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Organizational behavior regroups all the study that concerns how individuals, group and structure influence the behavior of an organization. It main purpose is the applying of this knowledge to improve organization effectiveness.
These studies affect the culture of an organization. Organization Culture is the combined behavior of humans who are part of a business and the meanings that the persons attach to their actions". It includes value, visions, norms, working language, system, symbols, beliefs and habits.
We can found four types of organizational culture, the power culture, role culture, task culture, person culture. During the first part of this assignment we will focus on two types, the task culture and the role culture.
The role culture is one of the most common types of organizational culture. In this culture, organizations are divided into different function and each employee as a particular task to do. This allows the apparition of the specialization in the organization. Employees stick to their job description and have particular role. In theory, this kind of culture increases the productivity and the performance of the all business. We can see that the "role culture" is very common in large organization.
Role culture is linked to functional structure of the organization. In fact, the functional structures provide a specialized set of task. This kind of structure, make employees become specialist within their own realm of expertise (this is why they are linked). As I said, in the role culture, employees stick to their job description.
But role culture is also linked to divisional structure. It is a type of organizational arrangement that regroups together employees who are responsible for a specific product type or market service. The divisional structure of an organization tends to improve flexibility, and it can also be broken down further into product, market and geographic structures. In this case employees are still specialized in their domain but they have a structure for each area.
For this organizational culture, role culture, I can say that the United Basalt Product ltd apply the role culture. In fact, all employee this organization is divided into different function. Employees have a job description and have to stick to it. Each employee is specialized in their domain. Any person will do the job of an IT officer for example.
A task culture: group of person put together to complete a particular work. They are common in business society where the organization will create particular 'project teams' to finish a task on date.
The features of a task cultures are:
Team are formed to resolve particular problems
No single power source
Team may develop own objectives
Because of this particular specification, task culture is linked to "matrix structure". The Matrix structure regroups employees by both function and product. It is a mix between the functional and divisional structure. Matrix structure will organize the company as follow:
"product a" customer department, "product a" sales service department, "product a" accounting, "product b" customer department, "product b" sales service department, "product b" accounting department.
For example, we are in an organization that offers 5 types of products. Our team is responsible of the project 1 and the project is to create a new portable. Each person of the group will be responsible of one task that refers to a particular department (financial, production, accounting etc...). Because of that, it is completely compatible and linked with the task culture.
For example, the NASA uses this kind of culture and organizational structure. Each team is responsible of the success of one mission. They work in team as the task culture.
We can found three main categories in organizational structure. Each one has advantage but also disadvantage.
Functional structure has the advantage of efficiency and productivity. With the specialization in this structure, employees are more efficient and productive. Employees known their job well and proceed with confidence and don't mistake easily.
However we can found some disadvantages. The first one is the lack of teamwork. With the specialization employees may have difficulty to work with other units. In addition, the top management can have difficulty to maintain control as the business expands. When the organization grow up top management needs to delegate more and more decision-making responsibilities to each functional area. Moreover, the autonomy can also increase and make coordination of actions difficult.
The divisional structure has also some advantage and disadvantage. The advantage is that it allows a team to focus on a single product or services. In addition, it makes possible the apparition of a culture and esprit de corps that increase the morale and the knowledge of the division. On the other hand, in a business composed of competing divisions can allow office politic instead of strategic thinking to affect its view on the allocation of company resources for example. Thus, one division will sometimes act to undermine another.
Finally, we have the matrix structure. When employees of a specialization are together, they can take better advantage of teamwork to reach their collective goals. Moreover, as we said, in this structure department focuses more and more on their own tasks. Because of this department can fail to communicate with another. And it can affect the all organization cohesion.
According to john lvancevish and Michael Mattson, factors that affect individual Behavior at work are demographic factors, abilities and skills, perception, attitude and personality.
The first one is the demographical factors. It regroups all the socio economic background such as the educations, nationality, race, age, sex, etc. Generally, businesses choose peoples that belong to good socio-economic background, young, well-educated because they think that those peoples will perform better and will be more productive than the others.
The study of demographic factors can helps manages to choose the best candidate for a particular job. This will improve the behavior at work because good persons are chosen at the start (the recruitment).
Secondly we have the abilities and skills. Abilities can be defined as the capacity of an individual to do something. Skills can be defined as the ability of someone to act in a way that allows someone to perform well.
To improve behavior at work managers have to match this skills with the right job requirement. This will improve motivation and the productivity of employees.
