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The subject of the dissertation is high-performance work systems in enhancing efficiency and effectiveness of the operations of an organization. Employees always perform well under certain factors that influence then in various predetermined ways. Environmental factors mainly determine in a number of ways the manner in which business organizations and individual persons may determine the levels of performance in various areas in which they engage in. Various performance mechanisms could indeed be employed in order to improve the levels of performance in a business environment. Major reports carried out between the year two thousand and seven (2007) and two thousand and eight (2008) have clearly demonstrated the various ways through which dynamic stipulated theories of performance and mechanisms have been employed to enhance the levels of output the world over (Appelbaum, Everard, and Hung 1999). Proper organizational structures, dynamic leadership and constantly motivated and skilled employees have been the driving factor to better performance of the employees in different organizational setups (Vikhanski and Puffer 1993, pp. 102-107).
Employee outcome and performance levels
According to the human relations theory, the performance of the employees within a given managerial department heavily depends on the manner in which the individual employees perceive the management to be conducting the managerial duties and the likely ways through which they may gain. Turnley, Feldman (1998, pp. 71-83). The human resource theory greatly endears the employee performance the manner in which employees are motivated, guided at the workplace, and remunerated. It is very vital for the management, shareholders and stakeholders to fully ensure that the needs of the employees at all levels are adequately catered for.
A number of the widely known HPWS have been greatly known to have a very greater impact to the organizations in which they were put up. The HPWS that is related to the Swedish model also proposes a number of business mechanisms that should be employed in a business setup (Vikhanski and Puffer 1993, pp. 102-107). Different companies have in the recent past recorded very high growth rate and company customer turn-up thus leading to greater and very dynamic performance instances and customer turnout. A good example of the high performance system is the lean system which belongs to the Toyota Company. In the book which was entitled as 'The Machine that Changed the Entire World', the book highlights a number of ways through which certain aspects of live has been improved (Appelbaum, Everard, and Hung 1999). At the Toyota Company for instance, various employees and the company stakeholders were improved. The improvement at the company through the usage of the high performance work system of the lean machine lead to the expansion of the company and the continued domineering of the company in the European market. A number of lives of people were also impacted positively leading the overall betterment of the people's lives in different sections of the world (Shoham 1998, pp. 59-81).
Indeed the term high employment work system and the high involvement work systems are some of the common terminologies that have continually been in use for this mode of employee and business management. This is also utilized for the various high means of the management and the commitment strategies. In the paper written by the Bae and Lawler about the basic issues that related to the effects, trends and impact of the high performance work systems, a number of issues that relate to the negative impacts of the HPWS are clearly highlighted. In (Vikhanski and Puffer 1993, pp. 102-107) this paper, many negative impact of work such as the decrease in the employees' social networks, poor social networks, lack of employee development, long term decrease in the employee performance and the negative changes in the employer-employee relationship and evident. Perception of the employees to the company and its top management, according to this research, demands a lot changes to b made in order to enhance continued positive impact of the HPWS (Appelbaum, Everard, and Hung 1999). Greater employee commitment ensures constant dominance of the employees to the world in which they do exist.
Existing Dilemma in the HR and Related Policies in HPWS
The trends in the HPWS have led to newer concerns among a number of stakeholders all over the world. It is clear that there has been a continuous considerable lack of consensus as to the different factors which constitute the diverse HPWS such as the Gerhart and the Becker. This also relates to the various consistent and desirable impacts of the HPWS to the concerned employees. Some of the existing approaches that are widely known are commonly considered to be soft models of approaching the various challenges that relates to the human personnel in an organization (Berg 1999, pp. 11-35). The past researchers have also indicated that within organizational setup, there has been continued existence of conflicts which mainly relates to the conceptualization of the various HPWS concepts and the need to relate the concepts to the existing employee challenges in an organization.
