially handled by different people. If these people are not aware of cross culture, then misunderstanding, offence, and a breakdown in communication can occur.
Opportunity to development can be more focused: Group wide talent can be reviewed on a regular basis at board level and focus is to develop individuals to take the business forward.
Leadership capability can be improve by practice: According with spread up new sites, a leadership development program can be improved to frame the aptitude and capability of those who are with the bulky burden for leadership and strategy.
During my work in hospitality organizations, features from journals of hospitality and tourism, and my discussions with my colleagues I have noticed a few number of leader from ethnic backgrounds all over the world leads the service sector includes hospitality and tourism organizations.
From the research of one and all foundation (A charity to improve diversity in hospitality) it has been proved that more than fifty percent of elementary employees in hospitality are from traditional framework, only two percent of board level directors and six percent in middle management. So the reason behind has come out with a lot of crucial problems.
Most of the time people from different culture fail to meet the criteria of education which is not same in local standards. Work permit, attitudes feels different from local,Lip service in practice, the effect of religious belief a lot of issues like fails to get a talent leader in international business.
To conclude I would suggest that every organization would return to its roots which is a real opportunity valuing each individual to seek out talent within the business?