Thirdly, we can mention the "perception". It is the process that interprets external environment stimuli. But they are different reasons that can influence the perception of persons.
Managers have the responsibility to create a favorable work environment (flexibility, promotion, good salary, etc.) so employees can perceive it as a good work environment. This will improved the perception and so increase the productivity and the performance of employees
Fourthly, we can say that the attitude is one on the factors that influence individual behavior at work. It is the tendency to respond (favorably or unfavorably) to object, persons or situation. Attitude is directed by certain factors such as the family, the culture, etc.
Employees will perform better if they have a positive attitude. To do that, managers have to study the factors that influence the attitude and create a good work environment.
Finally we have the personality. It is the characteristics and the distinctive traits of a person, the relation between them and the way person responds and adjusts to other people and situations. Different factors influence the personality of a person such as situation, society, family, heredity and culture. It is the most complex aspect of a person.
We can't improve the personality of someone but we have to motivate the person in his work. The study of personality offers the opportunity to appreciate the individuals and it make possible the motivation for the accomplishment of the business aim. Generally, businesses demand a specific type of behavior and this type of behavior can be found by training, observation, learning, etc.
In this case study, we can say that Melanie Reynolds performed an Autocratic/Authoritarian style of leadership. We can say that it is this style of leadership because of some hint in the text.
First, we can see that Melanie doesn't communicate to her staff. In fact, this job is to a dedicated staff member. This is the first sign of this style of leadership. Because of that, there are not a good relationship between her and the staff.
Secondly, she maintains a powerful discipline over her staff, thus she is feared by many. This is clearly a sign of Autocratic style of leadership. In this style of leadership, the responsible puts in action an individual control of all decision. It also involves an authoritarian control over the all group.
One of the results of this leadership style is the demotivation and the absence of commitment. This is because the leader takes all decision and doesn't even ask to the employees to be part of the final decision. In this case employees don't feel concerned with the organization goals and the result of this is a high rate of labor turnovers and absenteeism.
Melanie Reynolds faces the same problem in her departments.
But this style has also some advantages such as when a rapid decision is needed without the consulting of a large group of persons. In addition, there are some projects that require strong leadership to finish things quickly and efficiently.
Or in a very stressful situation, people may prefer autocratic leadership such as military conflict.
The Autocratic style of leadership is the worst style of leadership because it has more disadvantages than advantages. We can say that the style of leadership has a real impact in organizations.
In Melanie's department there is clearly a lack of motivation. To resolve this problem of motivation in this department, we can use the "Maslow's hierarchy of need model". First, as a Human Resource Officer we have to identify the "need level" at witch employees is existing and then those needs can be utilized to improve motivation.
There have five categories of needs:
Physiological needs (water, air, food, shelter, cloth)
Safety needs (physical, environmental and emotional safety and protection)
Social needs ( affection, friendship, love care )
Esteem needs ( confidence, self-respect, competence achievement and freedom/ recognition, power, status, attention and admiration)
Self-actualization needs (growth and self-contentment, more knowledge, creativity, aesthetic)
According to Maslow, motivation is the result of unsatisfied needs. When a need is satisfied another need emerge. The implication in an organization is: to be motivated an employee has to see that the business will be able to satisfy his emerging need or if his need is not "impossible" to satisfy in this organization. If it takes too much time, for example, for his need to be satisfied, the demotivation appears.
In our case, we know that in this department, Melanie maintains a power discipline over her staff, thus she is feared by many. For this we can say that maybe, employees are stick in the safety needs. They fear to be fired or anything. Thus they want a certain type of job security.
In addition, if she maintains a power discipline over her staff, these employees will feel jailed and the need of freedom will be not satisfy and this need is part of the Esteem needs.
Secondly we can see that in Melanie's department, there is no relationship between employees and her. Melanie don't communicate directly with her employees, because of that, employees are blocked into Esteem needs, Melanie is quite proud of her unit's productivity but she doesn't reward her employees and the need of recognition (just by saying well done for example) will be not satisfied and caused demotivation. By seen that the situation will not change, employee see that the needs will be not satisfy and feel demotivated.
As the knowledge required is fairly limited, it can affect desire for gaining more knowledge. And this is part of the Self-actualization needs.
To improve motivation in our case management can:
When esteem needs are concerned, management can reward employees on accomplishing and reaching their targets. Or give a higher job position in the organization. Or simply increasing their salary.
When social needs are concerned, management can encourage teamwork and organize team building for example.
When Self-actualization needs are concerned, the management can propose challenging professions in which the employees' skills and competencies are fully utilized.