Additionally, it is evident that most of the issues identified under the HPWS models were found to be very similar to the needs of Japanese Companies. Seven practices which were very similar to the then existing practices had a greater resembles of the human resource management model of the Harvard Business School (Appelbaum, Everard, and Hung 1999). The models were very fundamental in analyzing the different practices which included development and very intensive training, promotion; socialization from within the business company, very selective staffing that would help in forging the psychological connection between the organization and the concerned employees in the designated organization (Shoham 1998, pp. 59-81). Moreover, others such as oysterman, McDuffie and Zacharatos have indeed used very high intensity resources which have in the end led to tremendous results. Furthermore, it is clear that employee involvement through participatory groups had very great impact in the overall performance of the group (Berg 1999; Doyle 1997). A number of the existing product related suggestions had a very wide benefit that as targeted at ensuring that the business and overall organizational performance and dominance in the market become a great success.
Richardson, Marsden (1991) in their research carried out on the behaviors of employees at the work place argues that high performance working systems have to a greater extent utilized the concept of job rotation. Many at times certain tasks which are viewed to be very central in the performance of the business have led to the constant improvement in the business. Employees tend to perform better whenever their duties are rotated in the organization (Gallie, White, Cheng, and Tomlinson, 1998). Challenges faced by one individual are also easily addressed whenever tasks are rotated. This is contrary to the general perception of the commonly existing business models that mainly focus on specialization of tasks and monitoring individual's performance without considering the overall performance of their duties. There need for very flexible working systems is very fundamental in an organization (Shoham 1998, pp. 59-81). This conceptualization has continued to be users in a very interchanging manner. According to most commitments put down, it's is evident that this conceptualization has continued to be applied in an interchanging manner by most individuals and organizations.
A number of ultimate confusions that relate to the concept of the high performance do exist. The productivity and profitability of an organization greatly depends on the extent to which an organization utilizes the HPWS. Some of the existing conceptual confusions have been explained using diverse factors. Flexible production systems are therefore demanded in ensuring that the successes of the organizations are purely pegged on the manner in which a business organization could be managed. Richardson, Marsden (1991) strongly believes that a number ultimate confusions relating to HPWS and other issues that related to the concept of the high performance do exist. The productivity and profitability of an organization greatly depends on the extent to which an organization utilizes the HPWS. Some of the existing conceptual confusions have been explained using diverse factors (James, Demaree, and Wolf 1984, pp.80-98). Flexible production systems are therefore demanded in ensuring that the successes of the organizations are purely pegged on the manner in which a business organization could be managed. According to research, most of the research findings have indicated that a comprehensive implementation of the agreed upon management system (Purcell and Sisson 1983). Lack of similar practices that are geared towards ensuring that the organizational needs should are catered for should always be adhered to (Miles and Snow 1984, pp. 12-161).
There are a number of human resource practices in HPWS literature. One such factor includes the need for selective recruitment. collective recruitment entails putting into place a number of mechanisms that have constantly been put into place with an intention of ensuring that and more reliable business concepts do fully relate to the different the manner in which recruitment takes place. Recruitment of the company personnel should always be done with a better understanding of the fact that the high performance work systems should always be geared towards ensuring that the organizational needs are fully catered for. The needs of the individuals also need to be catered for in order to fully ensure that the organizational needs and those of the individuals do not in any way contradict. On the other hand, research has indicated that there is need for constant and very organized planned continuous training. Formal training in organization would indeed target to ensure that the needs of the employees are fully catered for both within and outside the organization. Properly planed, formal education and constant training of the employees is very vital for the success of an organizational.
Socio-technical approaches have also been used in the enhancement of better performance in diverse organizations. Internal promotions and selections of employee to fill existing positions is a good strategy which could be employed in ensuring that the employee s being promoted are indeed motivated to constantly perform better within the organization. Internal promotions have been used in the Toyota Company to enhance the self esteem and enhance trust among the employees (Metcalf 1994). This has been very fundamental in boosting the morale of the employees and ensuring that they 'own' the organization in which they work for. Whenever vacant positions exist within an organization, is a sign of trust and goodwill, it is always vital for the top management to ensure that an organization announces it to the internal persons before broadcasting the same information to the public. This builds a lot of trust between the organizational personnel and the company management. Such trust is critical in enhancing a better and more cordial relationship which is crucial in enforcing high performance at the work place.
The discipline of people management, economics, and sociology and the general need for employee performance is vital in ensuring that the business goals are fully catered for. According to the study done to establishes the difference in behaviors of employees in the Western countries and regions, the African continent, and the Asian continent and other Eastern countries, a number of issues emerged (Geringer and Hebert, 1991, pp. 249-263). The research revealed that different organizational cultures, societal norms. And performance working systems determine the manner in which efficiency and effectiveness at the work place is achieved. According to the study made among the Emirates Airline employees, various high performance systems are aimed at utilization of teams as the basis for identification of the employees who have demonstrated exemplary utilizes and competencies that indeed warrant promotion (Purcell and Sisson 1983). In some instances, performance based payment systems have also been employed in order for the employees to be fully motivated and their performance enhanced. A number of formal performance based appraisals have also been used in ensuring that constant better performance is maintained.
According to the emirates Airline study which was conducted between the years two thousand and four and two thousand and eight (2004 -2008) indicated that pay increments that are based on the individual performance at the work place normally hinder the overall performance of the employees (Powell 1992, pp. 13-160). According to this research, most employees tend to be motivated by the manner in which they are appreciated rather than their salaries, wages and the related remunerations (Doyle 1997). However, according to this research, formal promotion procedures, which mainly follow ones experience, the number of actual years worked for, the organizational position of leadership and other leadership roles, academic qualification, among other factors enable the organizations and individual persons to fail to grow in their organizations. It is very important that in-depth analysis be done in order for the top management to fully identify all the relevant factors that are likely to influence the actual performance of the organization. In-depth analysis and constant well designed planning is vital for any organizations that intend to fully benefit from the available system that enhances high performance at the work place.
Furthermore, a number of mechanisms could be utilized in ensuring that individual persons also develop in their careers. James, Demaree, Wolf (1984, pp.80-98) emphasizes on the fact that employees' development and appraisal is therefore very crucial in ensuring that the employees of an organization are fully developed and maintained within an organization. Critical analysis if the organizational needs is also very crucial in enhancing the actual qualities that are indeed demanded when promoting the diversity of the employees and ensuring that the customers of the organization receives the best services and goods possible (Dyer and Reeve 1995). Different mechanisms have been put down by the Emirates Airline to fully utilize the employees and the available opportunities as to fulfill the clients and employees' needs but at the same time ensuring that the vision and mission of the organizations are fully put into consideration. Different high performance work systems normally tend to yield different results. This is dependent on the environment in which they are employed and the manner in which the systems are utilized. The extent to which the systems would excel would also depend on the manner in which the actual implementation is done. Various mechanisms tend to be used by different organizations in an attempt to achieve competitive advantage over their competition. Various European and Asian organizations use formal communication programs in keeping the organizational employees fully informed about the performance of the organizations which they work for (OECD, pp. 1989). Electronic mails, telegraphy, fax mails, postal communication, video conferencing, among other mediums of communication are crucial in ensuring that communication flow is made to be efficient and effective.
A number of testing models exist tall over the world. Various models of the human resource management are crucial in ensuring the success of the organization and efficiency in the performance of the organization. Motivation, development, and retention of the employees with an organization should constantly be done in order to fully achieve the set objectives. Various human resource management practices should constantly be utilized in order to enhance better performance within a given organizational setup (Powell 1992, pp. 13-160). The United States of American context of human resource management and employee motivation is quit different from the modern methods of employee management being utilized in the modern Asian continent and in other parts of the world. Different models that have indeed been tested by different papers have yielded different arguments aimed at ensuring that any contentious issues that pertain to high performance work systems are fully catered for. It is evident that both technical and non technical training is needed in order to enhance excellence of the organizational performance both within and outside the organization (Dyer and Reeve 1995, pp. 56-70).
Russia for instance has in the recent past had a number of challenges that relate to the manner in which the organizations handle matters pertaining to the management of the organizations. Managerial studies have also been conducted in order to fully establish the extent to which efficiency and effectiveness of any organizational operations can be enhanced through the utilization of the performance work systems. According to the study on the Russian companies, most issues should be done in line with the need for the organization to fully cater for the desired needs. In accordance with this research, it was very evident that employee job security is a crucial and a very central issue which demands close attention in ensuring that better performance is enhanced (Eaton and Voos, 1992). At some point, the report suggests the need for a reduced number of stuff in an organization. This is based on the argument that a reduced stuff is much easy to manage and address the issues that relate to it rather having a bloated stuff that is dissatisfied, disoriented and which have many issues that needs the attention of the many managers thus making the entire managerial process to be cost ineffective (Pfeffer 1998, pp. 96-124). The Russian company also uses various job security mechanisms to eradicate redundancies in the operations. The need to alter differentials between the employees and the managers in Russian and in other parts of the world has continued to be very fundamentals. Egalitarian working environments are very common in organizations that use high performance work systems (Ferine and Metcalf, 1995, pp. 379-416). This is done with close monitoring of the employee behaviors with the high performance working systems (HPWS). Most Russian multinational co-operations are very well known for the utilization of the high performance working systems.
Strategies that influence performances
There are a number of strategies which exist and which have proved to influence performance of the people in the work place in a number of ways. Empirical and conceptual analysis is closely needed in order to fully achieve the benefits which are accrued from the various systems that are geared at enhancing better and high performance systems. During the recent decade, the human resource management arena has shifted from being a micro focus on the individual HRM practices to the latest debate on how human resource management as a very holistic management approach. This has contributed to the competitive advantage of various organizations.
Three different major perspectives have been employed in recent research on the relationship between the human resource management and organizational performance. This include the effects of individual's high performance or the best human resource management practices, effects of internally appropriate combinations of HRM practices, and the effects of appropriate fitness between strategy and human resource management practices. The results obtained have been mixed, but at least some empirical support has been obtained for every perspective. It is hard to establish some of the key underlying factors that affect the HPWS issues in the modern world. As clearly suggested and badly needed by Guest (1997), the core contribution of the present study will be to investigate the role of human resource management outcomes as a mediating variable between human resource management practices and firm performance. It has therefore been argued that the human resource outcomes competence development and employee motivation will meditate the relationship between human resource management practices and firm performance. This explains, according to Guest (1997) the reasons why most employee performance arguably depends on the various employee skills and competencies together with high level employee motivation: when employees possess high skills and knowledge they are likely to assist the company perform better, and when employees are motivated then. Despite this argument, employee retention, capability development is also likely to be important for firm performance. Unless the company is able to retain its employees, it will not be able to capitalize on the human assets developed within the Organization. Indeed retention of the employees may be particularly be important in the Russian context, in cases where there is very serious shortage of the highly skilled, experienced and well trained personnel and in cases where the turnover of the strategically important staff who have undergone training is a problem for the many foreign companies across the border. It is therefore evident that most of the studies carried out have included performance-based remuneration and compensation schemes as the major high-perfo0rmance human resource management practices. It has therefore been identified that performance related compensation is one of the single-most and the strongest predictor of firm performance (Ferine and Metcalf, 1995, pp. 379-416). This concept is also clearly highlighted in the international recognized journal of the human resource management practices.
Performance within an organization is a very vital tool in enhancing growth with an organization. The implementation of performance based promotion is one of the core strategies being employed within a number of organizations the world over. This could best be implemented through the implementation of the concept of decentralization of [powers and organizational performance of the employees.
Several studies have clearly identified very extensive use of teamwork and the decentralization of decision making channels and powers as one of the very important high-performance human resource management personnel. Both practices refer to a non hierarchical mode of firm operations that, among other things, may enhance employee commitment to the given organization. This is consistent with researches which have suggested that various employees' participation could have a statistically significant and indeed very positive effect on the success, satisfaction, and performance at work place.
It is clear from the written researches mainly done in the European continent that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction is a product of a number of factors which always need to be monitored through the implementation of well identified and planned work high performance systems. Whether or not the promotions to be done are internal or external, there is always the need to ensure that proper monitoring of the entire process is done. This is vital in enhancing transparency, flexibility and openness in the entire process thus ensuring thus the trust of the employees, clients, shareholders and other stakeholders is fully kept intact.
Scientists have also argued that the usage of the individual performance based incentives is indeed positively and closely related to the outcomes that are derived from of the human resource decisions and the stipulated measures. Scientists have also argued that the usage of job security is a positive factor that is closely related to the job security and other influencing factor all over the world. Continuous emphases have also been laid down on the different ways through which performance could be improved at all levels of the organization. High salaries have also been associated with the constant employee deliverance of better and high level salaries all over the world. In the study conducted by Makino (1995), it have been established that the three hundred and ninety five studied, most of which were firms in the foreign countries manly based in Finland has close similarities in the manner in which work performance of the entire organizations were being monitored. Experience in work performance monitoring was also established to be a very central factor in the excellence of a number of organizations which were conducted.
Compared with the many situations for non-managers, it is clear and very likely that a well and clearly functioning labor market does exist for the organizational managers. This explains why managerial employees always tend to have more job alternatives more mobile than the existing non-managerial employees, and thus compensation is likely to be one of the factors which determine whether or not the managers change from given employer to the other. Sadly, it has been established that paying high salaries may sadly enough, not only have a positive motivational effect but may also consequently discourage managers from leaving the companies which they work for. When clearly analyzed, it is evident that most human resource management strategies that are normally employed in organizations normally do not yield the desire outcome (Freeman and Medoff, 1984). The negative or lack of any impact at all is however normally ignored and the negative consequences of the employed strategies constantly associated with other irrelevant factors that are at times of no consequence to the organization. This phenomenon is very common in the Russian companies both within and outside Russia.
High performance work systems current trends
According to McDuffie (1995), various high involvement working systems have been employed in the steel industry in order to reduce the overall operating costs while at the same time improving the excellence levels and performance index of the business set up. There are a number of factor in the tell industry which are related to the manner in which employee's performance have continued to be improved (Wexley 1984, pp. 519-551). High performance involvement, according to the Stell Industry related researches do not necessarily carry a number of similar implication associated to the labour industry. The results of the Runley research of the cross-national studies conducted in the year nineteen ninety eighty (1998) with about forty national trade unions from thirty (30) countries have indicated that job security, feeling of job ownership, and numerical flexibility and union density, though important, does not fully assure total excellence of the organization (Huselid, Jackson and Schuler 1997, pp. 171-188).
The current trend in many organizations that implement high performance work systems is that most of the system does not focus on the long term benefits of the system to the organization. Rather the focus is always on the very short term benefits that are likely to be accrued from the systems. Such targets thus are rarely based on in-depth analysis of the environmental and organizational factors that are likely to determine the future life of the employees and their organization. Under this trend, constant training and employee recruitment and sacking of the nonperforming ones is done with an intention of ensuring that the overall performance of the business set up is fully improved and the organization attains a competitive advantage in the industry (Ichniowski and Shaw 1995). The latest trends have also seen the shift from the management perspective of organization to the usage of leaders that can influence other employees to perform their duties better with minimal or no coercion at all. Additionally, Ichniowski, Shaw, and Prennushi (1997, pp. 291-313), the concept of teamwork, team building and shared responsibilities have deeply infiltrated into the latest management trends in he modern organizations all over the world. This trend however is being implemented in different ways by different organization in the market place and this depends to a greater extend to the type of business operations within the organization.
The second trend in the usage of high performance work systems is the utilization of job security measures to fully ensure that employees develop trust and better friendship with the organization which they work for. The growing insecurity of jobs has been evidenced by the ever increasing job insecurity. Osterman (1998) argues that economic recession and depression of the global market has continued to result into poor performance of the organizations. This trend has threatened most organizations thus leading to most managers being extremely cautious in the manner in which they implement specific management concepts. The United States of America data tends to suggest that the traditional perception of the market which indicates that employees will not cooperate at the work place unless they are offered job security no longer tend to work. Protection in the modern work mainly depends on the extent to which an employee offers quality and efficient services in accordance with stipulated job description (Geringer and Hebert, 1991, pp. 249-263; Wexley 1984, pp. 519-551).
Work performance work systems and the effects on the employees
The usage of the work performance systems has continued to face a number of challenges in the modern world (Gallie, White, Cheng, and Tomlinson, 1998). The experience of high performance work systems from both the employer and the employees' perspectives has been neglected for quite a long time. The study don by Osterman. Appelbaum, Bailey, Bcrg, and Kallenberg (2000) reached very different conclusions that made it hard for the HPWS concept to remain relevant to the modern world. The apparel, steel, and medical electronic instrument and imaging industries have led to the positive worker outcomes that suggest that work place innovation continues to be vital in enhancing excellence at the work place. In his econometric analysis of the Russian Iron and Steel industry, Greene (1997) concludes that both the labor market and the management always benefit through the utilization of the high performance work systems that are put into place by any for of organizational management.
Findings on the job security for the employees tend to be only one sided concentration of the reasons that are likely to influence the extent to which employees perform their duties at their work place. To improve in its performance standards at the work place, the iron and steel industry decided to move towards focusing its marketing and employee recruitment strategies to the global market (Guest 1997). Globalization has indeed led to the changing of ownership of the company, its facilities, and the existing employees through acquisitions, joint venture, privatization among other methodologies that are commonly used all over the world (Gallie, White, Cheng, and Tomlinson, 1998). The research findings thus highlighted the different ways through which business management could be done without hurting in any way the many stakeholders that are involved in business environment (Huselid and Becker 1996, pp.300-422). It is therefore very evident that there is unwavering need, according to the research done on different iron and steel industries, that proper and customized high performance work systems are needed by different organizational setup (Koch, and McGrath 1996, pp. 35-335; Lawler 1992; Leigh and Gifford 1999, pp. 174-191).
Researches on the Potential effects of the HPWS
Lepak, Snell (2002, pp. 401-521) fully believes that high performance work systems have a number of effects on the modern trends in business. The rights of the employees have continued to be ignored by various individuals thus leading to the proper and in-depth management of a number of organizations (James, Demaree, and Wolf 1984, pp.80-98). Commitment of the trade unions have continued to become very elusive in the manner in which business organizations are run and the operations of the organizations constantly conducted. Though the usage of the high performance work systems is likely to improve the overall performance of the organizations, it is evident that the powers of the trade unions are weakened by some systems which bind the trade unions members into specific organizational performance monitoring systems. The systems may never be in adherence to the widely accepted norms in the business and organizational market. This argument is closely informed by the fact that current classic studies of various social relations of work and the complex determinants of productivity of a number of organizations (MacDuffie 1995, pp.197-221). According to the studies done by Fine et al (1985) on the performance of employees in various organizations, the performance of the organizations in various spheres cannot be pegged on specific few factors. The effects of the performance mechanisms also hinder the overall performance of the employees that would otherwise be very independent in the manner in which they perform their management duties (May, Young, and Lidgerwood 1998)
). The paradox of the effect of the HPWS is whether or not performance by employees should continued being used in a very highly evaluative ways. According to the outcomes of the study focused on the United States of America employees, it is evident that the One US Study done by Berg (1999) on one thousand three hundred and fifty five workers (1355) in the steel industry revealed that job satisfaction was indeed high in cases where by high involvement work systems were being utilized.
These findings are backed by the research done by Bill Herley in his analysis of the employee response to the high performance work systems found in the Awirs95 data report in the year 1995. This report argues that it is easy to measure employee performance even though this concept has its negative impact to the entire organizational performance. The report however agrees on the fact that there is need to agree on the fact that coherent and mutually acceptable systems are vital for the achievement of organizational goal (James, Demaree, and Wolf 1984, pp.80-98). Accordant to the Awirs95 report, data from the employees could be linked together in order to come up with fully acceptable systems of governance within a given human resource department which is fully acceptable into the given organizational personnel.
The analysis of the report thus shows that all organizational practices are statistically significant and associated with the organizational variables. Team building, autonomous work groups, job quality circles, family friendly policies, involving employees in charge of management, employee training, offering incentives to the employees, practice of equal employee opportunities, job satisfaction, mechanisms to reduce stress among employees, and positive attitude towards all human resource persons are some of the suggested mechanisms needed to be employed in order to ensure better performance at the work place. High performance mechanisms have been put into place in order to ensure that proper management of organizations is enhanced through the utilization of laid down performance mechanisms.
Major Theories of Work Organization
A number of theories have used in different ways to enforce the researches already done in relation to the HPWS and other related issues. Employee management through the utilization of the fordism and the human relations theory is best understood when the theories are related to the actual human relations management concepts and organizational management (May, Young, and Lidgerwood 1998). The human relations theory clearly stipulate the various ways through proper management of o0rganizations could be utilized in ensuring that the organizational needs are fully catered for. Proper and vigorous recruitment platforms, proper induction to the company, detailed identification of the required skills through conducting of interviews and proper and independent procedures should be adhered to in order to ensure that the set goals are fully attained. The human relations theory that reinforces that fact that employees' welfare is of paramount importance in any given organization. Based on the arguments of Gallie, White, Cheng, and Tomlinson (1998), managing the various industrial relations is vital and has partly emerged as a result of the need to heightened trade unions' activities across different borders.
Mayo Elton, in his human relations theory proposes that a lot of attention be accorded to the needs of the employees since the employees have a lot of influence on the performance an organization (Whitener 2001, pp. 515- 535). Under the system of Taylorism, Fredrick Taylor argues that the management has the responsibility of ensuring that the employees have the correct platform to perform their duties and responsibilities in the best way possible (Metcalf 1994; Miles and Snow 1984, pp. 12-161). Employees should be offered the required incentives within the appropriate quantities and standards in a timely manner in order to facilitate the better and continued improved performance at the workplace. Fredrick Taylor therefore champions for the implementation of better and higher performance work systems (HPWS) which would then facilitate better performance in the organization (Geringer and Hebert, 1991, pp. 249-263). Poor working tools and un-conducive working environment leads to low productivity at the work place and thus lack of satisfaction to both the employees and the organizational management. According to Wood (1999, pp. 311- 413), both Taylorism and Fordism, which emerged due the ever increasing need to enhance efficiency and effectiveness in organizations, are very influential in the enhancement of effectiveness within the organizational floor. Workers steps should be monitored but at the same time giving them the freedom to innovate and practice creativity (Gallie, White, Cheng, and Tomlinson, 1998).
High performance work mechanisms demand that constant partnership be done in order for the concerned parties to achieve their utmost set goals. Researches indicate that constant cooperation and consultation is fundamental in ensuring that constant and unwavering achievement of the organization's set priorities. The perception of the employees' behaviors within a given business environment is crucial in aligning the needs, mission, and vision of the organization to the overall performance of the business setup. The Japanese production systems mainly hold the key and a greater influence to a number of high performance work systems that are currently being used in a number of organizations to achieve the set goals. The usage of the high performance work systems have also led to a number of organizations attaining greater competitive edges in the business arena over their competitors.